Finnish military ranks

Finnish military ranks form a system that incorporates features from Swedish, German, and Russian armed forces. In addition, the system has some typically Finnish characteristics that are mostly due to the personnel structure of the Finnish Defence Forces. The ranks have official names in Finnish and Swedish languages and official English translations. The Swedish forms are used in all Swedish-languages communications in Finland, e.g. in Swedish-speaking units of Finnish Defence Force. The system of ranks in the Swedish Armed Forces is slightly different.

Finland practices universal conscription of men (c. 80% of each age cohort), and maintains only a cadre of paid personnel for training and maintaining military readiness. Most of lower ranks are conscripts, and leave service as sotamies (Private) or korpraali (Private 1st Class). Junior leaders, about 20% of age cohort, serve 12 months and leave service as alikersantti (Corporal) or kersantti (Sergeant). 10% of conscripts are trained as reserve officers, serving 12 months, and leave service usually as vänrikki (2nd Lieutenant) or in the Navy as aliluutnantti (Ensign). In principle, there should be no distinction between reserve and active ranks, and NCOs and reserve officers can be promoted in reserve, up to everstiluutnantti (Lieutenant Colonel). During peace time, reservists are inactive, i.e. they do not receive pay or have a position in the chain of command. Reservists are in duty only when mobilized during a crisis or when attending mandatory or voluntary refresher exercises. Nevertheless, reserve NCO or officer ranks are an entrance requirement to a military or border guard career.

Rank and file and non-commissioned officers are promoted to their ranks by the commander of a brigade or equivalent, with the exception of the highest NCO ranks of ylivääpeli (Master Sergeant) and sotilasmestari (Sergeant Major), who are promoted by the service commander and Chief of Staff of the Defence Command, respectively. All officers from vänrikki (2nd Lieutenant) and higher are promoted to their ranks and commissioned to their offices by the President of Finland.[1] Professional officers are trained at the Finnish National Defence University. Career officers graduate first as sotatieteen kandidaatti (Bachelor of Military Science), with an automatic promotion to luutnantti (Lieutenant), then work for 3–4 years' work as temporary officers. After this, they continue their studies to sotatieteen maisteri (Master of Military Science) and are promoted to yliluutnantti (1st Lieutenant). After graduation, they are promoted to kapteeni (Captain) and a commission to a permanent office.

Table of ranks

The ranks currently used by the Finnish Defence Forces are (Finnish name above, and Swedish name below):[2]

Army and air force operational ranks

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
Finland Finland
(Edit)
No equivalent Kenraali kauluslaatta
Kenraali hihalaatta
Kenraaliluutnantti kauluslaatta
Kenraaliluutnantti hihalaatta
Kenraalimajuri kauluslaatta
Kenraalimajuri hihalaatta
Prikaatikenraali kauluslaatta
Prikaatikenraali hihalaatta
Colonel
Eversti hihalaatta
Lieutenant Colonel
Everstiluutnantti hihalaatta
Major
Majuri hihalaatta
Captain
Kapteeni hihalaatta
Yliluutnantti kauluslaatta
First Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Vänrikki hihalaatta
Officer Candidate
Upseerikokelas hihalaatta
Officer Student
Upseerioppilas hihalaatta
Kenraali
General
Kenraaliluutnantti
Generallöjtnant
Kenraalimajuri
Generalmajor
Prikaatikenraali
Brigadgeneral
Eversti
Överste
Everstiluutnantti
Överstelöjtnant
Majuri
Major
Kapteeni
Kapten
Yliluutnantti
Premiärlöjtnant
Luutnantti
Löjtnant
Vänrikki
Fänrik
Upseerikokelas
Officersaspirant
Upseerioppilas
Officerselev
Finland Finland
(Edit)
Sotilasmestari M05.svg Ylivääpeli M05.svg Vääpeli M05.svg Ylikersantti M05.svg Kersantti M05.svg Alikersantti M05.svg No equivalent Korpraali M05.svg Sotamies M05.svg
Sotilasmestari Ylivääpeli Vääpeli Ylikersantti Kersantti Alikersantti Korpraali Sotamies
Militärmästare Överfältväbel Fältväbel Översergeant Sergeant Undersergeant Korpral Soldat
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
Finland Finland
(Edit)
No equivalent Finland-AirForce-OF-9Finland-AirForce-OF-9-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-8Finland-AirForce-OF-8-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-7Finland-AirForce-OF-7-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-6Finland-AirForce-OF-6-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-5Finland-AirForce-OF-5-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-4Finland-AirForce-OF-4-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-3Finland-AirForce-OF-3-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-2Finland-AirForce-OF-2-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-1cFinland-AirForce-OF-1c-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-1bFinland-AirForce-OF-1b-sleeve.svg Finland-AirForce-OF-1aFinland-AirForce-OF-1a-sleeve.svg Officer Candidate Officer Student
Kenraali
General
Kenraaliluutnantti
Generallöjtnant
Kenraalimajuri
Generalmajor
Prikaatikenraali
Brigadgeneral
Eversti
Överste
Everstiluutnantti
Överstelöjtnant
Majuri
Major
Kapteeni
Kapten
Yliluutnantti
Premiärlöjtnant
Luutnantti
Löjtnant
Vänrikki
Fänrik
Upseerikokelas
Officersaspirant
Upseerioppilas
Officerselev
Finland Finland
(Edit)
Sotilasmestari kauluslaatta Ylivääpeli kauluslaatta Vääpeli kauluslaatta Ylikersantti kauluslaatta Kersantti kauluslaatta Alikersantti kauluslaatta No equivalent Korpraali kauluslaatta Sotamies kauluslaatta
Sotilasmestari Ylivääpeli Vääpeli Ylikersantti Kersantti Alikersantti Korpraali Sotamies
Militärmästare Överfältväbel Fältväbel Översergeant Sergeant Undersergeant Korpral Soldat
Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Officers Translation Collar insignia M/05 field insignia
Kenraali
General
General Kenraali kauluslaatta Kenraali M05.svg
Kenraaliluutnantti
Generallöjtnant
Lieutenant general Kenraaliluutnantti kauluslaatta Kenraaliluutnantti M05.svg
Kenraalimajuri
Generalmajor
Major general Kenraalimajuri kauluslaatta Kenraalimajuri M05.svg
Prikaatikenraali
Brigadgeneral
Brigadier general Prikaatikenraali kauluslaatta Prikaatikenraali M05.svg

Eversti
Överste
Colonel FIN-eversti Eversti M05.svg
Everstiluutnantti
Överstelöjtnant
Lieutenant colonel FIN-everstiluutnantti Everstiluutnantti M05.svg
Majuri
Major
Major Majuri kauluslaatta Majuri M05.svg
Kapteeni
Kapten
Captain Kapteeni kauluslaatta Kapteeni M05.svg
Yliluutnantti
Premiärlöjtnant
1st lieutenant Yliluutnantti kauluslaatta Yliluutnantti M05.svg
Luutnantti
Löjtnant
Lieutenant Luutnantti kauluslaatta Luutnantti M05.svg
Vänrikki
Fänrik
2nd lieutenant Vänrikki kauluslaatta Vänrikki M05.svg
Non-commissioned officers
Sotilasmestari
Militärmästare
Sergeant major Sotilasmestari kauluslaatta Sotilasmestari M05.svg
Ylivääpeli
Överfältväbel
Master sergeant Ylivääpeli kauluslaatta Ylivääpeli M05.svg
Vääpeli
Fältväbel
Sergeant 1st class Vääpeli kauluslaatta Vääpeli M05.svg
Ylikersantti
Översergeant
Staff sergeant Ylikersantti kauluslaatta Ylikersantti M05.svg
Kersantti
Sergeant
Sergeant Kersantti kauluslaatta Kersantti M05.svg
Alikersantti
Undersergeant
Corporal Alikersantti kauluslaatta Alikersantti M05.svg
Rank-and-file
Korpraali
Korpral
Private 1st Class Korpraali kauluslaatta Korpraali M05.svg
Sotamies
(Soldat)
Private Sotamies kauluslaatta Sotamies M05.svg

Navy operational ranks

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
Finland Finland
(Edit)
No equivalent Amiraali hihalaatta.svg Vara-amiraali hihalaatta.svg Kontra-amiraali hihalaatta.svg Lippueamiraali hihalaatta.svg Kommodori hihalaatta.svg Komentaja hihalaatta.svg Komentajakapteeni hihalaatta.svg Kapteeniluutnantti hihalaatta.svg Yliluutnantti l hihalaatta.svg Luutnantti l hihalaatta.svg Aliluutnantti hihalaatta.svg Upseerikokelas l hihalaatta.svg Upseerioppilas l hihalaatta.svg
Amiraali Vara-amiraali Kontra-amiraali Lippueamiraali Kommodori Komentaja Komentajakapteeni Kapteeniluutnantti Yliluutnantti Luutnantti Aliluutnantti Upseerikokelas Upseerioppilas
Finland Finland
(Edit)
Sotilasmestari l hihalaatta.svg Ylipursimies hihalaatta.svg Pursimies hihalaatta.svg Ylikersantti l hihalaatta.svg Kersantti l hihalaatta.svg Alikersantti l hihalaatta.svg No equivalent Ylimatruusi hihalaatta.svg Matruusi hihalaatta.svg
Sotilasmestari Militärmästare Ylipursimies Överbåtsman Pursimies Båtsman Ylikersantti Översergeant Kersantti Sergeant Alikersantti Undersergeant Ylimatruusi Övermatros Matruusi Matros
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Officers Translation Shoulder insignia Sleeve insignia
Amiraali
Amiral
Admiral Amiraali olkalaatta Amiraali hihalaatta.svg
Vara-amiraali
Viceamiral
Vice admiral Vara-amiraali olkalaatta Vara-amiraali hihalaatta.svg
Kontra-amiraali
Konteramiral
Counter admiral Kontra-amiraali olkalaatta Kontra-amiraali hihalaatta.svg
Lippueamiraali
Flottiljamiral
Commodore Lippueamiraali olkalaatta Lippueamiraali hihalaatta.svg
Kommodori
Kommodor
Captain (navy) Kommodori olkalaatta Kommodori hihalaatta.svg
Komentaja
Kommendör
Commander Komentaja olkalaatta Komentaja hihalaatta.svg
Komentajakapteeni
Kommendörkapten
Lieutenant commander Komentajakapteeni olkalaatta Komentajakapteeni hihalaatta.svg
Kapteeniluutnantti
Kaptenlöjtnant
Captain lieutenant Kapteeniluutnantti olkalaatta Kapteeniluutnantti hihalaatta.svg
Yliluutnantti
Premiärlöjtnant
Senior Lieutenant Yliluutnantti olkalaatta Yliluutnantti l hihalaatta.svg
Luutnantti
Löjtnant
Lieutenant, Jr. grade Luutnantti olkalaatta Luutnantti l hihalaatta.svg
Aliluutnantti
Underlöjtnant
Ensign Aliluutnantti olkalaatta Aliluutnantti hihalaatta.svg


Petty officers
Sotilasmestari
Militärmästare
Master chief petty officer Sotilasmestari l hihalaatta.svg
Ylipursimies
Överbåtsman
Senior chief petty officer Ylipursimies hihalaatta.svg
Pursimies
Båtsman
Chief petty officer Pursimies hihalaatta.svg
Ylikersantti
Översergeant
Petty officer, 1st class Ylikersantti l hihalaatta.svg
Kersantti
Sergeant
Petty officer, 2nd class Kersantti l hihalaatta.svg
Alikersantti
Undersergeant
Petty officer, 3rd class Alikersantti l hihalaatta.svg
Rank-and-file
Ylimatruusi
Övermatros
Seaman Ylimatruusi hihalaatta.svg
Matruusi
Matros
Seaman apprentice Matruusi hihalaatta.svg

Army training ranks

Rank Translation Equivalent rank Collar insignia M/05 field insignia
Kadetti
Kadet
Cadet Senior to 2nd lieutenant Kadetti-kauluslaatta
Upseerikokelas
Officersaspirant
Officer candidate Senior to conscript sergeant Upseerikokelas kauluslaatta Upseerikokelas M05.svg
Upseerioppilas
Officerselev
Officer student Senior to conscript corporal Upseerioppilas kauluslaatta Upseerioppilas M05.svg
Aliupseerioppilas
Underofficerselev
NCO student Private 1st class Sotamies kauluslaatta Aliupseerioppilas M05.svg

Navy training ranks

Rank Translation Equivalent rank Shoulder insignia Sleeve insignia
Kadetti
Kadet
Cadet Senior to ensign 1. vuosikurssin merikadetin hiha-arvomerkki.png
Upseerikokelas
Officersaspirant
Officer candidate Senior to conscript petty officer, 2nd class Upseerikokelas l hihalaatta.svg
Upseerioppilas
Officerselev
Officer student Petty officer, 3rd class Upseerioppilas l hihalaatta.svg
Aliupseerioppilas
Underofficerselev
NCO student Seaman apprentice Aliupseerioppilas l hihalaatta.svg

Personnel groups

The military personnel of the Finnish Defence Forces is divided into three groups:[3]

  • command personnel (päällystö)
  • junior command personnel (alipäällystö)
  • rank and file (miehistö)

Ranks sotamies and korpraali comprise the rank-and-file (miehistö). Soldiers in the rank of a private always have a branch or service specific title such as tykkimies "gunner" or matruusi, "seaman apprentice"; the non-specific rank of sotamies is no longer in use (see below). The NCO students rank as privates until they are promoted to the rank of Colonel.

The junior command personnel are formed from the professional or reserve NCOs and conscripts serving in ranks of corporal, officer student, sergeant or officer candidate or their naval equivalents. However, by regulation, all professional servicemen outrank conscripts.

The command personnel is formed of commissioned officers, commissioned officer specialists, warrant officers (opistoupseeri) and cadets.

Reservists belong to the personnel group determined by their military rank, but hold the position in the chain of command only from the moment they report to duty (or should have reported to duty) to the moment they have been discharged and have left the military installation. Unlike conscripts, the reservists rank with the professional military personnel without prejudice. The highest rank available to reserve officers is major, and in exceptional cases, lieutenant colonel.

Insignia

Alikersantti rintalaatta 20180604
Corporal

The insignia is different from other European systems by some features. Stars are not used in the insignia. Large roses, instead of oak leaves, denote ranks from major to colonel. Generals wear lions (Lion of Finland), not stars. The qualifiers yli "Senior" and ali "Junior" are used in the names of some ranks; for example, kersantti is "Sergeant", while alikersantti is "Junior Sergeant" (Corporal).

In the army the insignia are placed in the collar in parade and service uniforms M/58 and M/83 and in field uniforms M/62 and M/91. The airforce places the M/58 insignia on the sleeve instead of the collar. In the navy where they have different parade dress they place the ranks on the sleeve and they also have the M/83 insignia on the shoulders. If the insignia are placed on the arm or on the sleeve, sleeve insignia are used. In the modern field uniform M/05, the collar insignia are placed on the chest. The colours of the background and the lining on the Army and Air Force collar patches indicate branch of specialization. In field uniforms, the collar patches do not carry branch colours, borders or corner accents. The national flag is carried in all uniforms and the unit insignia on background of the serviceman's branch colour is carried on the arm in battledress M/91 and M/05. However, conscripts' field uniforms may omit all insignia except the rank markings. In the table above, the army insignia for ranks from Private to Major are depicted on infantry collar patches, with the exception of Officer Student, which features Reserve Officer School collar patches. General officers' collar patches are most often gold on red. However, in some cases, the background of the collar patch retains the original colour of his branch of service.

In the Navy uniform, officers and Warrant officers wear the Lion of Finland on the top of their insignia, while Non-commissioned officers use the special insignia of their duty branch. In field uniforms, these emblems are dropped. Specialist officers always wear their specialist insignia in addition to their rank insignia on the collar patches. On sleeve and shoulder insignia, the specialty is denoted by coloured insignia background.

The NCO students do not wear any collar insignia. Their sole rank insignia consists of a silver line worn on the shoulder or arm of all uniforms, except in M/05 where the silver line is worn on the chest.

Exceptions

General officers

Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Marshal of Finland.

The ranks of field marshal (sotamarsalkka) and Marshal of Finland (Suomen marsalkka) were bestowed on Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim in 1933 and 1942, respectively. These are officially not military ranks but honorific titles, but were used like military ranks senior to the rank of general. The insignia used was a general's insignia added with crossed marshal's baton.

All generals from brigadier general to general are addressed as "Mr./Mrs. General"("herra/rouva kenraali"), and similarly for admirals.

Historical honorary titles

The rank of general may, as a sign of special recognition, include a service branch: those historically used were general of infantry (jalkaväenkenraali), general of cavalry (ratsuväenkenraali) and general of artillery (tykistökenraali). These additions do not affect seniority. There are no living general officers with such recognition, the last one being General of Infantry Adolf Ehrnrooth (1905–2004).

Personnel who fought in the Finnish Jaegers of the German Army during World War I are often referred to as such, e.g. jääkärieversti "Jaeger colonel".

Military civil servants and specialist officers

Personnel serving in technical duties belonging to the officers without officer training hold the position of military civil servant (sotilasvirkamies). Their rank is comparable to either first lieutenant, lieutenant and staff sergeant, depending on the level of the civilian education required to serve in this position. The lowest class is reserved for non-salaried military civil servants. Usually the military civil servants are an exception as their positions are likely to be filled by special officers, who have received officer training and hold commissions in addition to civilian academic education. The most typical specialties are engineering and medicine. Civilian interpreters hired for UN peace keeping missions abroad are typically ranked as first lieutenant or lieutenant, according to their civilian education level.

Reservists may be promoted up to the rank of major both in special and normal officer ranks, if they show extraordinary commitment to national defence. In rare cases, reservists have been promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel.

Chaplains serve in the ranks of chaplain (sotilaspastori), senior chaplain (kenttärovasti, literally, "field dean"), and chaplain general (kenttäpiispa, literally, "field bishop"), corresponding to the ranks of captain, lieutenant colonel, and brigadier general, respectively. In addition, they have a personal rank into which they revert at the end of their clerical service in the Finnish Defence Force. Conscript chaplains and deacons serve in their personal rank.[4]

Officer training

Conscripts who have passed a reserve officer course, serve as officer candidates (upseerikokelas) and are considered NCOs ranking always above conscript sergeants but below any career personnel.[5] They are addressed rouva/herra kokelas or rouva/herra upseerikokelas. At the end of their service period, they are promoted to second lieutenants.

Cadets (kadetti) are career military who have already passed their conscription and obtained the reserve officer's training and are now attending their professional officer education in the National Defence University. Cadets are senior to second lieutenants. In addition, the cadets may hold a cadet NCO rank which pertains to the seniority inside the Cadet Corps but does not affect their ranks in relation to other military personnel.

NCO ranks

The NCO ranks in the Finnish Defence Force are filled by conscripts, career NCOs and contractual military personnel. The basic NCO rank "professional military person" (sotilasammattihenkilö) was abolished in 2006. It was position reserved for career NCOs who had not received conscript NCO training. Its relation to other rank and file ranks was unspecified. Career NCOs usually serve in the ranks of sergeant major, master sergeant, sergeant first class, staff sergeant and sergeant

The contractual military personnel (sopimussotilaat) serve in their reserve ranks. Until 2007, reserve officers served in the rank of staff sergeant. This practice has now been abolished and nowadays reserve officers use their reserve rank. As conscript, contractual and career NCOs may serve in the rank of sergeant, career NCO sergeants use a small sword insignia in conjunction of the chevrons to distinguish them from conscript and contractual sergeants.

After discharge from the military, both career NCOs and contractual military personnel revert to their personal reserve ranks. The conscripts may hold the NCO rank of officer cadet, sergeant, officer student, or corporal. Reserve personnel may hold any NCO rank.

Special positions

There are some positions, which resemble military ranks in their name, but are not. The position of the "sergeant major of a company" (or other unit such as battery in artillery) is called komppanianvääpeli "sergeant first class of the company". In past times it was the position of the unit's most senior career NCO, but nowadays the post is held often by someone from sergeant up to senior lieutenant in training units, or by a conscript NCO (alikersantti, kersantti etc.) in mobilized units. Another example is komendantti, which is not a rank but a security/executive officer position in a brigade. While the rank of komentaja is found in the navy, in general use it refers to a commander of a battalion or a larger unit.

Privates

Sotamies is the generic rank for private, however the rank of sotamies, as such, is no longer used in any service branch. The rank is always given the name specific to the service branch:

  • Jaeger (jääkäri) in infantry (including mortar personnel, who may be subordinated to artillery units)
  • Signalist (viestimies) in signals corps
  • Armourman (panssarimies) in tank units and armour jaeger (panssarijääkäri) in mechanised infantry
  • Driver (autosotamies) in transport corps
  • Gunner (tykkimies) in anti-aircraft corps, field artillery and coastal units of the navy
  • NBC private (suojelumies) in NBC defence units
  • Engineer (pioneeri) in engineers
  • Airman (lentosotamies) in the air force
  • Seaman (matruusi) in the navy
  • Coastal jaeger (rannikkojääkäri) in certain units of Uusimaa Brigade (Uudenmaan prikaati)
  • Dragoon (rakuuna) in the Dragoon Squadron of Army Warfare School (Rakuunaeskadroona/Maasotakoulu) - This squadron was disbanded in December 2016
  • Cavalryman (ratsumies) in the Häme Regiment (Hämeen rykmentti) – This regiment was disbanded in December 2014.
  • Guard jaeger (kaartinjääkäri) in Guard Jaeger Regiment (Kaartin jääkärirykmentti)
  • Border jaeger (rajajääkäri) in the border guards (conscript rank, enlisted border guard personnel are NCOs in ranks of border guard (nuorempi rajavartija, sergeant), senior border guard (vanhempi rajavartija, between staff sergeant and sergeant first class), border guard sergeant (ylirajavartija, between sergeant first class and master sergeant) and border guard master sergeant (rajavartiomestari).)

Roughly 10 percent of all privates are promoted to the rank of private 1st class (Korpraali) during their service. In comparison, non-commissioned officer students (Aliupseerioppilas) hold either the permanent rank of private or private 1st class and rank accordingly. The rank of alokas is used to denote privates in basic training. The recruit, alokas is a new private, who has not been trained enough to have given a military oath or military guarantee. After having given an oath or such guarantee, the private soldier is not called anymore alokas, but he or she will be addressed as private or corresponding private level military rank.

Paratroop jaeger (laskuvarjojääkäri) and Special jaeger (erikoisjääkäri) in Utti Jaeger Regiment (Utin jääkärirykmentti) and Special border jaeger (erikoisrajajääkäri) in Special Border Jaeger Company of Border and Coast Guard School (Raja- ja merivartiokoulu) are not ranks, but specializations, where NCO training is given and thus each graduate is at minimum alikersantti.

Historically, the rank of sotamies was used in generic infantry units, while the rank of jaeger was used in specific jaeger battalions, which derived their traditions from the Jäger Movement.

References

  1. ^ Laki puolustusvoimista 11.5.2007/551, 38 §, 40 §
  2. ^ http://www.puolustusvoimat.fi/wcm/20f2ae804718c5dcb3dfb3786bf3619b/Opas+variusmiespalvelus+englanninkielinen+2015+22012015.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
  3. ^ Yleinen palvelusohjesääntö 2009. (General regulation 2009). Ch. 2.2. Finnish Defence Forces. ISBN 978-951-25-1984-2. (in Finnish).
  4. ^ http://www.anglican.fi/refresher-training-as-navy-chaplain/
  5. ^ Yleinen palvelusohjesääntö 2009. (General regulations 2009). Section 30. Finnish Defence Forces 2009. ISBN 978-951-25-1984-2.

External links

Alikersantti

Alikersantti (Undersergeant in Swedish) is the lowest Finnish non-commissioned officer military rank. Alikersantti is one rank above a Korpraali (Lance-Corporal) and one below a Kersantti (Sergeant). A holder of this rank is typically a squad leader, assistant squad leader, gun section leader or a fighting vehicle commander.

Brigadgeneral

Brigadgeneral is an officer's rank in Sweden and Finland, immediately above Överste and below Generalmajor. Sweden: The rank was introduced in 2000 to replace the old rank of Överste av 1:a graden (Colonel 1st Class). It is translated officially by the Swedish Army to Brigadier General. However, almost all officers in this rank do not command brigades, regiments or battalions; but take up senior tasks related to administration, staff, education, planning. Each of the (F)HQ units available (see Swedish Armed Forces) supports a unit which is commanded by a Brigadgeneral

Finnish Defence Forces

The Finnish Defence Forces (Finnish: Puolustusvoimat, Swedish: Försvarsmakten) are responsible for the defence of Finland. A universal male conscription is in place, under which all men above 18 years of age serve for 165, 255, or 347 days. Alternative non-military service for all men, and volunteer service for all women are possible.

Finland is the only non-NATO European Union state bordering Russia. Finland's official policy states that a wartime military strength of 280,000 personnel constitutes a sufficient deterrent. The army consists of a highly mobile field army backed up by local defence units. The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the heavily forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier.

Finland's defence budget equals approximately €3.1 billion or 1.3% of GDP. The voluntary overseas service is highly popular and troops serve around the world in UN, NATO and EU missions. Homeland defence willingness against a superior enemy is at 76%, one of the highest rates in Europe.In war time the Finnish Border Guard (which is its own military unit in peacetime) will become part of the Finnish Defence Forces.

Fältväbel

Vääpeli is a Finnish and former Swedish military rank above Ylikersantti and below Ylivääpeli. The rank is derived from the German rank Feldwebel and was used as a rank in the Landsknecht (15th and 16th century) for the one who was responsible for aligning troops during battle.

Fänrik

Fänrik (Swedish: [ˈfɛnrɪk]) and vänrikki (Finnish: [ˈʋænrikːi]), both from the German Fähnrich, are a Swedish and Finnish military rank. A typical assignment for a professional Fänrik is as junior instructor of recruits. In Finland, the rank vänrikki is used in active service by reserve officers who remain in service as for 6-to-12-months-long additional term to serve as sopimussotilas. In addition, it is the lowest reserve officer rank. Finnish Defence Forces rank of Vänrikki is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-1.

General (Sweden)

General, Finnish: kenraali is the highest officer's rank in Sweden and Finland. In Sweden, it is held by the Supreme Commander (Swedish: överbefälhavare) of the Swedish Armed Forces and the monarch. In Finland, it is held by the Chief of Defence. In Sweden, the monarch still holds the nominal rank of General as well as Admiral and General of the Air Force.

Finnish Defence Forces rank of kenraali is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-9.

Generallöjtnant

Generallöjtnant is an officer's rank in Sweden and Finland, immediately above Generalmajor and below General. In Sweden, the rank is translated as lieutenant general. The Director, Joint Staff of Armed Forces Headquarters, the Director of Operations and the Director of Production hold this rank.

Finnish Defence Forces rank of Kenraaliluutnantti is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-8

Generalmajor (Sweden)

Generalmajor is an officer's rank in Sweden and Finland, immediately above Brigadgeneral and below Generallöjtnant.

Finnish Defence Forces rank of Kenraalimajuri is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-7

Kadett

Kadett corresponds to Cadet in English and is a term used in Sweden to denote officer candidates studying in order to become an officer.

There are basically two ways to become officer as described below.

Kapten

Kapten (Kapteeni in Finnish) (From the Latin word capitaneus meaning head man or chief) is a professional and conscripted military rank in Sweden obtained by employed military personnel after one year as löjtnannt and completing a 40-week course (Note. It is no longer possible for conscripts to obtain the rank); Finland and Estonia, immediately above Löjtnant in Sweden and Yliluutnantti in Finland and just below Major in the Army ranks. In the Navy, the rank is immediately above Löjtnant and just below Örlogskapten.

Finnish Defence Forces rank of Kapteeni is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-2.

Lozenge

A lozenge (◊), often referred to as a diamond, is a form of rhombus. The definition of lozenge is not strictly fixed, and it is sometimes used simply as a synonym (from the French losange) for rhombus. Most often, though, lozenge refers to a thin rhombus—a rhombus with two acute and two obtuse angles, especially one with acute angles of 45°. The lozenge shape is often used in parquetry (with acute angles that are 360°/n with n being an integer higher than 4, because they can be used to form set of tiles of the same shape and size, reusable to cover the plane in various geometric patterns as the result of a tiling process called tessellation in mathematics) and as decoration on ceramics, silverware and textiles. It also features in heraldry and playing cards.

Löjtnant

Löjtnant (from French lieutenant) is a Swedish and Finnish military rank (in Finnish, luutnantti). In Sweden, it is a Swedish professional, reserve and conscripted military rank, immediately above Fänrik and just below kapten.

In Sweden, the professional rank is obtained after two years as Fänrik.

Finnish Defence Forces rank of Luutnantti is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-1.

Major (Sweden)

Major (Majuri in Finnish) is a military officer's rank in Sweden and Finland, ranking above Kapten and below Överstelöjtnant. Swedish Kapten(s) are promoted to the rank after the completion of a 40-week course at the National Defense College.Finnish Defence Forces rank of Majuri is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-3.

Sergeant (Sweden and Finland)

Sergeant (kersantti in Finnish) is a Swedish and Finnish military rank above korpral in Sweden and alikersantti in Finland; and below förste sergeant in Sweden and Ylikersantti in Finland.

Sweden

Sergeant is a rank given to contracted personnel. Holders of the rank generally serve as squad leaders or deputy squad leaders (6-8 men).

Finland

contracted NCOs usually start from sergeant, in infantry platoons sergeants may serve as squad leaders (6-8 men), deputy platoon commanders (~30 men) or rarely even a platoon commanders, or at company level as Company Sergeant Majors.

Sotilasmestari

Sotilasmestari (Militärmästare in Swedish, Chief Warrant Officer or Sergeant Major in English) is a Finnish military rank above Ylivääpeli (Överfältväbel) and below Vänrikki (Fänrik).

Vicekorpral

Vicekorpral (Vicekonstapel in the artillery) is a Swedish rank above Menig and below Korpral that existed until 1972 as a trainee rank for conscripts who were undertaking training to become deputy squad leaders or squad leaders.

The rank was reintroduced 2009 to denote soldiers at OR-3 level.

Ylivääpeli

Ylivääpeli (Överfältväbel in Swedish) is a Finnish military rank above Vääpeli (Fältväbel) and below Sotilasmestari

(Militärmästare).

Överste

Överste (eversti in Finnish) is an officer rank in Finland and Sweden, immediately above överstelöjtnant (everstiluutnantti) and below brigadgeneral (prikaatikenraali). It literally means "the highest" and has originally been a rank for regiment commanders. In Finland, brigades are also commanded by holders of this rank. It is the highest rank below general officers.

Finnish Defense Forces rank of Eversti is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-5

Överstelöjtnant

Överstelöjtnant (Everstiluutnantti in Finnish) is an officer's rank in Finland and Sweden, immediately above Major (Majuri) and just below Överste (Eversti). Majors who completes a two year management course at the National Defense college in Sweden are promoted to the rank.

Finnish Defence Forces rank of Everstiluutnantti is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-4

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