First Council of Lyon

The First Council of Lyon (Lyon I) was the thirteenth ecumenical council, as numbered by the Catholic Church, taking place in 1245.

The First General Council of Lyon was presided over by Pope Innocent IV. Innocent IV, threatened by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyon on 2 December 1244, and early the following year he summoned the Church's bishops to the council later that same year. Some two hundred and fifty prelates responded including the Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Aquileia (Venice) and 140 bishops. The Latin emperor Baldwin II of Constantinople, Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, and Raymond Bérenger IV, Count of Provence were among those who participated. With Rome under siege by Emperor Frederick II, the pope used the council to excommunicate and depose the emperor with Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem,[1] as well as the Portuguese King Sancho II.[2] The council also directed a new crusade (the Seventh Crusade), under the command of Louis IX of France, to reconquer the Holy Land.[3]

At the opening, on 28 June, after the singing of the Veni Creator, Spiritu, Innocent IV preached on the subject of the five wounds of the Church and compared them to his own five sorrows: (1) the poor behaviour of both clergy and laity; (2) the insolence of the Saracens who occupied the Holy Land; (3) the Great East-West Schism; (4) the cruelties of the Tatars in Hungary; and (5) the persecution of the Church by the Emperor Frederick.

At the second session on 5 July, the bishop of Calvi and a Spanish archbishop attacked the emperor's behaviour, and in a subsequent session on 17 July, Innocent pronounced the deposition of Frederick. The deposition was signed by one hundred and fifty bishops and the Dominicans and Franciscans were given the responsibility for its publication. However, Innocent IV did not possess the material means to enforce the decree.

The Council of Lyon promulgated several other purely disciplinary measures:

  • It obliged the Cistercians to pay tithes,
  • It approved the Rule of the Grandmontines,
  • It decided the institution of the Octave of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin,
  • It prescribed that cardinals were to wear a red hat,
  • It prepared thirty-eight constitutions which were later inserted by Boniface VIII in his Decretals, the most important of which decreed a levy of a twentieth on every benefice for three years for the relief of the Holy Land.

Among those attending was the future saint Thomas Cantilupe who was made a papal chaplain and given a dispensation to hold his benefices in plurality.[4]

First Council of Lyon
Accepted byCatholicism
Previous council
Fourth Council of the Lateran
Next council
Second Council of Lyon
Convoked byPope Innocent IV
PresidentPope Innocent IV
TopicsEmperor Frederick II, clerical discipline, Crusades, Great Schism
Documents and statements
thirty-eight constitutions, deposition of Frederick, Seventh Crusade, red hat for cardinals, levy for the Holy Land
Chronological list of ecumenical councils
Innocent IV - Council of Lyon - 002r detail
Innocent IV - Council of Lyon


  1. ^ Christopher M. Bellitto, The General Councils:A History of the Twenty-One Church Councils from Nicaea to Vatican II, (Paulist Press, 2002), 57.
  2. ^ H. Salvador Martínez, Alfonso X, the Learned, Trans. Odile Cisneros, (Brill, 2010), 380.
  3. ^ Larry H. Addington, The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century, (Indiana University Press, 1994), 59-60.
  4. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

External links


Year 1245 (MCCXLV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Albert Suerbeer

Albert Suerbeer (ca. 1200 – 1273) was the first Archbishop of Riga in Livonia.

Suerbeer was an aggressive supporter of papal power and tried to take over the whole eastern Baltic area for the Holy See. His efforts failed, however, and he was forced to submit to the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights.

Suerbeer was born in Cologne. He studied in Paris, received a degree of magister, and became the canon in Bremen. After the death of Albert of Riga in 1229, he was appointed Bishop of Riga by Archbishop of Bremen Gerhard of Oldenburg. The canons of Riga did not recognize his appointment and elected their own candidate Nicholas, who was confirmed by Pope Gregory IX in 1231.

In 1240, Suerbeer became Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland, where he was known as Alberic the German. After taking part in the First Council of Lyon in 1245, he left Ireland, as Pope Innocent IV needed him in Germany in his struggle against Emperor Frederick II. Upon returning to German, however, the Pope appointed him Archbishop of Prussia, Livonia, and Estonia, and later also a legate to Gotland, Holstein, Rügen, and Russia. In 1246 he was given also the vacant Diocese of Lübeck in Germany.

The Teutonic Knights were wary of Suerbeer and warned him to stay away from Prussia. After Bishop Nicholas of Riga died in 1253, Suerbeer finally received the Bishopric of Riga he had claimed over 10 years. According to a compromise arranged by William of Modena, Albert promised to stop his activities against the Teutonic Order. Suffragan bishoprics subordinate to Riga included Dorpat, Ösel-Wiek, Courland, Sambia, Pomesania, Warmia (Ermland), and Culmerland.

His activities regarding the proselytisation of the pagans and the foundation of a church union with the Russian principalities brought him into conflict with the Teutonic Order. While Suerbeer’s proselytisation and power policy eventually yielded little success, the competing Teutonic Order attained papal support more easily than the archbishop, thanks to its supraregional presence and comparative wealth.

In 1267, however, Suerbeer allied himself with Gunzelin, a son of Count Gunzelin III of Schwerin, who had come to Livonia as a crusader. He appointed Gunzelin an advocate (governor) of his diocese which resulted in deep conflict with the Livonian Order. While Gunzelin was recruiting troops in Germany, the Order arrested Suerbeer and kept him imprisoned with only bread and water. Suerbeer was forced to recognize the authority of the Order. Suerbeer died in Riga in 1273.

Battle of La Forbie

The Battle of La Forbie, also known as the Battle of Hiribya, was fought October 17, 1244 – October 18, 1244 between the allied armies (drawn from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the crusading orders, the breakaway Ayyubids of Damascus, Homs and Kerak) and the Egyptian army of the Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, reinforced with Khwarezmian mercenaries.

Bonaventura of Iseo

Bonaventura of Iseo (died ca. 1273) was an Italian Friar Minor, diplomat, theologist and alchemist.

He played an important role for the Franciscan Order (Ordo Fratrum Minorum) as fiduciary of Elias of Cortona and later of Crescentius of Jesi, whose he was Vicar around the First Council of Lyon in 1245.

Friend of Albertus Magnus and of Thomas Aquinas, he was Franciscan Minister Provincial, in particular in the March of Treviso under Ezzelini.

Bonaventura of Iseo has traditionally been seen as the author of Liber compostille, a alchemical technical textbook. His work illustrates the spread of alchemia in the Italian Franciscan Order.

The Liber Compostille was an alchemical encyclopedia, which represented an attempt to draw together all available knowledge of practical alchemy, as well as to attune the ideas of Albert the Great to those of Roger Bacon with respect to the generation of metals and alchemical transmutation.

Catholic ecumenical councils

Catholic ecumenical councils include 21 councils over a period of some 1900 years. While definitions changed throughout history, in today's Roman Catholic understanding ecumenical councils are assemblies of Patriarchs, Cardinals, residing Bishops, Abbots, male heads of religious orders and other juridical persons, nominated by the Pope. The purpose of an ecumenical council is to define doctrine, reaffirm truths of the Faith, and extirpate heresy. Council decisions, to be valid, are approved by the popes. Participation is limited to these persons, who cannot delegate their voting rights.

Ecumenical councils are different from provincial councils, where bishops of a Church province or region meet. Episcopal conferences and plenary councils are other bodies, meetings of bishops of one country, nation, or region, such as the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. This article does not include councils of a lower order or regional councils. Ecumenical in the Catholic view does not mean that all bishops attended the councils, which was not even the case in Vatican II. Nor does ecumenical imply the participation of or acceptance by all Christian communities and Churches. Ecumenical refers to "a solemn congregations of the Catholic bishops of the world at the invitation of the Pope to decide on matters of the Church with him". The ecumenical character of the councils of the first millennium was not determined by the intention of those who issued the invitations. The papal approval of the early councils did not have a formal character, which was characteristic in later councils. The Catholic Church did not officially declare these councils to be ecumenical. This became theological practice. Different evaluations existed between and within Christian communities. Today 21 councils are accepted in the Catholic church as ecumenical councils.Not all of the twenty-one councils were always accepted as ecumenical within the Catholic Church. For example, the inclusion of the First Lateran Council and the Council of Basel were disputed. A 1539 book on ecumenical councils by Cardinal Dominicus Jacobazzi excluded them as did other scholars. The first few centuries did not know large-scale ecumenical meetings; they were only feasible after the Church had gained freedom from persecution through Emperor Constantine.

Council of Lyon

The Council of Lyon may refer to a number of synods or councils of the Roman Catholic Church, held in Lyon, France or in nearby Anse.

Previous to 1313, a certain Abbé Martin counted twenty-eight synods or councils held at Lyons

or at Anse.Some of these synods include:

Synod of Lyon (before 523), at which eleven of the members of the Synod of Epaone (517) were present

Synod of Lyon (567), in the presence of Pope John III and during which bishops Salonius of Embrun and Sagittarius of Gap were condemned

First Council of Lyon (1245; Pope Innocent IV; regarding the Crusades)

Second Council of Lyon (1274; Pope Gregory X; regarding union with the Eastern Orthodox and other matters)

December 2

December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 29 days remain until the end of the year.

Fourth Council of the Lateran

The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215. Due to the great length of time between the Council's convocation and meeting, many bishops had the opportunity to attend. It is considered by the Catholic Church to have been the twelfth ecumenical council and is sometimes called the "Great Council" or "General Council of Lateran" due to the presence of 71 patriarchs and metropolitan bishops, 412 bishops, 900 abbots and priors together with representatives of several monarchs.During this council, the teaching on transubstantiation— a doctrine of the Catholic Church which describes the method by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrament of the Eucharist becomes the actual blood and body of Christ— was defined. It also infamously was the first to require from Jews (and Muslims) to wear distinctive clothing.


A galero (plural: galeri; from Latin: galerum) is a broad-brimmed hat with tasselated strings worn by clergy in the Catholic Church. Over the centuries, the red galero was restricted to use by individual cardinals while such other colors as green and violet were reserved to clergy of other ranks and styles.

Grandi non immerito

Grandi non immerito was a papal bull issued by Pope Innocent IV on 24 July 1245, that effectively removed Sancho II of Portugal from the throne, replacing him with his brother and heir Afonso, Count of Boulogne, in the capacity of regent.

The King's administrative negligence and frequent conflicts with the clergy (which had gotten him excommunicated already by that point), along with his unwillingness to listen to the Roman Curia, led to Pope Innocent IV issuing the bull Inter alia desiderabilia in March 1245, which severely crippled Sancho's authority by charging him with the responsibility for the kingdom's near-anarchical state. Following the First Council of Lyon, that same year, Innocent issued Grandi non immerito urging the people and nobility of Portugal to receive the Count of Boulogne and to show him "fidelity, homage, allegiance, and accordance", under threat of ecclesiastical censure. The bull did not, however, nominally depose King Sancho or remove any descendents we would beget from the succession (though he would go on to die with no legitimate children).The Count of Boulogne ruled the kingdom using the styles of Visitador, Curador e Defensor do Reino ("Visitor, Curator and Defender of the Kingdom") until his brother's death and his own eventual coronation as Afonso III of Portugal.

Guglielmo Fieschi

Guglielmo Fieschi was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Innocent IV, his uncle, who elevated him on May 28, 1244.He was born between 1210 and 1220 in Genoa, but nothing is known about his life before his elevation to the cardinalate. As cardinal, he received the title of deacon of Sant'Eustachio. He subscribed with this title the papal bulls issued between September 27, 1244, and August 28, 1255. He accompanied his uncle the pope in his escape from Rome in 1244 and went with him to Genoa, and then to France. He participated in the First Council of Lyon in 1245. He served as papal legate in various parts of Italy in 1252-54. He was one of the cardinal-electors in the papal election, 1254. He acted also as protector of the orders of the Servites (1251) and the Humiliati (1253). He died before May 1, 1256.

History of Purgatory

The idea of purgatory has roots that date back into antiquity. A sort of proto-purgatory called the "celestial Hades" appears in the writings of Plato and Heraclides Ponticus and in many other pagan writers. This concept is distinguished from the Hades of the underworld described in the works of Homer and Hesiod. In contrast, the celestial Hades was understood as an intermediary place where souls spent an undetermined time after death before either moving on to a higher level of existence or being reincarnated back on earth. Its exact location varied from author to author. Heraclides of Pontus thought it was in the Milky Way; the Academicians, the Stoics, Cicero, Virgil, Plutarch, the Hermetical writings situated it between the Moon and the Earth or around the Moon; while Numenius and the Latin Neoplatonists thought it was located between the sphere of the fixed stars and the Earth.Perhaps under the influence of Hellenistic thought, we find another intermediate state entering Jewish religious thought in the last centuries B.C.E. In Maccabees we find the practice of prayer for the dead with a view to their after life purification a practice accepted by some Christians. The same practice appears in other traditions, such as the medieval Chinese Buddhist practice of making offerings on behalf of the dead, who are said to suffer numerous trials. Among other reasons, Catholic belief in purgatory is based on the practice of prayer for the dead.Descriptions and doctrine regarding purgatory developed over the centuries. Those who believe in purgatory interpret extra-biblical passages such as 2 Maccabees 12:41-46 (not accepted as Scripture by Protestants but recognized by Orthodox and Catholics), and biblical passages such as 2 Timothy 1:18, Matthew 12:32, Luke 16:19-16:26, Luke 23:43, 1 Corinthians 3:11-3:15 and Hebrews 12:29 as support for prayer for the dead, an active interim state for the dead prior to the resurrection, and purifying flames after death. The first Christians looked forward to the imminent return of Christ and did not develop detailed beliefs about the interim state. Gradually, Christians, especially in the West, took an interest in circumstances of the interim state between one's death and the future resurrection. Christians both East and West prayed for the dead in this interim state, although theologians in the East refrained from defining it. Augustine of Hippo distinguished between the purifying fire that saves and eternal consuming fire for the unrepentant. Gregory the Great established a connection between earthly penance and purification after death. All Soul's Day, established in the 10th century, turned popular attention to the condition of departed souls.The idea of Purgatory as a physical place (like heaven and hell) was "born" in the late 11th century. Medieval theologians concluded that the purgatorial punishments consisted of material fire. The Western formulation of purgatory proved to be a sticking point in the Great Schism between East and West. The Catholic Church believes that the living can help those whose purification from their sins is not yet completed not only by praying for them but also by gaining indulgences for them as an act of intercession. The later Middle Ages saw the growth of considerable abuses, such as the unrestricted sale of indulgences by professional "pardoners" sent to collect contributions to projects such as the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. These abuses were one of the factors that led to the Protestant Reformation. Most Protestants rejected the idea of purgatory, as never clearly mentioned in Luther's canon of the Bible, which excludes the Deuterocanonical books. Modern Catholic theologians have softened the punitive aspects of purgatory and stress instead the willingness of the dead to undergo purification as preparation for the happiness of heavenThe English Anglican scholar John Henry Newman argued, in a book that he wrote before becoming Catholic, that the essence of the doctrine on purgatory is locatable in ancient tradition, and that the core consistency of such beliefs are evidence that Christianity was "originally given to us from heaven".

Lyon Cathedral

Lyon Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Saint-Jean-Baptiste de Lyon) is a Roman Catholic church located on Place Saint-Jean in Lyon, France. The cathedral is dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, and is the seat of the Archbishop of Lyon.

Peire Cardenal

Peire Cardenal (or Cardinal) (c. 1180 – c. 1278) was a troubadour (fl. 1204–1272) known for his satirical sirventes and his dislike of the clergy. Ninety-six pieces of his remain, a number rarely matched by other poets of the age.Peire Cardenal was born in Le Puy-en-Velay, apparently of a noble family; the family name Cardenal appears in many documents of the region in the 13th and 14th centuries. He was educated as a canon, which education directed him to vernacular lyric poetry and he abandoned his career in the church for "the vanity of this world", according to his vida. Peire began his career at the court of Raymond VI of Toulouse—from whom he sought patronage—and a document of 1204 refers to a Petrus Cardinalis as a scribe of Raymond's chancery. At Raymond's court, however, he appears to have been known as Peire del Puoi or Puei (French: Pierre du Puy). Around 1238 he wrote a partimen beginning Peire del Puei, li trobador with Aimeric de Pegulhan.

At Raymond's court also perhaps, probably in 1213, Peire composed a sirventes, Las amairitz, qui encolpar las vol, which may have encouraged Peter II of Aragon to help Toulouse in the Battle of Muret, where Peter died. In this sirventes Peire alludes first perhaps to the accusations of adultery that Peter had leveled against Peter's wife Maria of Montpellier but also perhaps to the various changes in law governing women. In the second stanza Peire mentions Peter's success in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa; in the third he alludes to the sacking of Béziers (whose count Raymond Roger Trencavel was supposed to have been Peter's vassal): at Béziers the poorer soldiers of the Inquisition were flogged by the wealthier, and this is the theme of the stanza. Peire's mention of the court of Constantine may also again evoke the divorce proceedings of Peter and Marie where Peire ultimately lost. Peire later alludes to the death of someone (perhaps a daughter or perhaps Peire's wife Marie) and then apparently to the couple's son James I of Aragon, born at Candlemas, according to James's Chronicle. It's not clear who the crois hom or "dreadful man" is in the final couplet, whose deeds are "piggish": Peire has really never addressed anyone in this verse but Peter II and those close to him. (But dualism had by then made its way into some of the local religious views of Medieval Languedoc: in dualist philosophy worldly deeds might be seen as "piggish".)

Peire subsequently travelled widely, visiting the courts of Auvergne, Les Baux, Foix, Rodez, and Vienne. He may have even ventured into Spain and met Alfonso X of Castile, and James I of Aragon, although he never mentions the latter by name in his poems. (James is however of course mentioned in Peire's vida.) During his travels Peire was accompanied by a suite of jongleurs, some of whom receive mention by name in his poetry.Among the other troubadours Peire encountered in his travels were Aimeric de Belenoi and Raimon de Miraval. He may have met Daude de Pradas and Guiraut Riquier at Rodez. Peire was influenced by Cadenet, whom he honoured in one of his pieces. He was possibly influenced by Bernart de Venzac.

In his early days he was a vehement opponent of the French, the clergy and the Albigensian Crusade. In the sirventes, Ab votz d'angel, lengu' esperta, non bleza, dated by Hill and Bergin to around 1229 (when the tribunal of the Inquisition was established at Toulouse by the Dominican Order), Peire

enjoins those who seek God to follow the example of those who "drink beer" and "eat bread of gruel and bran", rather than argue over "which wine is the best". The latter behavior Peire's verse attributes to the "Jacobins" (Hill and Bergin say this is the Dominican Order).In Li clerc si fan pastor he condemned the "possession" of the laity by the clergy, for so long as the clergy order it, the laity will "draw their swords towards heaven and get into the saddle." This poem was written probably around 1245, after the First Council of Lyon, where the clergy took action against the Emperor Frederick II, but not against the Saracens. In Atressi cum per fargar Peire suggests that the clergy "protect their own swinish flesh from every blade", but they do not care how many knights die in battle. Peire was not an opponent of Christianity or even the Crusades. In Totz lo mons es vestitiz et abrazatz he urged Philip III of France, who had recently succeeded his father, Louis IX, who died in 1270 on the failed Eighth Crusade, to go to the aid of Edward Longshanks, then on the Ninth Crusade in Syria.Near the end of the sirventes, Ab votz d'angel, lengu' esperta, non bleza, composed as noted probably around 1229, Peire's words, [s]'ieu fos maritz, "if I were wed", suggest that he is not yet wed. The verse which follows provides evidence in the view of some that Peire married: it first mocks the "barrenness that bears fruit" of the [beguinas (beguines, who may have sometimes been associated with the Dominicans; Hill and Bergin in 1973 said this was a reference to nuns of the Dominican Order). Throughout the verse of course Peire had been poking fun at the Dominican clergy, but the comment about the nuns may have additional significance. His tone changes after this and his closing lines suggest though that all this is a miracle from the "saintly fathers", suggesting his acceptance of things: says that some have interpreted these lines as suggesting that Peire married at this time.By the end of his life he appears reconciled to the new modus vivendi in southern France. He died at an advanced age (allegedly one hundred years old) possibly either in Montpellier or Nimes, but this is only a supposition, based on where the biographer and compiler Miquel de la Tor was active.Three of Peire's songs have surviving melodies, but two (for a canso and a sirventes) were composed by others: Guiraut de Bornelh and Raimon Jordan respectively. Like many of his contemporary troubadours, Peire merely composed contrafacta. The third, for Un sirventesc novel vuelh comensar, may be Peire's own work. It is similar to the borrowed melody of Guiraut de Bornelh, mostly syllabic with melismas at phrasal ends. The meagre number of surviving tunes (attributable to him) relative to his output of poetry is surprising considering his vida states that "he invented poetry about many beautiful subjects with beautiful tunes."

Peter Akerovich

Peter Akerovych (Ukrainian: Петро Акерович); (b ? d ?) - was an Eastern Orthodox metropolitan from Kiev (official title - Metropolitan of Kiev and All-Rus').

Metropolitan of Kiev from 1241 to 1245, descendant of a boyar family. He was hegumen of the Saint Saviour Monastery in Berestove and since 1240 - an Orthodox bishop.

Akerovych participated in the First Council of Lyon in 1245, where he informed the Catholic West of the Tatar threat. And was employed by Grand Prince of Kiev Mykhail Vsevolodovych in diplomatic service.

Nothing is known of Akerovych past the year 1246.

Pope Innocent IV

Pope Innocent IV (Latin: Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was the head of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.

Second Council of Lyon

The First Council of Lyon, the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council, took place in 1245.The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, Kingdom of Arles (in modern France), in 1274. Pope Gregory X presided over the council, called to act on a pledge by Byzantine emperor Michael VIII to reunite the Eastern church with the West. The council was attended by about 300 bishops, 60 abbots and more than a thousand prelates or their procurators, among whom were the representatives of the universities. Due to the great number of attendees, those who had come to Lyon without being specifically summoned were given "leave to depart with the blessing of God" and of the Pope. Among others who attended the council were James I of Aragon, the ambassador of the Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos with members of the Greek clergy and the ambassadors of Abaqa Khan of the Ilkhanate. Thomas Aquinas had been summoned to the council, but died en route at Fossanova Abbey. Bonaventure was present at the first four sessions, but died at Lyon on 15 July 1274. As at the First Council of Lyons Thomas Cantilupe was an English attender and a papal chaplain.In addition to Aragon, which James represented in person, representatives of the kings of Germany, England, Scotland, France, the Spains and Sicily were present, with procurators also representing the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden, Hungary, Bohemia, the "realm of Dacia" and the duchy of Poland. In the procedures to be observed in the council, for the first time the nations appeared as represented elements in an ecclesiastical council, as they had already become represented in the governing of medieval universities. This innovation marks a stepping-stone towards the acknowledgment of coherent ideas of nationhood, which were in the process of creating the European nation-states.

The main topics discussed at the council were the conquest of the Holy Land and the union of the Eastern and Western Churches. The first session took place on 7 May 1274 and was followed by five additional sessions on 18 May 1274, 4 or 7 June 1274, 6 July 1274, 16 July 1274, and 17 July 1274. By the end of the council, 31 constitutions were promulgated. In the second session, the fathers approved the decree Zelus fidei, which contained no juridical statutes but rather summed up constitutions about the perils of the Holy Land, the means for paying for a proposed crusade, the excommunication of pirates and corsairs and those who protected them or traded with them, a declaration of peace among Christians, a grant of an indulgence for those willing to go on crusade, restoration of communion with the Greeks, and the definition of the order and procedure to be observed in the council. The Greeks conceded on the issue of the Filioque (two words added to the Nicene creed), and union was proclaimed, but the union was later repudiated by Andronicus II, heir to Michael VIII. The council also recognized Rudolf I as Holy Roman Emperor, ending the Interregnum.

Seventh Crusade

The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. His troops were defeated by the Egyptian army led by Fakhr-Al Din Ibn Sheikh Al Shioukh A who was later killed during the war supported by the Bahariyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz, Aybak and Qalawun and Louis was captured. Approximately 800,000 bezants were paid in ransom for his return.

Thomas II, bishop of Wrocław

Thomas II Zaremba, also known as Tomas, was a medieval bishop of Wrocław, Poland from 1270 till 1292.Thomas Zaremba was a nephew and confidant of his predecessor, Thomas I. Prior to being Bishop he had been a canon in Wrocław and Archdeacon of Opole.

As Bishop, he advocated extensively on behalf of the church in the political sphere.

Notably, Thomas was involved for years in a violent dispute with Duke Henry IV as to the prerogatives of the Church in Silesia, and was forced to leave Wrocław in 1285 and seek refuge with Prince Mieszko in Raciborz.In 1287 a reconciliation was effected between them at Regensburg, and in 1288 the duke founded the collegiate Church of the Holy Cross at Wrocław as part of the reconciliation.

Before his death, on the Eve of St. John in 1290, the duke confirmed the rights of the Church to sovereignty over the territories of Neisse and Otmuchów making Thomas the first Prince-Bishop in Wrocław.

Other achievements of Thomas II include the consecration of the high altar of the cathedral, attendance at the First Council of Lyon (1274), holding a diocesan synod in 1279 and the establishment of the St. Thomas Collegiate Church in Racibórz.

First seven ecumenical councils
Recognized by the
Catholic Church
Partly recognized by the
Eastern Orthodox Church
Partly recognized by the
Oriental Orthodox Church

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