First Hellenic Republic

The First Hellenic Republic (Greek: Αʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is a historiographical term for the provisional Greek state during the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. It is used to emphasize the constitutional and democratic nature of the revolutionary regime prior to the establishment of the independent Kingdom of Greece, and associate this period of Greek history with the later Second and Third Republics.

Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827)
Hellenic State (1827–1832)

Προσωρινὴ Διοίκησις τῆς Ἑλλάδος
Ἑλληνικὴ Πολιτεία
1822–1832
Motto: "Eleftheria i Thanatos"
Ελευθερία ή θάνατος
"Freedom or Death"
Greece1830EN
StatusUnrecognized state (1822–1830)
Provisional government (1822–1827)
CapitalNafplio
Common languagesGreek
Religion
Greek Orthodox
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
President of the Executive 
• 1822–1823
Alexandros Mavrokordatos (first)
• 1826–1827
Andreas Zaimis (last)
Governor 
• 1827–1831
Ioannis Kapodistrias
• 1831–1832
Augustinos Kapodistrias
LegislatureNational Assembly
History 
• Start of Greek Revolution
February 23, 1821
(Wallachia)
mid-March 1821
(Peloponnese)
January 1 1822
March 22, 1829
February 3, 1830
August 8 1832
August 30, 1832
CurrencyPhoenix
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ottoman Empire
Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece
Senate of Western Continental Greece
Peloponnesian Senate
Military-Political System of Samos
Kingdom of Greece
Principality of Samos

History

In the first stages of the 1821 uprising, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by a central administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus in early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution, marking the birth of the modern Greek state. The councils continued in existence, however, and central authority was not firmly established until 1824/1825. The new state was not recognized by the Great Powers of the day, which, after initial successes, was threatened with collapse both from within due to civil war and from without through the victories of the Turco-Egyptian army of Ibrahim Pasha.

By 1827 the Greek revolution had almost been extinguished on the mainland, but by this time the Great Powers had come to agree to the formation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty, as stipulated in the Treaty of London. Ottoman refusal to accept these terms led to the Battle of Navarino, which effectively secured complete Greek independence.

In 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen established the Hellenic State (Ἑλληνικὴ Πολιτεία) and selected Count Ioannis Kapodistrias as Governor of Greece. Therefore, this period is often called Governorate (Greek: Κυβερνείο). After his arrival in Greece in January 1828, Kapodistrias actively tried to create a functional state and redress the problems of a war-ravaged country, but was soon embroiled in conflict with powerful local magnates and chieftains.

Kapodistrias3
Ioannis Kapodistrias as Governor of Greece (Lithography, L. Nikiadis)

Kapodistrias was assassinated by political rivals in 1831, plunging the country into renewed civil strife. He was succeeded by his brother Augustinos, who was forced to resign after six months. The Fifth National Assembly at Nafplion drafted a new royal constitution, while the three "Protecting Powers" (Great Britain, France and Russia) intervened, declaring Greece a Kingdom in the London Conference of 1832, with the Bavarian Prince Otto of Wittelsbach as king.

Heads of the Executive

See also

External links

Coordinates: 37°34′13″N 22°48′21″E / 37.5702°N 22.8057°E

Dimitrios Rallis

Dimitrios Rallis (Greek: Δημήτριος Ράλλης; 1844–1921) was a Greek politician.He was born in Athens in 1844. He was descended from an old Greek political family. Before Greek independence, his grandfather, Alexander Rallis, was a prominent Phanariote. His father, George Rallis, was Minister in Andreas Miaoulis' government and later Chief Justice of the Greek Supreme Court.

Rallis was elected to Parliament in 1872 and always represented the same Athenian constituency. He became Minister in several governments and served as Prime Minister five times. He last formed a government after the 1920 election and it was his cabinet that authorised the plebiscite that saw King Constantine's return to the throne.

Dimitrios Rallis died of cancer in Athens on August 5, 1921 at the age of 77. His son, Ioannis Rallis, was a Quisling Prime Minister during the war-time occupation by the German Army and his grandson, George Rallis, served as Prime Minister in the early 1980s.

English Party

The English Party (Greek: Αγγλικό Κóμμα), was one of the three informal early Greek parties that dominated the political history of the First Hellenic Republic and the first years of the Kingdom Of Greece during the early 19th century, the other two being the Russian Party and the French Party.

Epameinondas Deligeorgis

Epameinondas Deligeorgis (Greek: Επαμεινώνδας Δεληγεώργης, pronounced [epamiˌnonðas ðeliʝeˈorʝis]; January 10, 1829, Tripoli, Arcadia – May 14, 1879, Athens) was a Greek lawyer, newspaper reporter and politician, who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Greece. He was the son of Dimitrios Deligeorgis, a politician from Missolonghi who participated in the Greek War of Independence. Deligeorgis studied law at the University of Athens and entered politics in 1854. He was not a proponent of the Megali Idea (Great Idea) and thought that a better solution to the Eastern Question would be to improve the condition of the Greeks living in Ottoman-controlled Macedonia, Epirus, Thrace and Asia Minor by liberalising the Ottoman Empire. Deligeorgis was the person who, on October 10, 1862, declared the end of the reign of King Otto and the convening of a national assembly.

Greece (disambiguation)

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country in south-east Europe.

Greece may also refer to:

Periods of the history of Greece:

Prehistoric Greece

Neolithic Greece, 7000–1100 BC

Mycenaean Greece, c. 1600 – 1100 BC

Ancient Greece, 1100–146 BC

Dark Ages in Greece, c. 1100–800 BC

Archaic Greece, c. 800 – 480 BC

Classical Greece, 5th and 4th centuries BC

Hellenistic Greece, 323–31 BC

Roman Greece, 146 BC – AD 330

Medieval Greece

Byzantine Greece

Modern Greece, 1828–present

First Hellenic Republic, an unrecognized state 1822–1832

Kingdom of Greece, a monarchy during the periods of 1832–1924, 1935–41 and 1944–74

Second Hellenic Republic, 1924–35

Hellenic State (1941-1944)

Greek military junta, 1967-1974

Third Hellenic Republic, 1974-presentOther:

Greece (European Parliament constituency)

Magna Graecia or Greater Greece, areas of southern Italy settled by Greeks since the 8th century BCE

Greece (town), New York, a town in western New York

Greece (CDP), New York, a suburb of Rochester located within the town

History of the Hellenic Republic

The history of the Hellenic Republic constitutes three discrete republican periods in the modern history of Greece: from 1822 until 1832; from 1924 until 1935; and from 1974 through to the present. See also the constitutional history of Greece.

Ioannis Paraskevopoulos

Ioannis Paraskevopoulos (Greek: Ιωάννης Παρασκευόπουλος) (1900–1984), was a Greek banker and politician who served twice as interim Prime Minister of Greece during the 1960s. He was born in Lavda, Elis.

Ioannis Theotokis

Ioannis Theotokis (Greek: Ιωάννης Θεοτόκης, 1880 – 6 June 1961) was a Greek politician. He was born in Athens 1880, he was the son of Georgios Theotokis.

He was elected a member of the Hellenic Parliament seven times and served as Minister for Agriculture three times, before being shortly Prime Minister of a caretaker government in 1950. He died in Corfu in 1961.

Konstantinos Konstantopoulos

Konstantinos Konstantopoulos (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Κωνσταντόπουλος; 1832, Tripoli, Greece – 11 November 1910, Athens) was a conservative Greek politician and briefly Prime Minister of Greece.

Kyriakoulis Mavromichalis

Kyriakoulis Petrou Mavromichalis (Greek: Κυριακούλης Μαυρομιχάλης, 1850–1916) was a Greek politician of the late 19th and early 20th centuries who briefly served as the 30th Prime Minister of Greece.

Mavromichalis was born in Athens in 1850 into the renowned Mavromichalis family of Mani, which had fought during the Greek War of Independence. He was first elected to the Hellenic Parliament in 1879 and served as: Interior Minister (1895–1897, 1902–1903 and 1905) and Minister for Military Affairs (1904–1905), before becoming Prime Minister of Greece following the Goudi Revolt by the Military League and the fall of the Dimitrios Rallis government in 1909.

Under pressure from the League, Mavromichalis passed a large amount of ground-breaking legislation that the League demanded, including organization of the army, the justice and educational systems, and governmental organization.

Mavromichalis resigned as Prime Minister in January 1910, after a disagreement with the Military League. He died in Athens in 1916 and was buried with full honours.

He was a great-uncle of Princess Aspasia of Greece.

List of Prime Ministers of Greece

This is a list of the heads of government of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day. Although various official and semi-official appellations were used during the early decades of independent statehood, the title of Prime Minister has been the formal designation of the office at least since 1843. On dates, Greece officially adopted the Gregorian calendar on 16 February 1923 (which became 1 March). All dates prior to that, unless specifically denoted, are Old Style.

List of heads of state of Greece

This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day.

Nafplio

Nafplio (Greek: Ναύπλιο, Nauplio or Nauplion in Italian and other Western European languages) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf. The town was an important seaport held under a succession of royal houses in the Middle Ages as part of the lordship of Argos and Nauplia, held initially by the de la Roche following the Fourth Crusade before coming under the Republic of Venice and, lastly, the Ottoman Empire. The town was the capital of the First Hellenic Republic and of the Kingdom of Greece, from the start of the Greek Revolution in 1821 until 1834. Nafplio is now the capital of the regional unit of Argolis.

Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos

Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos (Greek: Νικόλαος Καλογερόπουλος; 23 July 1851 – 7 January 1927) was a Greek politician and briefly Prime Minister of Greece.

Nikolaos Stratos

Nikolaos Stratos (Greek: Νικόλαος Στράτος; 16 May 1872 – 15 November 1922) was a Prime Minister of Greece for a few days in May 1922. He was later tried and executed for his role in the Catastrophe of 1922.

Russian Party

The Russian Party (Greek: Ρωσικό Κóμμα), presenting itself as the Napist Party ("Dell Party", Greek: κόμμα των Ναπαίων), one of the Early Greek parties, was an informal grouping of Greek political leaders that formed during the brief period of the First Hellenic Republic (1828-1831) and lasted through the reign of King Otto. The parties of that era were named after one of the three Great Powers who had together settled the Greek War of Independence in the Treaty of Constantinople (1832). The three rival powers, Russia, the United Kingdom and France came together in order to check the power of the other two nations.

The Russian Party had considerable power, enjoying privileged access to the Orthodox Church, the state machinery, military leaders, and Peloponnesian political families; but it was also popular with a significant section of the common people who wanted a strong centralized government to crush the power of the Greek shipping magnates and the rest of the business class, which followed the English Party.

Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament

The Speaker, properly the President of the Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Πρόεδρος της Βουλής των Ελλήνων). The president's term coincides with the term of the assembly, and he or she is chosen by a vote during the opening session, after each legislative election. Following is a list of Speakers of the Hellenic Parliament or other national legislative bodies such as the Greek Senate, from the time of the Greek War of Independence till present. The official order of precedence ranks the Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament in the 3rd position, after the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister.

The current Speaker is Nikos Voutsis of Syriza.

Stefanos Dragoumis

Stefanos Dragoumis (Greek: Στέφανος Δραγούμης; 1842 – September 17, 1923) was a judge, writer and the Prime Minister of Greece from January to October 1910. He was the father of Ion Dragoumis.

Thrasyvoulos Zaimis

Thrasyvoulos Zaimis (Greek: Θρασύβουλος Ζαΐμης, 1822–1880) was a Greek politician and the 21st Prime Minister of Greece. Zaimis was born in Kerpini, Kalavryta on 29 October 1822, the son of Andreas Zaimis, a soldier and government leader before the recognition of Greece's freedom from the Ottoman Empire. Zaimis studied law in France and was first elected to the Hellenic Parliament in 1850. He served four terms as President of Parliament and also as minister in several governments. In 1864, he was the representative of the Greek government who accepted the cession of the Ionian Islands from the British government, a gift that coincided with the enthronement of King George of Greece. Zaimis served two terms as Prime Minister and died in Athens on 27 October 1880. Thrasyvoulos Zaimis was the father of Alexandros Zaimis, also a Prime Minister of Greece.

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