A fire hydrant is a connection point by which firefighters can tap into a water supply. It is a component of active fire protection. Underground fire hydrants have been used in Europe and Asia since at least the 18th century. Above ground pillar-type hydrants are a 19th-century invention.
Before piped mains supplies, water for firefighting had to be kept in buckets and cauldrons ready for use by 'bucket-brigades' or brought with a horse-drawn fire-pump. From the 16th century, as wooden mains water systems were installed, firefighters would dig down the pipes and drill a hole for water to fill a “wet well” for the buckets or pumps. This had to be filled and plugged afterwards, hence the common US term for a hydrant, 'fireplug'. A marker would be left to indicate where a 'plug' had already been drilled to enable firefighers to find ready-drilled holes. Later wooden systems had pre-drilled holes and plugs. When cast-iron pipes replaced the wood, permanant underground access points were included for the fire fighters. Some countries provide access covers to these points, while others attach fixed above-ground hydrants - the first cast iron ones patented in 1801 by Frederick Graff, then chief-engineer of the Philadelphia Water Works. Invention since then has targeted problems such as tampering, freezing, connection, reliability etc.
The user attaches a hose to the fire hydrant, then opens a valve on the hydrant to provide a powerful flow of water, on the order of 350 kPa (50 pounds per square inch gauge (psig)) (this pressure varies according to region and depends on various factors including the size and location of the attached water main). This user can attach this hose to a fire engine, which can use a powerful pump to boost the water pressure and possibly split it into multiple streams. One may connect the hose with a threaded connection, instantaneous "quick connector" or a Storz connector. A user should take care not to open or close a fire hydrant too quickly, as this can cause a water hammer, which can damage nearby pipes and equipment. The water inside a charged hose line causes it to be very heavy and high water pressure causes it to be stiff and unable to make a tight turn while pressurized. When a fire hydrant is unobstructed, this is not a problem, as there is enough room to adequately position the hose.
Most fire hydrant valves are not designed to throttle the water flow; they are designed to be operated full-on or full-off. The valving arrangement of most dry-barrel hydrants is for the drain valve to be open at anything other than full operation. Usage at partial-opening can consequently result in considerable flow directly into the soil surrounding the hydrant, which, over time, can cause severe scouring. Gate or butterfly valves can be installed directly onto the hydrant orifices to control individual outputs and allow for changing equipment connections without turning off the flow to other orifices. These valves can be up to 12 inches in diameter to accommodate the large central "steamer" orifices on many US hydrants. It is good practice to install valves on all orifices before using a hydrant as the protective caps are unreliable and can cause major injury if they fail.
When operating a hydrant, a firefighter typically wears appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves and a helmet with face shield worn. High-pressure water coursing through a potentially aging and corroding hydrant could cause a failure, injuring the firefighter operating the hydrant or bystanders.
In most jurisdictions it is illegal to park a car within a certain distance of a fire hydrant. In North America the distances are commonly 3 to 5 m or 10 to 15 ft, often indicated by yellow or red paint on the curb. The rationale behind these laws is that hydrants need to be visible and accessible in an emergency.
In 1896, during a terrible heatwave in New York City, the Chief of Police, Theodore Roosevelt, ordered the opening of the fire hydrants to provide relief to the population.. Today some US communities provide low flow sprinkler heads to enable residents to use the hydrants to cool off during hot weather, while gaining some control on water usage. Sometimes those simply seeking to play in the water remove the caps and open the valve, providing residents a place to play and cool off in summer.
To prevent casual use or misuse, the hydrant requires special tools to be opened, usually a large wrench with a pentagonal socket. Vandals sometimes cause monetary loss by wasting water when they open hydrants. Such vandalism can also reduce municipal water pressure and impair firefighters' efforts to extinguish fires. Most fire hydrants in Australia are protected by a silver-coloured cover with a red top, secured to the ground with bolts to protect the hydrant from vandalism and unauthorized use. The cover must be removed before use.
In most areas of the United States, contractors who need temporary water may purchase permits to use hydrants. The permit will generally require a hydrant meter, a gate valve and sometimes a clapper valve (if not designed into the hydrant already) to prevent back-flow into the hydrant. Additionally, residents who wish to use the hydrant to fill their in-ground swimming pool are commonly permitted to do so, provided they pay for the water and agree to allow firefighters to draft from their pool in the case of an emergency.
Municipal services, such as street sweepers and tank trucks, may also be allowed to use hydrants to fill their water tanks. Often sewer maintenance trucks need water to flush out sewerage lines, and fill their tanks on site from a hydrant. If necessary, the municipal workers will record the amount of water they used, or use a meter.
Since fire hydrants are one of the most accessible parts of a water distribution system, they are often used for attaching pressure gauges or loggers or monitor system water pressure. Automatic flushing devices are often attached to hydrants to maintain chlorination levels in areas of low usage. Hydrants are also used as an easy above-ground access point by leak detection devices to locate leaks from the sound they make.
Depending on the country, hydrants can be above or below ground. In countries including Japan, the UK, Russia or Spain hydrants are accessible under a heavy metal cover. In other countries, such as the US, and many parts of China, a accessible part of the hydrant is above ground.
In areas subject to freezing temperatures, at most, only a portion of the hydrant is above ground. The valve is located below the frost line and connected by a riser to the above-ground portion. A valve rod extends from the valve up through a seal at the top of the hydrant, where it can be operated with the proper wrench. This design is known as a "dry barrel" hydrant, in that the barrel, or vertical body of the hydrant, is normally dry. A drain valve underground opens when the water valve is completely closed; this allows all water to drain from the hydrant body to prevent the hydrant from freezing.
In warm areas, above-ground hydrants may be used with one or more valves in the above-ground portion. Unlike with cold-weather hydrants, it is possible to turn the water supply on and off to each port. This style is known as a "wet barrel" hydrant.
Both wet- and dry-barrel hydrants typically have multiple outlets. Wet barrel hydrant outlets are typically individually controlled, while a single stem operates all the outlets of a dry barrel hydrant simultaneously. Thus, wet barrel hydrants allow single outlets to be opened, requiring somewhat more effort, but simultaneously allowing more flexibility.
A typical U.S. dry-barrel hydrant has two smaller outlets and one larger outlet. The larger outlet is often a Storz connection if the local fire department has standardized on hose using Storz fittings for large diameter supply line. The larger outlet is known as a "steamer" connection, because they were once used to supply steam powered water pumps, and a hydrant with such an outlet may be called a "steamer hydrant", although this usage is becoming archaic. Likewise, an older hydrant without a steamer connection may be called a "village hydrant." Various components of the pumping hydrant are: Bonnet: The conical cap for the hydrant, or bonnet, holds the operating stem nut in place and protects the hydrant from mechanical damage and water penetration. Branch: The branch pipe serving the hydrant from the city main is one restriction for the overall capacity of a hydrant. While older systems often connect hydrants with 4-inch branch pipe, a minimum of 6-inch pipe should be used to limit pressure loss and permit greater flow capacity. A friction loss tool can be helpful in estimating loss through these pipes.
Flange: The flange at the base of the hydrant is the point of connection for the hydrant to the rest of the barrel. While the dimension from the bonnet to the flange of the hydrant is standard, the height of the flange becomes important during installation as it determines the height of the outlets. Because hydrants need to be quickly accessed during an active fire, hydrant outlets need to be installed tall enough to allow a full-revolution of a hydrant wrench from the lowest outlet.
Hydrant Color: Some jurisdictions paint hydrants or hydrant bonnets to identify the capacity of the hydrant. Pump: A traditional dry barrel fire hydrant contains three outlets: two 2 1/2-inch (65 mm) side outlets and a single 4 1/2-inch (115 mm) or 6-inch (150 mm) "pumper" outlet. The latter outlet gets its name as it is often the preferred choice for the fire department to connect and feed pumper trucks.
Stem Nut: The stem nut is the key to operating the valve within the hydrant. Typically shaped as a pentagon, the stem nut will turn the operating stem of the hydrant and raise the valve to an 'open' position when turned with a hydrant wrench.
Thrust Block: Unless mechanically restrained, thrust blocks serve as a way to distribute the hydraulic force of the pipe network into the soil.
Valve: When in the 'open' position, the valve at the bottom of a dry barrel hydrant rises to plug drain holes and simultaneously permit water to fill the barrel of the hydrant. When in the 'closed' position, the valve lowers to block water passage and re-open drain holes at the bottom of the hydrant. These drain holes act as weeps which slowly drain the hydrant barrel and help prevent freezing. Water Supply & Storage: A water supply for a fire hydrant system can be derived from a reliable source of water such as; street mains, static water supply such as a tank or dam. Water storage must also include a facility for automatic replenishment (make-up water) due to losses from evaporation, leakage, periodic testing, etc. The capacity or volume of the water supply or storage must also be taken into account as part of the hydraulic analysis. Layflat Fire Hose: Some buildings may also require as part of the approved design the installation of ancillary equipment such as a layflat fire hose. A layflat fire hose is manufactured in accordance with Australian Standard AS2792 is a flexible hose and nozzle that may be connected to a hydrant. Hydrant Marker Plates: Found on power poles, fences, or street-signs, these are a comprehensive and effective system of identification. The plate consists of several codes; H (Potable water Hydrant), RH (Recycled/Non Potable), P (Pathway, where the hydrant cover can be found), R (Roadway). The plate is vertically oriented, around 8 cm wide, and 15 cm high.
Above ground hydrants are coloured for purely practical criteria or more aesthetic reasons. In the United States, the AWWA and NFPA recommend hydrants be colored chrome yellow for rapid identification apart from the bonnet and nozzle caps which should be coded according to their available flow. Class AA hydrants (>1500 gpm) should have their nozzle caps and bonnet colored light blue, Class A hydrants (1000–1499 gpm), green, Class B hydrants (500–999 gpm), orange, Class C hydrants (0–499 gpm), red and inoperable or end-of-system (risking water hammer) black. This aids arriving firefighters in determining how much water is available and whether to call for additional resources, or find another hydrant. Other codings can be and frequently are used, some of greater complexity, incorporating pressure information, others more simplistic. In Ottawa, Ontario, hydrant colors communicate different messages to firefighters; for example, if the inside of the hydrant is corroded so much that the interior diameter is too narrow for good pressure, it will be painted in a specific scheme to indicate to firefighters to move on to the next one. In many localities, a white or purple top indicates that the hydrant provides non-potable water. Where artistic and/or aesthetic considerations are paramount, hydrants can be extremely varied, or more subdued. In both instances this is usually at the cost of reduced practicality.
In Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, and many other countries most hydrants are located below ground (resp. Unterflurhydrant and ondergrondse brandkraan) and are reached by a riser (resp. Standrohr and standpijp), which provides the connections for the hoses. The covers can also be artistically designed (See Japanese example above).
In the United Kingdom and Ireland, hydrants are located in the ground. Yellow "H" hydrant signs indicate the location of the hydrants, and are similar to the blue signs in Finland. Mounted on a small post or nearby wall etc., the two numbers indicate the diameter of the water main (top number) and the distance from the sign (lower number). Modern signs show these measurements in millimetres and metres, whereas older signs use inches and feet. Because the orders of magnitude are so different (6 inches versus 150 mm) there is no ambiguity whichever measuring system is used.
In areas of the United States without winter snow cover, blue reflectors embedded in the street are used to allow rapid identification of hydrants at night. In areas with snow cover, tall signs or flags are used so that hydrants can be found even if covered with snow. In rural areas tall narrow posts painted with visible colours such as red are attached to the hydrants to allow them to be found during heavy snowfall periods. The tops of the fire hydrants indicate the amount of pressure each one will put out. This is good because it makes the choice of what hydrants will be used to supply water to the fire scene.
The hydrant bodies are also color-coded.
These markings and colours are required by the NFPA(National Fire Protection Agency).
In Australia, hydrant signage varies, with several types displayed across the country. Most Australian hydrants are underground, being of a ballcock system (spring hydrant type), and a separate standpipe with a central plunger is used to open the valve. Consequently, hydrant signage is essential, because of their concealed nature.
In Germany the hydrant marker plates follow the style of other marker plates pointing to underground installations. Fire hydrant marker plates have a red border. Other water hydrants may have a blue border. A gas hydrant would have a yellow background instead of a white one for fire hydrants. All of them have large central T with the installation identification on top of it - an "H" or older "UH" is located in the ground, a "OH" is above ground, followed by the pipe inner diameter in millimeters (with a small 80 mm in residential areas). The numbers around the T allow to locate the installation in reference to the plate's location - the number left of the T is in meter left of the sign, the number right of the T is in meter right of the sign, and number below the T tells the distance in meter in front of the sign, where a negative number would point to a place behind the sign. The distance numbers are always given with a comma decimeter precision. If it is not a common fire hydrant type then another identification may be used, for example "300 m³" would point to a cistern usable to pump water from.
In East Asia (China, Japan and South Korea) and former Socialist countries of Eastern Europe, there are two types of fire hydrants, of which one is on the public ground and the other inside a building. The ones inside a building are installed on a wall. They are big, rectangular boxes that also provide alarms (sirens), a fire extinguisher and, at certain times, emergency kits.
In most areas fire hydrants require annual inspections and maintenance — they normally only have a one-year warranty, but some have 5- or even 10-year warranties, although the longer warranty does not remove the need for periodic inspections or maintenance. These inspections are generally performed by the local municipalities but they often do not inspect hydrants that are identified as private. Private hydrants are usually located on larger properties to adequately protect large buildings in case of a fire and in order to comply with the fire code. Such hydrants have met the requirements of insurance underwriters and are often referred to as UL/FM hydrants. Some companies are contracted out to inspect private fire hydrants unless the municipality has undertaken that task.
Some fire hydrant manufacturers recommend lubricating the head mechanism and restoring the head gaskets and O-rings annually in order that the fire hydrant perform the service expected of them, while others have incorporated proprietary features to provide long-term lubrication of the hydrant's operating mechanism. In any case, periodic inspection of lubricants is recommended. Lubrication is generally done with a food-grade non-petroleum lubricant to avoid contamination of the distribution system.
Occasionally a stone or foreign object will mar the seat gasket. In this case, most hydrants have a special seat wrench that allows removal of the seat to replace the gasket or other broken parts without removing the hydrant from the ground. Hydrant extensions are also available for raising a hydrant if the grade around the hydrant changes. Without extending the height, the wrenches to remove caps would not clear and the break flanges for traffic models would not be located correctly in case they were hit. Hydrant repair kits are also available to repair sacrificial parts designed to break when hit by a vehicle.
Many departments use the hydrants for flushing out water line sediments. When doing so, they often use a hydrant diffuser, a device that diffuses the water so that it does not damage property and is less dangerous to bystanders than a solid stream. Some diffusers also dechlorinate the water to avoid ground contamination. Hydrants are also sometimes used as entry or exit points for pipe cleaning pigs.
In 2011, Code for America developed an "Adopt a Hydrant" website, which enables volunteers to sign up to shovel out fire hydrants after snowstorms. As of 2014, the system has been implemented in Boston, Providence, Rhode Island, Anchorage, Alaska, and Chicago.
In rural areas where municipal water systems are not available, dry hydrants are used to supply water for fighting fires. A dry hydrant is analogous to a standpipe. A dry hydrant is usually an unpressurized, permanently installed pipe that has one end below the water level of a lake or pond. This end usually has a strainer to prevent debris, such as frogs, from entering the pipe. The other end is above ground and has a hard sleeve connector. When needed, a pumper fire engine will pump from the lake or pond by drafting water. This is done by vacuuming the air out of the dry hydrant, hard sleeve, and the fire engine pump with a primer. Because lower pressure now exists at the pump intake, atmospheric pressure on the water and the weight of the water forces water into part of the dry hydrant above water, into the hard sleeve, and finally into the pump. This water can then be pumped by the engine's centrifugal pump.
All barrels are to be chrome yellow except in cases where another color has already been adopted.
Birdsill Holly Jr. (8 November 1820 – 27 April 1894) was a mechanical engineer and inventor of water hydraulics devices. He is noted for his inventions related to city water system equipment and apparatus for fire protection, like the fire hydrant.Burchell Lake
Burchell Lake is a ghost town in the Canadian province of Ontario, located behind a locked gate at the southern end of Highway 802 in the Thunder Bay District.A copper mining town which was active from 1959 to 1967, the town had approximately 400 residents at its peak. The Burchell Lake area had seen mineral exploration as early as 1902, but active development of large-scale mining operations in the area was not economically feasible until the completion of Highway 11 through the region in 1954. After a mine shaft and mill complex was built, the Coldstream Copper Mines company began building a townsite for its workers in 1959. However, the price of copper had fallen sufficiently by 1967 that the mine was no longer profitable, and the site was shut down in 1967. In less than ten years of operations, workers at Burchell Lake had mined an estimated 102 million pounds of ore.A number of recreational cottages are still located in the area.
Easily accessible, Burchell Lake remained one of Ontario's best-preserved ghost towns for many years, with many of its buildings still standing at the townsite as of summer 2011. This included a dozen or so houses (some with basements), the original BA gas station, two room school, and collapsed recreation hall. The baseball cage could also be found with the original scoreboard. Street lamps, a sewer cover, and a fire hydrant also existed. Beginning in 2012 the mine site was remediated by Denison Environmental, with all surface structures demolished, mine openings properly sealed and mine wastes stabilized and covered with biosolids to encourage vegetation growth.
A 40-year community reunion was held in nearby Shebandowan in 2007.Clyde Doyle
Clyde Gilman Doyle (July 11, 1887 – March 14, 1963) was a United States Representative from California. He was born in Oakland, Alameda County, California and attended public schools in Oakland, Seattle, Washington, Los Angeles and Long Beach, California. Graduated from the College of Law of the University of Southern California at Los Angeles in 1917, he was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Long Beach, California. He was a member and president of the Board of Freeholders, Long Beach, California in 1921 and 1922.
Doyle was a member of the California State Board of Education. Elected as a Democrat to the Seventy-ninth Congress (January 3, 1945 - January 3, 1947), he failed to gain reelection to the Eightieth Congress in 1946 but successfully regained his seat for the Eighty-first—and to seven succeeding Congresses. He thus served continuously from January 3, 1949, until his death in Arlington, Virginia on March 14, 1963.
Doyle also served on the House Un-American Activities Committee from 1951 until his death in 1963. His role on the committee is recalled unflatteringly in Beat Generation poet and fellow Californian Lawrence Ferlinghetti's 1958 poem "Dog" (published in his celebrated collection A Coney Island of the Mind):
But he has his own free world to live in
His own fleas to eat
He will not be muzzled
Congressman Doyle is just another
to himDeWitt Clinton Cregier
DeWitt Clinton Cregier (June 1, 1829 - November 9, 1898; buried in Rosehill Cemetery) served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois (1889–1891) for the Democratic Party. Prior to this he was an engineer with the City of Chicago, and was awarded, in 1875, U.S. Patent 164,149 and in 1876, U.S. Patent 173,768, both for fire hydrants. The latter was a combination drinking fountain, fire hydrant, and watering basin for animals. The Cregier hydrant is widely seen in old photographs of Chicago.
Cregier was also Master Mason, presided as Worshipful Master of Blaney Lodge No. 271, A.F. & A.M. of Illinois for eight years, and served as Grand Master of Illinois in 1870-1871. D.C. Cregier Lodge No. 81 in Wheeling, Illinois, is named after him. He was a fifth great-grandson of Martin Cregier, first Burgomaster of New Amsterdam.
Biography entitled: "The New York Orphan Who Built Chicago" subtitled: "The Story of DeWitt Clinton Cregier A 19th-Century American Engineering Genius" published October 2011, author Gloria Cregier Emma, one of Cregier's last surviving two grandchildren. Book available at public libraries and history museums in Chicago and suburban areas, in Springfield, Illinois, and by contact with author in Geneva, Illinois.Dirty dog exercise
Dirty dog exercise or hip side lifts or fire hydrant exercise is an exercise that is meant to strengthen the hips and buttocks, without the use of weights. It is so named due to resemblance to the way a dog urinates.
The exercise also improves core stability.Edward B. Ellington
Edward Bayzand Ellington (2 August 1845 – 10 November 1914) was a British hydraulic engineer who pioneered the development of urban-scale hydraulic power distribution systems.Ellington was managing director of the Hydraulic Engineering Co of Chester and one of the founders of the London Hydraulic Power Company. He invented the hydraulic balance lift (US: elevator) and the automatic injector fire hydrant.Ellis Gallagher
Ellis Gallagher is known primarily for chalk drawings made by working with different sources of light and shadows in New York City. Gallagher was born on September 9, 1973. He is a native New Yorker living in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn. Before his chalk drawings he was a graffiti writer, working in NYC mostly. He was arrested for this in 1999 and given community service and probation. He stopped doing traditional graffiti writing in 2001 after the death of Hector Ramirez (a friend and writing partner), who was hit by a train while painting in a Brooklyn subway tunnel. Gallagher started his chalk drawing in early 2005, the first drawing being an outline of a fire hydrant after days of being fixated with shadows.Elm Creek, Manitoba
Elm Creek is an unincorporated community recognized as a local urban district in Manitoba, Canada. It is about 50 km west of Winnipeg and about 35 km southeast of Portage la Prairie. It is located in the Rural Municipality of Grey. It is home to the second largest fire hydrant in the world which was unveiled on Canada Day, 2001. It is also the home of the second largest H4 chondrite (a class of stony meteorite) ever found in Canada. The 8.2-kg mass was found by a local grader driver on a rural road in 1997. Elm Creek has a Kindergarten to Grade 12 school.Erie Water Works
The Erie Water Works was incorporated in 1865 as the Erie Water and Gas Company to provide drinking water and fire hydrant water for the city of Erie, Pennsylvania. The Water Works, also known as the Erie City Water Authority, replaced the Erie Water Systems. Its board of commissioners operates independently of the city government.Fire Museum of Texas
The Fire Museum of Texas is located in a former fire station, the former Central Fire Station, in Beaumont, Texas, built in 1927. The building is a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, and is an example of the Renaissance Revival. The building houses state-of-the-art interactive fire safety exhibits with a collection of antique fire equipment dating as early as 1856. It also has a two-story interactive playhouse for children to learn fire safety. Another feature is that "...the world's largest working fire hydrant...", a towering twenty-four (24) feet tall, is in front of the building. In addition to the fire hydrant, the museum features the State of Texas Firefighter Memorial, a 9-11 Memorial, and a Firefighter commemorative walkway.
Permanent exhibits trace history of fire fighting from bucket brigades to present practices. Several antique trucks are featured dating from 1856. Temporary exhibits can also be found at the museum.The museum is part of a concentration of several museums in the downtown Beaumont area. It is located blocks away from the Tyrrell Historical Library, the Art Museum of Southeast Texas, the Beaumont Children's Museum (temporarily located in the Beaumont Civic Center), and the Edison Museum.Flushing hydrant
A flushing hydrant is a hydrant that is used for flushing a water line of silt, rust, debris, or stagnant water. Many water utilities use standard fire hydrants for flushing their lines. Specialized flushing hydrants are often smaller and less expensive than a fire hydrant to reduce cost where fire fighting use is not needed or practical. Flushing hydrants typically only have one outlet, in contrast to fire hydrants, which normally have two or three. Flushing hydrants are commonly installed at the end of dead-end water lines.Giants of the Prairies
"Giants of the Prairies" is a song by the Canadian polka band the Kubasonics.
It tells the story of the numerous "world's biggest" roadside attractions to be found in Western Canada, especially in small towns populated mostly by Ukrainian Canadians.
Brian Cherwick, the leader of the Kubasonics, has a Ph.D. from the Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies at the University of Alberta, titled "Polkas on the Prairies: Ukrainian Music and the Construction of Identity".Hondo Dog Park
Hondo Dog Park is a city park in Hillsboro, Oregon, United States. Opened in 2007, it is the first dog park in that city. Located on nearly four acres, the park is in the northeast section of Hillsboro adjacent to Hillsboro Stadium. Hondo Dog Park is named after a Hillsboro Police Department K-9 unit dog that was shot and killed in the line of duty. The park includes a fire hydrant painted like an American flag as a memorial to the police dog, which received some controversy when the park opened.Hydrant wrench
A hydrant wrench is a tool used to remove fire hydrant caps and open the valve of the hydrant. They are usually adjustable so as to fit different sized hydrant nuts.North American Fire Hose Coupler Incompatibilities
Despite fire hose and hydrant coupler standardization efforts that are at least 144 years old, there remain significant areas in Canada, the United States, and Mexico that use fire hose and hydrant threads and other couplings that are incompatible with those used by neighboring fire departments. This is notable because the first fire hydrant was invented by Manhattan fire fighter George Smith in 1817, making these devices 200 years old.These incompatibilities have led to well-documented loss of life and buildings, including the Great Boston fire of 1872, the Great Baltimore Fire in 1904, and the Oakland Firestorm of 1991. As of 2017, San Francisco still maintains fire hydrants with a size and thread that are incompatible with those used by most or all other nearby fire departments that would respond in mutual aid conditions, such as occurred during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.
As a result of the 1872 Boston fire, the International Association of Fire Engineers designed and published a fire hydrant coupling standard. As a result of the 1904 Baltimore fire, the National Fire Protection Association formed a committee, and in 1905 published its first report on the subject, which would eventually become an official standard, NFPA 1963. This standard specified that each fire hydrant have one large diameter pumper (a.k.a. "steamer") port 4.5 inches in diameter with 4 threads per inch (meant for supplying water to a pumper truck or other high-capacity distribution device), and two medium-diameter ports, each 2.5 inches with 7.5 threads per inch, meant for supplying individual attack hoses directly.
During at least two periods, specialized thread-adjusting tool sets were developed to enable fire departments using diameters and threads similar to but incompatible with the NFPA standard to convert them to the national standard. The first of these was used around 1911, developed by the Greenfield Tap and Die Corporation, and documented as late as 1922, wherein it was claimed that the 70% of municipalities not already using the NFPA standard threads could convert their couplings to the new standard. Around 1950, San Diego Battalion Chief and Master Fire Mechanic Robert Ely developed a similar machine, now known as the “Ely Fire Hose Thread Standardizer" that could do the job in 90 seconds.One of the reasons for the incompatibilities is that there are three U.S. national hose threaded hose coupling standards. NFPA 1963, which defines the vast majority of fire hose couplings in existence, and ANSI-ASME B1.20.7, which defines garden hose thread (sometimes used by wildland fire fighting crews) along with (non-tapered) iron pipe thread, and ANSI B26, FIRE-HOSE COUPLING SCREW THREAD FOR ALL CONNECTIONS HAVING NOMINAL INSIDE DIAMETERS OF 2 ½, 3, 3 ½, AND 4 ½ INCHES".
Note: the straight iron pipe thread is a temporary connection and seals with a gasket, just like garden hose threads and fire hose threads, and is distinct from tapered iron pipe thread (NPT), which is a permanent connection sealed by the threads in conjunction with pipe dope or teflon tape wrapped around the threads. However, because the straight and tapered iron pipe threads differ only in their taper, it is possible for small NPSH/SIPT female hose couplings in sizes 1⁄2″ to 4″ (inclusive) to be joined to NPT male pipe ends. The connection uses a gasket to seal, and is temporary.Ozark National Scenic Riverways
The Ozark National Scenic Riverways is a national park in the Ozarks of southern Missouri in the U.S..
The park was created by an Act of Congress in 1964 to protect the Current and Jacks Fork rivers, and it was formally dedicated in 1971. The park's 80,000 acres (324 km2) are used for many forms of recreation and are home to abundant animal and plant species. 1.3 million recreational visits are estimated annually. Canoeing is one of the most popular activities. Kayaking and inflatable rafts and tubes add to the volume of river floaters. Motorized boating with jonboats is also a popular activity of locals and nearby Missourians. Other activities include horseback riding, hunting, hiking, fishing, camping, birdwatching, nature photography, and sightseeing.
The park service promotes the Current River as one of the midwest's best float streams, in part due to the contributions of some of the nation's largest springs. The headwaters of the Current River begin at the confluence of Pigeon Creek and Montauk Springs in Montauk State Park. Other notable springs along its course include Welch Spring, Cave Spring, Pulltite Spring, Round Spring, Fire Hydrant Spring, Ebb and Flow Spring, Blue Spring, Big Spring, and Gravel Spring. The park contains the United States' largest concentration of first magnitude springs (which are defined as having average flow of more than 100 cu ft/s (2.8 m3/s)) in dolomite rock. The only comparable spring collections are the limestone springs of North Florida near Gainesville and the igneous-based springs of Idaho's Snake River.
The park includes many caves, including Round Spring Caverns, which offers ranger-led tours in the summer. Other notable caves include the Devils Well sink and Jam-Up Cave.The park is traversed by the Ozark Trail, a popular long-distance hiking trail that passes Rocky Falls and crosses the Current River on Highway 106 at Powder Mill.
The park has resident feral horses and elk have been reintroduced on state lands nearby and are expected to eventually populate the park.
Historic sites include Alley Spring and Alley Spring Roller Mill, Buttin Rock School, Walter Klepzig Mill and Farm, Reed Log House, Welch Hospital and many CCC structures at Big Spring.
Facilities include campgrounds along the two rivers at Alley Spring, Round Spring, Pulltite, Two Rivers and Big Spring. There are also a number of less developed primitive campsites, and there are group sites at Akers, Round Spring, Alley and Pulltite. Park rangers present campfire programs and nature hikes at the bigger campgrounds during the summer. There are also traditional craft demonstrations and free bluegrass concerts.
The park is located mostly in Shannon County with parts extending into Carter, Dent, and Texas counties. Communities surrounding the Ozark National Scenic Riverways include Eminence, Licking, Salem, Van Buren, Ellington, Bunker, and Mountain View, Missouri. Administrative offices are located in Van Buren. The Big Spring Historic District in Carter County was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981.Standpipe (firefighting)
In North America, a standpipe is a type of rigid water piping which is built into multi-story buildings in a vertical position or bridges in a horizontal position, to which fire hoses can be connected, allowing manual application of water to the fire. Within the context of a building or bridge, a standpipe serves the same purpose as a fire hydrant.
In many other countries, hydrants in streets are below ground level. Fire trucks carry standpipes and key, and there are bars on the truck. The bar is used to lift a cover in the road, exposing the hydrant. The standpipe is then "sunk" into the hydrant, and the hose is connected to the exposed ends of the standpipe. The bar is then combined with the key, and is used to turn the hydrant on and off.Water flow test
A water flow test is a way to measure the water supply available at a building site, usually for the purposes of installing a water based fire protection system (fire sprinkler system).
The most common test involves measuring the flow of water flowing out of a municipal fire hydrant (measured in gallons per minute) while recording how much the water pressure has dropped (from no water flow to test flow). When the results are collected carefully, formulas can be applied to figure the varying pressure(s) that will be available when different amounts of water flow are used from the same source. A process to perform a water flow test is explained in the model fire codes as published by NFPA (National Fire Protection Association).
If a water supply source is considered weak compared to what is required by the sprinkler system design hydraulic calculation, the water pressure can be boosted by means of a fire pump.Water tender
A water tender, also known as a tanker in some regions (not to be confused with an air tanker), is a specialized firefighting apparatus designed for transporting water from a water source to a fire scene. Water tenders are capable of drafting water from a stream, lake or hydrant.
This class of apparatus does not necessarily have enough pumping capacity to power large hose lines (like a fire engine), though it utilizes a smaller pump to draft from bodies of water. Water tenders are used when there is no working fire hydrant within reach of other fire equipment, potentially supplying the fire engine(s) with a very rapid connection. Most water tenders are designed to carry loads of 1000 gallons (approx. 3800 litres) or more. In the US, 1000 gallons is the requirement in the NFPA standards. Some may carry up to or even upwards of 5000 gallons (approx. 19,000 litres) of water – even more with a trailer.Typically water tenders support engines and/or trucks like aerials during fires and hazardous material incidents. Some water tenders carry fire fighting equipment and crew much like an engine. These water tenders are able to operate relatively independently. Some water tenders actually combine a fire engine and water tender. This kind of unit may have seats for up to six firefighters, a water tank of more than 3000 gallons (approx. 11 000 litres), and basic equipment for firefighting and rescue. This configuration may be found, for example, in rural areas, where a fire engine (with rescue equipment) and water tender are supported by a combined fire engine/water tender unit in overlapping fires or accidents. Numerous wildland water tenders have remotely controlled nozzles mounted on the front bumper to allow them to drive alongside a fire or smoldering area and efficiently wet it down without the crew leaving the rig. Very light water tenders are sometimes used in wildfires. For example, a small tank of 265 gallons (1000 litres) can be carried by a cross-country vehicle to extinguish smoldering stubs on rough terrain.A water tender typically carries some fire fighting equipment. There are various national standards and recommendations on equipment to be carried on water tenders. Some water tenders may carry various kinds of hoses and spray nozzles for use in forest, building, or industrial fires, as well as a portable water tank. In addition, tools like axes, flashlights, chemical portable fire extinguishers, a water extinguisher, an SCBA (Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus), a first aid kit, adapters, and a hydrant wrench can be required.
Some tenders carry also foaming agents, and extinguishing powders or gases. Sometimes these materials are carried in larger amounts on very specialized, separate units like hose trucks, powder trucks, carbon dioxide extinguishing trucks etc. Specialized Airport Crash Tenders are used at airports to carry larger amounts of water and foaming agents.
An Australian Water Tender can range from a standard fire engine, with a larger-than-usual capacity (usually called a tanker), to a Water Tender equipped with specialty equipment such as fixed monitors and long-throw foam nozzles (usually called a Bulk Water Carrier). Several areas also own converted semi-trailer fuel tankers, capable of holding many thousands of litres of petrol, foam or other retardant. These are most often used in severe HazMat situations, such as oil refinery fires or fuel tanker accidents, where a large and continuous volume of water is needed.