A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire brigade. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. Fire extinguishers manufactured with non-cylindrical pressure vessels also exist but are less common.
There are two main types of fire extinguishers: stored-pressure and cartridge-operated. In stored pressure units, the expellant is stored in the same chamber as the firefighting agent itself. Depending on the agent used, different propellants are used. With dry chemical extinguishers, nitrogen is typically used; water and foam extinguishers typically use air. Stored pressure fire extinguishers are the most common type. Cartridge-operated extinguishers contain the expellant gas in a separate cartridge that is punctured prior to discharge, exposing the propellant to the extinguishing agent. This type is not as common, used primarily in areas such as industrial facilities, where they receive higher-than-average use. They have the advantage of simple and prompt recharge, allowing an operator to discharge the extinguisher, recharge it, and return to the fire in a reasonable amount of time. Unlike stored pressure types, these extinguishers use compressed carbon dioxide instead of nitrogen, although nitrogen cartridges are used on low temperature (-60 rated) models. Cartridge operated extinguishers are available in dry chemical and dry powder types in the U.S. and in water, wetting agent, foam, dry chemical (classes ABC and B.C.), and dry powder (class D) types in the rest of the world.
Fire extinguishers are further divided into handheld and cart-mounted (also called wheeled extinguishers). Handheld extinguishers weigh from 0.5 to 14 kilograms (1.1 to 30.9 lb), and are hence, easily portable by hand. Cart-mounted units typically weigh more than 23 kilograms (51 lb). These wheeled models are most commonly found at construction sites, airport runways, heliports, as well as docks and marinas.
Pyrene 1 qt. pump-type chlorobromomethane (CB or CBM), 1960s, UK
The first fire extinguisher of which there is any record was patented in England in 1723 by Ambrose Godfrey, a celebrated chemist at that time. It consisted of a cask of fire-extinguishing liquid containing a pewter chamber of gunpowder. This was connected with a system of fuses which were ignited, exploding the gunpowder and scattering the solution. This device was probably used to a limited extent, as Bradley's Weekly Messenger for November 7, 1729, refers to its efficiency in stopping a fire in London.
The modern dry powder fire extinguisher was invented by British Captain George William Manby in 1818; it consisted of a copper vessel of 3 gallons (13.6 liters) of pearl ash (potassium carbonate) solution contained within compressed air.
The soda-acid extinguisher was first patented in 1866 by Francois Carlier of France, which mixed a solution of water and sodium bicarbonate with tartaric acid, producing the propellant CO2 gas. A soda-acid extinguisher was patented in the U.S. in 1881 by Almon M. Granger. His extinguisher used the reaction between sodium bicarbonate solution and sulfuric acid to expel pressurized water onto a fire. A vial of concentrated sulfuric acid was suspended in the cylinder. Depending on the type of extinguisher, the vial of acid could be broken in one of two ways. One used a plunger to break the acid vial, while the second released a lead stopple that held the vial closed. Once the acid was mixed with the bicarbonate solution, carbon dioxide gas was expelled and thereby pressurized the water. The pressurized water was forced from the canister through a nozzle or short length of hose.
The cartridge-operated extinguisher was invented by Read & Campbell of England in 1881, which used water or water-based solutions. They later invented a carbon tetrachloride model called the "Petrolex" which was marketed toward automotive use.
The chemical foam extinguisher was invented in 1904 by Aleksandr Loran in Russia, based on his previous invention of fire fighting foam. Loran first used it to extinguish a pan of burning naphtha. It worked and looked similar to the soda-acid type, but the inner parts were slightly different. The main tank contained a solution of sodium bicarbonate in water, whilst the inner container (somewhat larger than the equivalent in a soda-acid unit) contained a solution of aluminium sulphate. When the solutions were mixed, usually by inverting the unit, the two liquids reacted to create a frothy foam, and carbon dioxide gas. The gas expelled the foam in the form of a jet. Although liquorice-root extracts and similar compounds were used as additives (stabilizing the foam by reinforcing the bubble-walls), there was no "foam compound" in these units. The foam was a combination of the products of the chemical reactions: sodium and aluminium salt-gels inflated by the carbon dioxide. Because of this, the foam was discharged directly from the unit, with no need for an aspirating branchpipe (as in newer mechanical foam types). Special versions were made for rough service, and vehicle mounting, known as apparatus of fire department types. Key features were a screw-down stopper that kept the liquids from mixing until it was manually opened, carrying straps, a longer hose, and a shut-off nozzle. Fire department types were often private label versions of major brands, sold by apparatus manufacturers to match their vehicles. Examples are Pirsch, Ward LaFrance, Mack, Seagrave, etc. These types are some of the most collectable extinguishers as they cross into both the apparatus restoration and fire extinguisher areas of interest.
In 1910, The Pyrene Manufacturing Company of Delaware filed a patent for using carbon tetrachloride (CTC, or CCl4) to extinguish fires. The liquid vaporized and extinguished the flames by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction of the combustion process (it was an early 20th-century presupposition that the fire suppression ability of carbon tetrachloride relied on oxygen removal). In 1911, they patented a small, portable extinguisher that used the chemical. This consisted of a brass or chrome container with an integrated handpump, which was used to expel a jet of liquid towards the fire. It was usually of 1 imperial quart (1.1 l) or 1 imperial pint (0.57 l) capacity but was also available in up to 2 imperial gallons (9.1 l) size. As the container was unpressurized, it could be refilled after use through a filling plug with a fresh supply of CTC.
Another type of carbon tetrachloride extinguisher was the fire grenade. This consisted of a glass sphere filled with CTC, that was intended to be hurled at the base of a fire (early ones used salt-water, but CTC was more effective). Carbon tetrachloride was suitable for liquid and electrical fires and the extinguishers were fitted to motor vehicles. Carbon tetrachloride extinguishers were withdrawn in the 1950s because of the chemical's toxicity – exposure to high concentrations damages the nervous system and internal organs. Additionally, when used on a fire, the heat can convert CTC to phosgene gas, formerly used as a chemical weapon.
The carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguisher was invented (at least in the US) by the Walter Kidde Company in 1924 in response to Bell Telephone's request for an electrically non-conductive chemical for extinguishing the previously difficult-to-extinguish fires in telephone switchboards. It consisted of a tall metal cylinder containing 7.5 pounds (3.4 kg) of CO2 with a wheel valve and a woven brass, cotton covered hose, with a composite funnel-like horn as a nozzle. CO2 is still popular today as it is an ozone-friendly clean agent and is used heavily in film and television production to extinguish burning stuntmen. Carbon dioxide extinguishes fire mainly by displacing oxygen. It was once thought that it worked by cooling, although this effect on most fires is negligible.
In 1928, DuGas (later bought by ANSUL) came out with a cartridge-operated dry chemical extinguisher, which used sodium bicarbonate specially treated with chemicals to render it free-flowing and moisture-resistant. It consisted of a copper cylinder with an internal CO2cartridge. The operator turned a wheel valve on top to puncture the cartridge and squeezed a lever on the valve at the end of the hose to discharge the chemical. This was the first agent available for large-scale three-dimensional liquid and pressurized gas fires, and was but remained largely a specialty type until the 1950s, when small dry chemical units were marketed for home use. ABC dry chemical came over from Europe in the 1950s, with Super-K being invented in the early 60s and Purple-K being developed by the US Navy in the late 1960s. Manually applied dry agents such as graphite for class D (metal) fires had existed since WWII, but it wasn't until 1949 that Ansul introduced a pressurized extinguisher using an external CO2 cartridge to discharge the agent. Met-L-X (sodium chloride) was the first extinguisher developed in the US, with graphite, copper, and several other types being developed later.
In the 1940s, Germany invented the liquid chlorobromomethane (CBM) for use in aircraft. It was more effective and slightly less toxic than carbon tetrachloride and was used until 1969. Methyl bromide was discovered as an extinguishing agent in the 1920s and was used extensively in Europe. It is a low-pressure gas that works by inhibiting the chain reaction of the fire and is the most toxic of the vaporizing liquids, used until the 1960s. The vapor and combustion by-products of all vaporizing liquids were highly toxic and could cause death in confined spaces.
In the 1970s, Halon 1211 came over to the United States from Europe where it had been used since the late 40s or early 50s. Halon 1301 had been developed by DuPont and the US Army in 1954. Both 1211 and 1301 work by inhibiting the chain reaction of the fire, and in the case of Halon 1211, cooling class A fuels as well. Halon is still in use today but is falling out of favor for many uses due to its environmental impact. Europe and Australia have severely restricted its use, since the Montreal Protocol of 1987. Less severe restrictions have been implemented in the United States, the Middle East, and Asia.
Internationally there are several accepted classification methods for hand-held fire extinguisher. Each classification is useful in fighting fires with a particular group of fuel.
Specifications for fire extinguishers are set out in the standard AS/NZS 1841, the most recent version being released in 2007. All fire extinguishers must be painted signal red. Except for water extinguishers, each extinguisher has a coloured band near the top, covering at least 10% of the extinguisher's body length, specifying its contents.
|Type||Band colour||Fire classes (brackets denote sometimes applicable)|
|Dry powder (metal fires)||Lime green||D|
|Vaporizing liquid (non-halon clean agents)||Golden yellow||A||B||C||E|
|Halon||No longer produced||A||B||E|
In Australia, yellow (Halon) fire extinguishers are illegal to own or use on a fire, unless an essential use exemption has been granted, this is due to the ozone-depleting nature of halon.
According to the standard BS EN 3, fire extinguishers in the United Kingdom as all throughout Europe are red RAL 3000, and a band or circle of a second color covering between 5–10% of the surface area of the extinguisher indicates the contents. Before 1997, the entire body of the fire extinguisher was color coded according to the type of extinguishing agent.
Class E has been discontinued, but covered fires involving electrical appliances. This is no longer used on the basis that, when the power supply is turned off, an electrical fire can fall into any of the remaining five categories.
|Type||Old code||BS EN 3 colour code||Fire classes|
(brackets denote sometimes applicable)
|Water||Signal red||Signal red||A|
|Foam||Cream||Red with a cream panel above the operating instructions||A||B|
|Dry powder||French blue||Red with a blue panel above the operating instructions||(A)||B||C||E|
|Carbon dioxide, CO2||Black||Red with a black panel above the operating instructions||B||E|
|Wet chemical||N/A||Red with a canary yellow panel above the operating instructions||A||(B)||F|
|Class D powder||French blue||Red with a blue panel above the operating instructions||D|
|Halon 1211/BCF||Emerald green||No longer in general use||A||B||E|
Fire extinguishing performance per fire class is displayed using numbers and letters such as 13A, 55B.
EN3 does not recognise a separate electrical class - however there is an additional feature requiring special testing (35 kV dielectric test per EN 3-7:2004). A powder or CO2 extinguisher will bear an electrical pictogramme as standard signifying that it can be used on live electrical fires (given the symbol E in the table). If a water-based extinguisher has passed the 35 kV test it will also bear the same electrical pictogramme – however, any water-based extinguisher is only recommended for inadvertent use on electrical fires.
There is no official standard in the United States for the color of fire extinguishers, though they are typically red, except for class D extinguishers which are usually yellow, water and Class K wet chemical extinguishers which are usually silver, and water mist extinguishers which are usually white. Extinguishers are marked with pictograms depicting the types of fires that the extinguisher is approved to fight. In the past, extinguishers were marked with colored geometric symbols, and some extinguishers still use both symbols. The types of fires and additional standards are described in NFPA 10: Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 2013 edition.
|Fire class||Geometric symbol||Pictogram||Intended use||Mnemonic|
|A||Ordinary solid combustibles||A for "Ash"|
|B||Flammable liquids and gases||B for "Barrel"|
|C||Energized electrical equipment||C for "Current"|
|D||Combustible metals||D for "Dynamite"|
|K||Oils and fats||K for "Kitchen"|
Fire extinguishing capacity is rated in accordance with ANSI/UL 711: Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers. The ratings are described using numbers preceding the class letter, such as 1-A:10-B:C. The number preceding the A multiplied by 1.25 gives the equivalent extinguishing capability in gallons of water. The number preceding the B indicates the size of fire in square feet that an ordinary user should be able to extinguish. There is no additional rating for class C, as it only indicates that the extinguishing agent will not conduct electricity, and an extinguisher will never have a rating of just C.
|Class A||Class A||Class A||Class A||Ordinary combustibles|
|Class B||Class B||Class B||Class B||Flammable liquids|
|Class C||Class C||Class C||Flammable gases|
|Class C||Unclassified||Unclassified||Class E||Electrical equipment|
|Class D||Class D||Class D||Class D||Combustible metals|
|Class K||Class F||Class F||Class F||Cooking oil or fat|
Fire extinguishers are typically fitted in buildings at an easily accessible location, such as against a wall in a high-traffic area. They are also often fitted to motor vehicles, watercraft, and aircraft - this is required by law in many jurisdictions, for identified classes of vehicles. Under NFPA 10 all commercial vehicles must carry at least one fire extinguisher, with size/UL rating depending on type of vehicle and cargo (i.e., fuel tankers typically must have a 20 lb (9.1 kg), while most others can carry a 5 lb (2.3 kg)). The revised NFPA 10 created criteria on the placement of "fast flow extinguishers" in locations such as those storing and transporting pressurized flammable liquids and pressurized flammable gas or areas with possibility of three-dimensional class B hazards are required to have "fast flow extinguishers" as required by NFPA 220.127.116.11. Varying classes of competition vehicles require fire extinguishing systems, the simplest requirements being a 1A:10BC hand-held portable extinguisher mounted to the interior of the vehicle.
The height limit for installation, as determined by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), is 60 in (1.5 m) for fire extinguishers weighing less than 40 lb (18 kg). However, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) also needs to be followed within the United States. The ADA height limit of the fire extinguisher, as measured at the handle, is 48 in (1.2 m). Fire extinguisher installations are also limited to protruding no more than 4 inches into the adjacent path of travel. The ADA rule states that any object adjacent to a path of travel cannot project more than 4 in (10 cm) if the object's bottom leading edge is higher than 27 in (0.69 m). The 4-inch protrusion rule was designed to protect people with low-vision and those who are blind. The height limit rule of 48 inches is primarily related to access by people with wheelchairs but it is also related to other disabilities as well. Prior to 2012, the height limit was 54 in (1.4 m) for side-reach by wheelchair-accessible installations. Installations made prior to 2012 at the 54-inch height are not required to be changed.
In New Zealand, the mandatory installation of fire extinguishers in vehicles is limited to self-propelled plant in agriculture and arboriculture, passenger service vehicles with more than 12 seats and vehicles that carry flammable goods. NZ Transport Agency recommends that all company vehicles carry a fire extinguisher, including passenger cars.
This is a powder-based agent that extinguishes by separating the four parts of the fire tetrahedron. It prevents the chemical reactions involving heat, fuel, and oxygen (combustion), thus extinguishing the fire. During combustion, the fuel breaks down into free radicals, which are highly reactive fragments of molecules that react with oxygen. The substances in dry chemical extinguishers can stop this process.
Applied to fuel fires as either an aspirated (mixed and expanded with air in a branch pipe) or nonaspirated form to create a frothy blanket or seal over the fuel, preventing oxygen reaching it. Unlike powder, foam can be used to progressively extinguish fires without flashback.
Cools burning material. Very effective against fires in furniture, fabrics, etc. (including deep-seated fires), but can be safely used only in the absence of electricity.
Wet chemical (potassium acetate, potassium carbonate, or potassium citrate) extinguishes the fire by forming an air-excluding soapy foam blanket over the burning oil through the chemical process of saponification (an alkali reacting with a fat to form a soap) and by the water content cooling the oil below its ignition temperature. Generally, class A and K (F in Europe) only, although older models also achieved class B and C fire-fighting capability in the past, current models are rated A:K (Amerex, Ansul, Buckeye and Strike First) or K only (Badger/Kidde).
Halon 1301 Fire Extinguisher
Clean agents extinguish fire by displacing oxygen (CO2 or inert gases), removing heat from the combustion zone (Halotron-1, FE-36, Novec 1230) or inhibiting the chemical chain reaction (Halons). They are referred to as clean agents because they do not leave any residue after discharge which is ideal for protecting sensitive electronics, aircraft, armored vehicles and archival storage, museums, and valuable documents.
Halon was completely banned in Europe and Australia except for critical users like law enforcement and aviation, resulting in stockpiles either being destroyed via high heat incineration or being sent to the United States for reuse. Halon 1301 and 1211 are being replaced with new halocarbon agents which have no ozone depletion properties and low atmospheric lifetimes, but are less effective. Halon 2402 is a liquid agent (dibromotetrafluoroethane) which has had limited use in the West due to its higher toxicity than 1211 or 1301. It is widely used in Russia and parts of Asia, and it was used by Kidde's Italian branch, marketed under the name "Fluobrene".
Amerex 30lb. Stored Pressure Sodium Chloride Class D Dry Powder, 1990s, US
Ternary Eutectic Chloride fire extinguisher for metal fires, UK.
There are several class D fire extinguisher agents available; some will handle multiple types of metals, others will not.
TMB was used experimentally by the US Air Force, specifically with regard to B-52 engine assemblies, and was tested in modified 10-gallon wheeled CBM extinguishers. Other agents were added to suppress the methanol flare up, such as chlorobromomethane (CBM), Halon 2402, and Halon 1211, with varied success. Halon 1211 was the most successful, and the combined TMB pressurized with halon 1211 and nitrogen was called Boralon was used experimentally by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for use on atomic metals, using sealed cylinder extinguishers made by Metalcraft and Graviner which eliminated the moisture contamination problem. TMB/Boralon was abandoned in favor of more versatile agents, though it is still mentioned in most US firefighting literature.
Buffalo marketed a 2.5-gallon and 1-quart extinguisher using M-X liquid discharged through a low-velocity shower head type nozzle but it was met with limited success, as it was going up against Ansul's Met-L-X, which could be used on more types of metals and was non-combustible. M-X had the advantage of being easy to recharge and non-corrosive since it was oil-based, but production did not last long due to its limited applications.
Most class D extinguishers will have a special low-velocity nozzle or discharge wand to gently apply the agent in large volumes to avoid disrupting any finely divided burning materials. Agents are also available in bulk and can be applied with a scoop or shovel.
Several modern "ball" or grenade-style extinguishers are available on the market. The modern version of the ball is a hard foam shell, wrapped in fuses that lead to a small black powder charge within. The ball bursts shortly after contact with flame, dispersing a cloud of ABC dry chemical powder which extinguishes the fire. The coverage area is about 5 m2 (54 sq ft). One benefit of this type is that it may be used for passive suppression. The ball can be placed in a fire-prone area and will deploy automatically if a fire develops, being triggered by heat. They may also be manually operated by rolling or tossing into a fire. Most modern extinguishers of this type are designed to make a loud noise upon deployment.
This technology is not new, however. In the 1800s, glass fire grenades filled with suppressant liquids were popular. These glass fire grenade bottles are sought by collectors. Some later brands, such as Red Comet, were designed for passive operation, and included a special holder with a spring-loaded trigger that would break the glass ball when a fusible link melted. As was typical of this era, some glass extinguishers contained the toxic carbon tetrachloride.
Condensed aerosol fire suppression is a particle-based form of fire extinction similar to gaseous fire suppression or dry chemical fire extinction. As with gaseous fire suppressants, condensed aerosol suppressants use clean agents to suppress the fire. The agent can be delivered by means of mechanical operation, electric operation, or combined electro-mechanical operation. To the difference of gaseous suppressants, which emit only gas, and dry chemical extinguishers, which release powder-like particles of a large size (25–150 µm) condensed aerosols are defined by the National Fire Protection Association as releasing finely divided solid particles (generally <10 µm), usually in addition to gas.
Whereas dry chemical systems must be directly aimed at the flame, condensed aerosols are flooding agents and therefore effective regardless of the location and height of the fire. Wet chemical systems, such as the kind generally found in foam extinguishers, must, similarly to dry chemical systems, be sprayed directionally, onto the fire. Additionally, wet chemicals (such as potassium carbonate) are dissolved in water, whereas the agents used in condensed aerosols are microscopic solids.
In 2015, researchers from George Mason University announced that high volume sound with low bass frequencies in the 30 to 60 hertz range drives oxygen away from the combustion surface, extinguishing the fire, a principle was previously tested by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). One proposed application is to extinguish fires in outer space, with none of the clean-up required for mass-based systems.
Most countries in the world require regular fire extinguisher maintenance by a competent person to operate safely and effectively, as part of fire safety legislation. Lack of maintenance can lead to an extinguisher not discharging when required, or rupturing when pressurized. Deaths have occurred, even in recent times, from corroded extinguishers exploding.
In the United States, state and local fire codes, as well as those established by federal agencies such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, are generally consistent with standards established by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). They commonly require, for fire extinguishers in all buildings other than single-family dwellings, inspections every 30 days to ensure the unit is pressurized and unobstructed (done by an employee of the facility) and an annual inspection and service by a qualified technician. Some jurisdictions require more frequent service. The servicer places a tag on the extinguisher to indicate the type of service performed (annual inspection, recharge, new fire extinguisher). Hydrostatic pressure testing for all types of extinguishers is also required, generally every five years for water and CO2 models up to every 12 years for dry chemical models.
Recently the NFPA and ICC voted to allow for the elimination of the 30-day inspection requirement so long as the fire extinguisher is monitored electronically. According to NFPA, the system must provide record keeping in the form of an electronic event log at the control panel. The system must also constantly monitor an extinguisher's physical presence, internal pressure and whether an obstruction exists that could prevent ready access. In the event that any of the above conditions are found, the system must send an alert to officials so they can immediately rectify the situation. Electronic monitoring can be wired or wireless.
In the UK, three types of maintenance are required:
In the United States, there are 3 types of service:
Note: these are the required intervals for normal service conditions, if the extinguisher has been exposed to excessive heat, vibration, or mechanical damage it may need to be tested sooner.
The agent is emptied and depressurized and the valve is removed. After a thorough internal and external visual inspection, the cylinder is filled with water, placed inside a safety cage, and pressurized to the specified test pressure (varies with the type, age, and cylinder material) for the specified time period. If no failure, bulges, or leaks are detected, the cylinder passes. The cylinder is then emptied of water and thoroughly dried, and labeled with the test date and company that performed the test. CO2 types have the test information stamped on the cylinder, all other types get a sticker on the back of the cylinder. Once dry, the units are recharged. Unlike the UK, the US does not rebuild extinguishers and replace valves at specific intervals unless parts are found to be defective, with the exception of halon. Halon types are often given new o-rings and valve stems at every internal maintenance to minimize any leakage potential.
OEM equipment must be used for replacement parts for the extinguisher to maintain its UL rating. If parts are unavailable, replacement is recommended, keep in mind extinguishers have a projected service life of about 25–35 years, although many are of such quality that they can outlast this, but realize that science is ever-changing, and something that was the best available 30 years ago may not be acceptable for modern fire protection needs.
Fire extinguishers are sometimes a target of vandalism in schools and other open spaces. Extinguishers are occasionally partially, or fully discharged by a vandal, impairing the extinguisher's actual fire-fighting abilities.
In open public spaces, extinguishers are ideally kept inside cabinets that have glass that must be broken to access the extinguisher, or which emit an alarm siren that cannot be shut off without a key, to alert people the extinguisher has been handled by an unauthorized person if a fire is not present. This also alerts maintenance to check an extinguisher for usage so that it may be replaced if it has been used.
Fire extinguisher identification signs are small signs designed to be mounted near a fire extinguisher, in order to draw attention to the extinguisher's location (e.g., if the extinguisher is on a large pole, the sign would generally be at the top of the pole so it can be seen from a distance). Such signs may be manufactured from a variety of materials, commonly self-adhesive vinyl, rigid PVC, and aluminum.
In addition to words and pictographs indicating the presence of a fire extinguisher, some modern extinguisher identification signs also describe the extinguishing agent in the unit, and summarize the types of fire on which it may safely be used.
Some public and government buildings are often required, by local legal codes, to provide an identification sign for each extinguisher on the site.
Most licensing authorities have regulations describing the standard appearance of these signs (e.g., text height, pictographs used and so on).
Photoluminescent fire extinguisher signs are made with nontoxic photoluminescent phosphor that absorbs ambient light and releases it slowly in dark conditions – the sign "glows in the dark". Such signs are independent of an external power supply, and so offer a low-cost, reliable means of indicating the position of emergency equipment in dark or smoky conditions. The luminance performance for life safety appliance location signs should meet the requirements of International Standard ISO 17398 so that the sign is not only excited at very low ambient light levels (25 lux), but also has effective luminance intensity and longevity, making the life-safety message conspicuous in the event of power failure, or if smoke obscures emergency ceiling lights. The Photoluminescent Safety Products Association (PSPA) has guidance classifications for luminance performance to help users with applications under "International Maritime Organization Emergency Equipment and Life-saving Appliance Location Requirements," and worldwide industrial fire-safety management requirements.
Photo-luminescent signs are sometimes wrongfully described as being reflective. A reflective material will only return ambient light for as long as the light source is supplied, rather than storing energy and releasing it over a period of time. But, many fire extinguishers and extinguisher-mounting posts have strips of retroreflective adhesive tape placed on them to facilitate their location in situations where only emergency lighting or flashlights are available.
The 1984 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Dijon on 20 May 1984. It was race 5 of 16 in the 1984 FIA Formula One World Championship.
This was the final Formula One race to be held at the 3.801 km (2.362 mi) Dijon-Prenois circuit, as it was deemed too short by governing body FISA. Fittingly in France, Frenchman Patrick Tambay, in the all-French team (French car, French engine, French tyres and French fuel) scored the Equipe Renault team's last pole position.
Double World Champion Niki Lauda won the race in his McLaren-TAG, his first win in France since 1975. Tambay finished second in his Renault RE50, with the Lotus-Renault of Nigel Mansell third. Lauda's team-mate and World Championship leader, Alain Prost, could only manage seventh after he was forced to pit to change a loose wheel.
Andrea de Cesaris failed to qualify his Ligier, but nonetheless started the race and finished tenth. De Cesaris' Friday qualifying time was disallowed when his car's onboard fire extinguisher was found to be empty, before rain in the Saturday session prevented him from setting a time fast enough to make the grid. Ligier took the bizarre step of withdrawing their second car, driven by François Hesnault (who had qualified 14th), in order to allow de Cesaris to start 26th and last.Amerex
Amerex Corporation is a large American manufacturer of firefighting products. Based in Trussville, Alabama, Amerex makes hand portable and wheeled fire extinguishers for commercial and industrial environments, as well as fire and explosion suppression vehicle systems for defense applications. Amerex's innovative technology has led to the production of pre-engineered automatic restaurant systems, vehicle fire suppression systems, gas detection, industrial systems and fire detection devices. McWane, Inc. acquired Amerex in 1999.Anglesey Circuit
The Anglesey Circuit (Welsh: Trac Môn) is a motor racing circuit located in Ty Croes, Anglesey, Wales. It plays host to a variety of motorsport events including car racing, motorcycle racing, car sprints, stage rallies and drifting. It opened as a fully licensed MSA and ACU championship racing circuit in 1997.
In 2006, the motorsports venue saw a major overhaul, with the majority of its 1.057 miles (1.70 km) circuit being scrapped in favour of a radical new development that includes four different track layouts: a 2.1 miles (3.4 km) International Circuit; 1.55 miles (2.5 km) Coastal Circuit, 1.2 miles National Circuit and 0.8 mile Club Circuit.
One of the straights on the circuit is named after Wales's only F1 driver, Tom Pryce, who was killed in an accident during the South African Grand Prix at Kyalami in 1977 when a track marshal carrying a fire extinguisher ran across the track in front of him. The extinguisher hit Pryce in the head, and both he and the marshal died.
The TV motoring programme Fifth Gear regularly used the Anglesey circuit for the 'Shoot Out' segment of the show. Since the new track configuration, Fifth Gear has opted to use the Coastal layout. The Coastal layout appears to be the most popular among track day enthusiasts because of the difficult downhill corkscrew segment.
The track also features as Catie's track on the CBeebies series Catie's Amazing Machines.Berberoka
The people from Apayao, Abra and Ilocos Norte believe in and fear a swamp creature called Berberoka. It lures victims by sucking water in the pond enough for a number fish to come to the surface. When the potential victims get attracted to the school of fish, the Berberoka drowns them by hosing water and swallowing them afterwards. Despite all their powers, these water ogres have a morbid, ironic fear of crabs.
They were compared to the Greek naiads, the nymphs of water elements. They have the ability to suck up all the water in a swamp or lake. Also, many elderly people believed that they use water to attack their enemies. They discharge a large amount of water (just like a fire extinguisher) at their victims until they drown.Brahim Déby
Brahim Déby Itno (Arabic: إبراهيم ديبي إتنو Ibrahīm Daybī Itnū, 6 June 1980 – 2 July 2007) was the son of current Chadian President Idriss Déby.
Brahim attended the University of Ottawa in Canada as a foreign exchange student and graduated in 2004 with a degree in business administration. It is claimed that in 2005, President Déby held a secret meeting in which he expressed his desire to have Brahim succeed him at some point; this reportedly caused a rift in the family.On 24 May, 2006, Brahim Déby was arrested outside a Paris nightclub after getting involved in a brawl. During the fight, an unlicensed semi-automatic pistol fell from his pocket. Police later searched his house and found 375 grams of marijuana. On 3 June, 2006, Brahim Déby was given a six-month suspended sentence for drugs and arms possession.Déby was found dead by a security guard in his apartment building's parking garage in Courbevoie, a suburb of Paris, on July 2, 2007. Due to the apparently violent nature of his death, French authorities began investigating it as murder. An autopsy indicated that Déby, who was covered in white powder, died due to asphyxiation, probably from the powder, which was thought to have been sprayed from a fire extinguisher found near his body. Déby had a wound on his head, but this was thought to be unrelated to his death.According to a lawyer for Déby's family on July 17, Déby was attacked ten days after arriving in France from Chad; his father had advised him not to return to France due to his past legal issue there. Shortly prior to the attack, Déby was said to be very worried and had received a telephone call. He was attacked by four or five men disguised as policemen who waited for him to arrive at the parking garage. The attackers tasered Déby before killing him by spraying him with the fire extinguisher powder. They then searched his apartment for an unknown reason; it was speculated that the attackers might have been looking for money kept there by Déby.Déby's body was returned to Chad aboard a specially chartered flight on the morning of 4 July. He was buried at midday on the same day in the Muslim cemetery in Lamadji, to the north of N'Djamena. The funeral was held privately but was nevertheless widely attended, with Déby's extended family, as well as government ministers and various political figures, present.Five arrests (four in Paris, one in Romania) made in connection with Déby's death were reported on November 28, 2008. Four men were convicted of crimes related to his killing.Brainiac's Test Tube Baby
Brainiac's Test Tube Baby was a live British parody popular science entertainment TV show hosted by Dominic Wood. It was a spin-off of the highly successful Sky1 show Brainiac: Science Abuse and first aired on Thursday 3 August 2006. Dominic is assisted by former Big Brother contestant Jon Tickle who also co-hosts the original Brainiac programme.
Aspects of the show included "The Test Tube Babes" (two Brainiacs who search out "scientific truth"), the "CO2 challenge", where teams competed to propel a wheelchair as fast as they can on fire extinguisher power alone, the blowing up of caravans and microwaves (as in its parent show) and competitions with questions about the Brainiac series.
It also had a forum for viewers to contact the show with their science questions, e.g. "will a plant grow as well in saliva as it will in water?" Jon Tickle plays the "resident boffin" to answer these questions.
The seventh episode which was scheduled to air on 21 September was cancelled in light of Brainiac: Science Abuse presenter Richard Hammond's car crash, despite being recorded live. The episode was later aired on 8 January 2007 as the final episode. Brainiac's Test Tube Baby was produced by Original Productions UK Entertainment, at the time, an affiliate of Original Productions of Burbank, California.
The first series ended on 12 October 2006. It was stated on the final show that a second series had been commissioned but it never happened.Bromochlorodifluoromethane
Bromochlorodifluoromethane, also known by the trade name Halon 1211, or BCF, or Halon 1211 BCF, or Freon 12B1, is a haloalkane with the chemical formula CF2ClBr.
Brominated haloalkanes were first used during World War II as fire extinguisher for aircraft and tanks. Bromochlorodifluoromethane was introduced as an effective gaseous fire suppression agent in the mid 1960s for use around highly valuable materials in places such as museums, mainframe rooms and telecommunication switching centers. They were also widely used in the maritime industries in the engine rooms of ships and also in the transport industry in vehicles. Its efficiency as a fire extinguishing agent has also led it to be the predominant choice of fire extinguishing agent on commercial aircraft and is typically found in cylindrical hand-held canisters. Its advantages as a fire extinguishing agent are that it has lower toxicity than chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride and that since it is a covalently bonded compound, it does not form conductive ions, therefore being usable on electrical equipment.Chad–Romania relations
Chad–Romania relations were established on 15 July 1969. However, neither country has an embassy in the other's capital, and although an agreement on trade was signed in 1969, followed by an agreement on economic and technical cooperation in 1971, as of 2007, the volume of bilateral trade remained insignificant.In November 2007, Romania announced that they would deploy 120 troops to Chad and the Central African Republic in connection with a European Union peacekeeping mission there. Romania continued to condemn violence in Chad and blamed it on rebel groups. However, by mid-2008, Romanian defence minister Teodor Meleșcanu indicated that his country would not send further troops to the mission in Chad, stating that they had reached their limits and did not want involvement in a war theatre.In December 2008, Romanian national Marin Cioroianu was arrested in Harghita County, Romania in connection with the July 2007 murder of Brahim Déby, the son of Chadian president Idriss Déby, in a Paris parking garage. Déby's attackers had shot arrows at him, tackled him, and attacked him with fire extinguisher foam, leading to death by asphyxiation. DNA in a glove taken from Cioroianu's car matched DNA collected at the murder scene. However, due to Interpol's French office lacking funds to pay for his extradition to France, Cioroianu remained in custody in Romania.Cold gas thruster
A cold gas thruster is a propulsive device that uses pressurized inert gas as the reaction mass. The compressed gas is released through a propelling nozzle to generate a cold jet thrust.A cold gas thruster usually consists of simply a pressurized tank containing gas, a valve to control its release and a propelling nozzle, and plumbing connecting them. A very simple example would be the use of a handheld CO2 or nitrogen gas fire extinguisher while sitting down in a rolling office chair; motion is achieved by pointing the nozzle in the direction opposite of the desired movement and activating the extinguisher.
Because the gas is usually unheated, speed at the throat is low and very low performance is achieved; in a vacuum with nitrogen gas a specific impulse of 73 seconds can be achieved. The maximum theoretical specific impulse for nitrogen gas is 76 seconds. In the simplest approximation, the specific impulse is modeled as proportional to the square root of the (absolute) gas temperature, so performance rises as the gas temperature is increased. A thruster in which the performance is increased by heating the gas by an electrical resistance is known as a resistojet.
Cold gas thrusters are mostly useful for vernier engines, and are employed chiefly for simplicity and reliability.EN 3
European standard EN 3 specifies requirements for portable fire extinguishers. Compliance with the standard is legally required for the construction of all fire extinguishers in the European Union.
The standard has been published in 10 parts:
EN 3-1: Portable fire extinguishers. Description, duration of operation, class A and B fire test.
EN 3-2: Portable fire extinguishers. Tightness, dielectric test, tamping test, special provisions.
EN 3-3: Portable fire extinguishers. Construction, resistance to pressure, mechanical tests.
EN 3-4: Portable fire extinguishers. Charges, minimum required fire.
EN 3-5: Portable fire extinguishers. Specification and supplementary tests.
EN 3-6: Portable fire extinguishers. Provisions for the attestation of conformity of portable fire extinguishers in accordance with EN 3-1 to 3-5. Amendment 1
EN 3-7: Portable fire extinguishers. Characteristics, performance requirements and test methods.
EN 3-8: Portable fire extinguishers. Additional requirements to EN 3-7 for the construction, resistance to pressure and mechanical tests for extinguishers with a maximum allowable pressure equal to or lower than 30 bar.
EN 3-9: Portable fire extinguishers. Additional requirements to EN 3-7 for pressure resistance of CO2 extinguishers.
EN 3-10: Portable fire extinguishers. Provisions for evaluating the conformity of a portable fire extinguisher to EN 3-7.EN 3-1, EN 3-2 and EN 3-4 and EN 3-5 have been withdrawn and were replaced by EN 3-7.Frederick Grinnell
Frederick Grinnell (August 14, 1836 – October 21, 1905) was a pioneer in fire safety and was the creator of the first practical automatic fire sprinkler.General Detroit Corporation
General Detroit Corporation was an American manufacturer of fire trucks and fire extinguishers from 1903 to 2001.George William Manby
Captain George William Manby FRS (28 November 1765 – 18 November 1854) was an English author and inventor. He designed an apparatus for saving life from shipwrecks and also the first modern form of fire extinguisher.Grinnell Company-General Fire Extinguisher Company Complex
Grinnell Company-General Fire Extinguisher Company Complex is a historic factory complex located at Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. It was built in 1929-1930, and consists of a two-story office building and massive tall, one-story Grinnell manufacturing building. The office building is a reinforced concrete structure, with a brick veneer, a flat roof, and a parapet capped in concrete coping. The manufacturing building has a poured concrete slab foundation, brick veneered walls, a steel framing system consisting of I-beam piers and heavy Pratt truss roof, banks of continuous, steel sash windows, and large, sawtooth monitors. The complex was built for the largest manufacturer of automatic sprinklers and other fire protection products in North America.It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.Manby mortar
The Manby mortar was invented by Captain George William Manby, who was also the inventor of the portable fire extinguisher.
The mortar fired a shot with a line attached from the shore to the wrecked ship. It was used by the Waterguard and later by H M Coastguard for many years.
The first recorded rescue using the Manby apparatus was on 18 February 1808, with Manby himself in charge. The crew of seven were brought to safety from the Plymouth Brig Elizabeth, stranded off the shore at Great Yarmouth. It was estimated that by the time of Manby's death nearly 1000 persons had been rescued from stranded ships by means of his apparatus.Minimax Limited
Minimax Limited was a British manufacturer of fire extinguishers founded in England in 1903. Their unique conical fire extinguisher was known as 'The Minimax'. The company was purchased by The Pyrene Company Limited in 1955.Morgan Johansson
Morgan Johansson (full name: Tomas Morgan Johansson, born 14 May 1970 in Höganäs, Malmöhus County) is a Swedish politician of the Social Democrats. He has served as Minister for Home Affairs since 2017 and as Minister for Justice since 2014. He served as Minister for Migration and Asylum Policy from 2014 to 2017.Johansson was previously Minister for Public Health and Social Services in the Persson Cabinet from 2002 to 2006 and has been a Member of the Riksdag for the southern Skåne County electoral district since the 1998 elections. As a member of the opposition he was Chairman of the Committee on Justice of the Riksdag from 2010 to 2014.
Johansson worked as a journalist and editorial writer for the social democratic daily newspaper Arbetet Nyheterna 1994-1997 and as political expert in the Prime Minister's Office from 1997 to 1998.
In 2010 author Christer Isaksson described Johansson as a member of the left-leaning faction of the Social Democratic Party. He is also a member of the Swedish Humanist Association and has previously served on the association board.
On Monday afternoon, March 23, 2015, Johansson was attacked at the Broby hospital asylum center in Broby, Östra Göinge Municipality, Skåne. A 25-year-old man charged at Johansson and sprayed him with a fire extinguisher. The attacker was quickly apprehended and Johansson was not injured in what was referred to as a premeditated assault.Pyrophoricity
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F). Examples are iron sulfide and many reactive metals including plutonium and uranium, when powdered or thinly sliced. Pyrophoric materials are often water-reactive as well and will ignite when they contact water or humid air. They can be handled safely in atmospheres of argon or (with a few exceptions) nitrogen. Most pyrophoric fires should be extinguished with a Class D fire extinguisher for burning metals.Wyoming State Penitentiary
Wyoming State Penitentiary is a Wyoming Department of Corrections state maximum-security prison for men located in Rawlins, Carbon County, Wyoming.The facility first opened in 1980 and housed about 500 medium-security prisoners. That portion of the complex, now called the North Facility, closed in 2001 as the newer South Facility opened. The South Facility boasts the third generation prison layout of 'pods.' A driving factor behind this was the faults with the star, or block, layout of the North Facility. Narrow halls and blind, sharp corners caused dangers to staff. Security issues of the old North Facility came to light when Corporal Wayne Martinez was killed by three inmates. The three inmates gained access to the control center Corporal Martinez was in, beating him with a fire extinguisher and stabbing him over thirty times. Two inmates involved in the attack were given life without the possibility of parole, while the third was sentenced to death. In memory of Corporal Martinez, the Wayne Martinez Training Center was given his name. The North Facility remains standing, but abandoned.Wyoming State Penitentiary is also the location of the state's death row and execution chamber, which is located in the prison's parole board meeting room. No death sentences have been carried out in Wyoming since the 1992 execution of convicted murderer Mark Hopkinson, and there is currently only one inmate on death row in the state.
Prior to 1991 the Wyoming Board of Charities and Reform operated the prison.