Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is an English-language international daily newspaper owned by Nikkei Inc, headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, and merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News (which had been founded in 1884).

The Financial Times has more than 942,000 "paid-for" users (as of November 2018) and over 740,000[2] digital subscribers.

On 23 July 2015, Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m ($1.32 billion)[3] and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015.[4]

Financial Times
Financial Times masthead
Financial-Times-29-December-2010
The front page of the Financial Times on 29 December 2010
FormatBroadsheet
Owner(s)Nikkei Inc.
EditorLionel Barber
Founded9 January 1888
Political alignmentGlobalism
Economic liberalism
HeadquartersOne Southwark Bridge, London, UK
CountryUnited Kingdom
Circulation185,747 (as of March 2018)[1]
ISSN0307-1766
Websitewww.ft.com

History

Financial Times 1888 front page
The front page of the Financial Times on 13 February 1888.

The FT was launched as the London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the Financial Times on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, and the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal. The readership was the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being the slightly older and more daring Financial News. On 2 January 1893 the FT began printing on light salmon-pink paper to distinguish it from the similarly named Financial News: at the time it was also cheaper to print on unbleached paper (several other more general newspapers such as The Sporting Times had the same policy), but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially.[5]

After 57 years of rivalry the Financial Times and the Financial News were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper. The Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the Financial News provided much of the editorial talent. The Lex column was also introduced from Financial News.[6]

Pearson bought the paper in 1957.[7] Over the years the paper grew in size, readership and breadth of coverage. It established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting a renewed impetus in the world economy towards globalisation. As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the FT began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first FT (Continental Europe edition) was printed outside the UK, in Frankfurt. Since then, with increased international coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U.S., Asia and the Middle East.[8]

The European edition is distributed in continental Europe and Africa. It is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the Euro and European corporate affairs.[9]

In 1994 FT launched a luxury lifestyle magazine, How To Spend It. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine.[10]

On 13 May 1995 the Financial Times group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, which was supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage; the second-generation site was launched in spring 1996. The site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. FT introduced subscription services in 2002.[11] FT.com is one of the few UK news sites successfully funded by individual subscription.

Financial Times building One Southwark Bridge
The London offices of the Financial Times at One Southwark Bridge (2013).

In 1997 the FT launched a U.S. edition, printed in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Dallas, Atlanta, Orlando and Washington, D.C., although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the FT became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK.

In 2000 the Financial Times started publishing a German-language edition, Financial Times Deutschland, with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg. Its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was originally a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner + Jahr. In January 2008 the FT sold its 50% stake to its German partner.[12] FT Deutschland never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years. It closed on 7 December 2012.[13][14]

The Financial Times launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. FT fund management (FTfm) was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title.[15]

Since 2005 the FT has sponsored the annual ''Financial Times'' and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award.[16]

On 23 April 2007 the FT unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times."[17]

In 2007 the FT pioneered a metered paywall, which lets visitors to its site read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay.[18] Four years later the FT launched its HTML5 mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 12% of subscriptions and 19% of traffic to FT.com.[19] In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the FT drew almost half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising.[20][21]

Since 2010 the FT has been available on Bloomberg Terminal.[22]

Since 2013 the FT has been available on Wisers platform.[23]

In 2016, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Alpha Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and production of quality branded content across a range of channels, including broadcast, video, digital, social and events. [24]

In 2018, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Longitude, a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a multinational corporate and institutional client base. [25] This investment builds on the Financial Times’ recent growth in several business areas, including branded content via the acquisition of Alpha Grid, and conferences and events through Financial Times Live and extends the FT's traditional commercial offering into a wider set of integrated services.

Wirecard controversy

After negative Financial Times reports about the German financial company Wirecard and coincidential accumulated short sales of Wirecard shares, the Public prosecutor's office Munich I in February 2019 launched criminal investigations against the Financial Times journalist Dan McCrum because of alleged violations of the German Securities Trading Act (Wertpapierhandelsgesetz, WpHG).[26]

Audience

Financial Times dispenser W.H. Smith Euston Station
Financial Times dispenser, London

According to the Global Capital Markets Survey, which measures readership habits amongst most senior financial decision makers in the world's largest financial institutions, the Financial Times is considered the most important business read, reaching 36% of the sample population, 11% more than The Wall Street Journal (WSJ), its main rival. The Economist, which was once 50% owned by FT, reaches 32%. FT's The Banker also proved vital reading, reaching 24%.[27] In addition FT was regarded as the most credible publication in reporting financial and economic issues among the Worldwide Professional Investment Community audience. The Economist was also rated the third most credible title by most influential professional investors (those who personally managed asset funds worth $5 billion or more), while the WSJ was second.[28]

Content

The FT is split into two sections. The first section covers domestic and international news, editorial commentary on politics and economics from FT journalists such as Martin Wolf, Gillian Tett and Edward Luce, and opinion pieces from globally renowned leaders, policymakers, academics and commentators. The second section consists of financial data and news about companies and markets. Despite being generally regarded as primarily a financial newspaper, it does also contain TV listings, weather and other more informal articles.

About 110 of its 475 journalists are outside the UK.

The Lex column

The Lex column is a daily feature on the back page of the first section. It features analyses and opinions covering global economics and finance. The FT calls Lex its agenda-setting column. The column first appeared on Monday, 1 October 1945. The name may originally have stood for Lex Mercatoria, a Latin expression meaning literally "merchant law". It was conceived by Hargreaves Parkinson for the Financial News in the 1930s and moved to the Financial Times when the two merged.

Lex boasts some distinguished alumni who have gone on to make careers in business and government – including Nigel Lawson (former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer), Richard Lambert (CBI director and former member of the Bank of England's monetary policy committee), Martin Taylor (former chief executive of Barclays), John Makinson (chairman and chief executive of Penguin), John Gardiner (former chairman of Tesco), David Freud (former UBS banker and Labour adviser, now a Conservative peer), John Kingman (former head of UKFI and a banker at Rothschild's), George Graham (RBS banker), Andrew Balls (head of European portfolio management at PIMCO) and Jo Johnson (Conservative Member of Parliament for Orpington).[29]

FT Weekend

The FT publishes a Saturday edition of the newspaper called the Financial Times Weekend. It consists of international economic and political news, Companies & Markets, Life & Arts, House & Home and FT Magazine.

How to Spend It

How to Spend It is a monthly magazine published with FT Weekend. Founded and launched by Julia Carrick[30] with Lucia van der Post as founding editor,[31] its articles concern luxury goods such as yachts, mansions, apartments, horlogerie, haute couture and automobiles, as well as fashion and columns by individuals in the arts, gardening, food, and hotel and travel industries. How to Spend It started in 1967 as a one-page consumer goods feature in the newspaper, which was edited by Sheila Black, a former actor and FT’s first female journalist.[32] To celebrate its 15th anniversary, FT launched the on-line version of this publication, Howtospendit.com on 3 October 2009.[31]

Some media commentators were taken aback by the online launch of a website supporting conspicuous consumption during the financial austerity of the late-2000s recession.[31] The magazine has been derided in rival publishers' blogs, as "repellent" in the Telegraph[33] and "a latter-day Ab Fab manual" in the Guardian.[34] A 'well-thumbed' copy of the supplement was found when rebel forces broke into Colonel Gaddafi's Tripoli compound during the 2011 Libyan Civil War.[35]

Editorial stance

The FT advocates free markets[36] and is in favour of globalisation, as well as globalist policies.

During the 1980s it supported Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan's monetarist policies.[37][38] It has supported the UK Labour Party in the past, including at the general election in 1992 when Neil Kinnock was Labour leader.

The FT's editorials tend to be europhilic, supporting the European Union (including Britain's membership thereof) in the context of a common economic market and opposing political integration.[39][40] The FT was firmly opposed to the Iraq War.[39]

In the general election in the UK in 2010 the FT was receptive to the Liberal Democrats' positions on civil liberties and political reform, and praised the then Labour leader Gordon Brown for his response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, but on balance it backed the Conservatives while questioning their tendency to Euroscepticism.[41]

At the subsequent general election in 2015, the FT called for the continuation of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition that had governed for the previous five years.[42]

In the 2017 UK general election a Financial Times editorial reluctantly backed Theresa May (Conservative Party) over Jeremy Corbyn (Labour Party) while warning about her stance on immigration and the eurosceptic elements in her party.[43]

U.S. politics

In the U.S. presidential election in 2008 the Financial Times endorsed Barack Obama. While it raised concerns over hints of protectionism, it praised his ability to "engage the country's attention," his calls for a bipartisan politics, and his plans for "comprehensive health-care reform".[44] The FT favoured Obama again in 2012.[45] The FT endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U.S. presidential election.[46]

Ownership and related publications

The Financial Times Group, a division of Pearson PLC since 1957, was sold in July 2015 to the Japanese company Nikkei for £844m.[47] Until August 2015 the FT group had a 50% shareholding in The Economist, which was sold to the Agnelli family for £469 million.[48]

Related publications include the Financial Times, FT.com, FT Search Inc., the publishing imprint FT Press and numerous joint ventures. In November 2013 it agreed to sell Mergermarket, an online intelligence reporting business, to the London private equity investor BC Partners.[49] In addition, the FT Group has a unit called FT Business, which is a provider of specialist information on retail, personal and institutional finance segments. It publishes The Banker, Money Management and Financial Adviser (a publication targeted at professional advisers), This Is Africa, fDi intelligence and Professional Wealth Management (PWM).[50]

The Financial Times Group announced the beta launch of newssift,[51] part of FT Search, in March 2009. Newssift.com is a next-generation search tool for business professionals that indexes millions of articles from thousands of global business news sources, not just the FT. The Financial Times Group acquired Money Media[52] (an online news and commentary site for the industry) and Exec-Appointments[53] (an online recruitment specialist site for the executive jobs market). The FT Group once had a 13.85% stake in Business Standard Ltd of India, the publisher of the Business Standard. It sold this stake in April 2008 and has entered into an agreement with Network 18 to launch the Financial Times in India,[54][55] though it is speculated that they may find it difficult to do so, as the brand 'Financial Times' in India is owned by The Times Group,[56] the publisher of The Times of India and The Economic Times. The group also publishes America's Intelligence Wire, a daily general newswire service.[57]

The Financial Times' Financial Publishing division (formerly FT Business) provides print and online content for retail, personal and institutional finance audiences. Examples of publications and services include: Investors Chronicle, a personal finance magazine and website; "FT Money", a weekly personal finance supplement in "FT Weekend"; FT Wealth, a magazine for the global high-net-worth community and FTfm, a weekly review of the global fund management industry, Money Management and Financial Adviser (a publication targeted at professional advisers). The institutional segment includes: The Banker, This Is Africa, fDi Intelligence and Professional Wealth Management (PWM).[58] Money-Media, a separate arm of Financial Publishing, delivers a range of digital information services for fund management professionals around the globe, including: Ignites, Ignites Europe, Ignites Asia, FundFire and BoardIQ. Financial Publishing includes publications (Pensions Expert and Deutsche Pensions & Investmentnachrichten) and events (Investment Expert) for the European pensions industry. The group also publishes MandateWire, a financial information company that provides sales and market intelligence for investment professionals in North America, Europe and Asia.[50]

FT Knowledge is an associated company which offers educational products and services. FT Knowledge has offered the "Introducing the City" course (which is a series of Wednesday night lectures and seminars, as well as weekend events) during each autumn and spring since 2000.

FT Predict is a prediction market contest hosted by the Financial Times that allows users to buy and sell contracts based on future financial, political, and news-driven events by spending fictional Financial Times Dollars (FT$). Based on the assumptions displayed in James Surowiecki's The Wisdom of Crowds, this contest allows people to use prediction markets to observe future occurrences while competing for weekly and monthly prizes.

The Financial Times also ran a business-related game called "In the Pink" (a phrase meaning "in good health", also a reference to the colour of the newspaper and to the phrase "in the red" meaning to be making a loss). Each player was put in the virtual role of Chief Executive and the goal was to have the highest profit when the game closes. The winner of the game (the player who makes the highest profit) was to receive a real monetary prize of £10,000. The game ran from 1 May to 28 June 2006.

Indices

The Financial Times collates and publishes a number of financial market indices, which reflect the changing value of their constituent parts. The longest-running of these was the former Financial News Index, started on 1 July 1935 by the Financial News. The FT published a similar index; this was replaced by the Financial News Index—which was then renamed the Financial Times (FT) Index—on 1 January 1947. The index started as an index of industrial shares, and companies with dominant overseas interests were excluded, such as the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (later BP), British-American Tobacco, Lever Brothers (later Unilever) and Shell. The oil and financial sectors were included decades later.[59]

The FTSE All-Share Index, the first of the FTSE series of indices, was created in 1962, comprising the largest 594 UK companies by market capitalisation.[59] The letters F-T-S-E represented that FTSE was a joint venture between the Financial Times (F-T) and the London Stock Exchange (S-E). On 13 February 1984 the FTSE 100 was introduced, representing about eighty percent of the London Stock Exchange's value.[59] In 1995 FTSE Group was made an independent company. The first of several overseas offices was opened in New York City in 1999; Paris followed in early 2000, Hong Kong, Frankfurt and San Francisco in 2001, Madrid in 2002 and Tokyo in 2003.

Other well-known FTSE indices include the FTSE 350 Index, the FTSE SmallCap Index, the FTSE AIM UK 50 Index and FTSE AIM 100 Index as well as the FTSE AIM All-Share Index for stocks, and the FTSE UK Gilt Indices for government bonds.

People

Lionel Barber speech
Editor Lionel Barber speaking at the newspaper's 125th anniversary party in London, 2013
  • Lionel Barber (Editor) (1 January 2006 – present)[60]
  • John Ridding (Chief Executive Officer)
  • James Lamont (Managing Editor)
  • Gillian Tett (Markets and Finance Columnist; US Managing Editor)
  • Roula Khalaf (Foreign Editor; Deputy Editor)
  • Angela Mackay (Global Publisher of FT Live and Managing Director of FT Asia Pacific)

In July 2006 the FT announced a "New Newsroom" project to integrate the newspaper more closely with FT.com. At the same time it announced plans to cut the editorial staff from 525 to 475. In August 2006 it announced that all the required job cuts had been achieved through voluntary layoffs.

A number of former FT journalists have gone on to high-profile jobs in journalism, politics and business. Robert Thomson, previously the paper's US managing editor, was the editor of The Times and is now the publisher of the Wall Street Journal. Will Lewis, a former New York correspondent and News Editor for the FT, is the current editor of the Daily Telegraph. Dominic Lawson went on to become editor of the Sunday Telegraph until he was sacked in 2005. Andrew Adonis, a former education correspondent, became an adviser on education to the then British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, and was given a job as an education minister and a seat in the House of Lords after the 2005 election. Ed Balls became chief economic adviser to the Treasury, working closely with Gordon Brown, the chancellor of the exchequer (or finance minister), before being elected a Member of Parliament in 2005, and became Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families in July 2007. Bernard Gray, a former defence correspondent and Lex columnist, was chief executive of the publishing company CMP before becoming chief executive of TSL Education, publisher of the Times Educational Supplement. David Jones, at one time the FT Night Editor, then became Head of IT. He was a key figure in the newspaper's transformation from hot metal to electronic composition and then onto full-page pagination in the 1990s. He went on to become Head of Technology for the Trinity Mirror Group.

Sir Geoffrey Owen was the editor of the Financial Times from 1981 to 1990. He joined the Centre for Economic Performance (CEP) at the London School of Economics as Director of Business Policy in 1991 and was appointed Senior Fellow, Institute of Management, in 1997. He continues his work there.[61] During his tenure at the FT he had to deal with rapid technological change and issues related to it, for example repetitive strain injury (RSI), which affected dozens of FT journalists, reporters and staff in the late 1980s.

Editors

1889: Douglas MacRae
1890: William Ramage Lawson
1892: Sydney Murray
1896: A. E. Murray
1909: C. H. Palmer
1924: D. S. T. Hunter
1937: Archibald Chisholm
1940: Albert George Cole
1945: Hargreaves Parkinson
1949: Sir Gordon Newton
1973: Fredy Fisher
1981: Sir Geoffrey Owen
1991: Richard Lambert
2001: Andrew Gowers
2006: Lionel Barber

See also

References

  1. ^ "Financial Times has reported in accordance with ABC's industry-agreed standards for National Newspapers". ABC.org.uk. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Financial Times Annual Results 2017". aboutus.ft.com. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  3. ^ "Financial Times sold to Nikkei by Pearson for £844m". BBC News.
  4. ^ "Nikkei completes acquisition of Financial Times". Nikkei.
  5. ^ "About the newspaper". ft.com. Financial Times. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  6. ^ "A brief history of the FT by David Kynaston, author of The Financial Times: A Centenary History" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  7. ^ "International Directory of Company Histories: Pearson plc History". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  8. ^ "FT's Media Kit: FT Heritage and Innovation". Fttoolkit.co.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  9. ^ "FT tour". Financialtimes.net. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  10. ^ "Financial Times launches How To Spend It online". Pearson. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  11. ^ "FT.com to launch improved website with new content and services for users, subscribers and advertisers". Pearson. 30 April 2002. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  12. ^ "Pearson to sell its FT Deutschland stake to Gruner + Jahr". Pearson. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  13. ^ Wiesmann, Gerrit (23 November 2012). "FT Deutschland closure date confirmed". Ft.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  14. ^ "So farewell then, FTD". Economist.com. 8 December 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  15. ^ "Financial Times to expand fund management coverage with new weekly supplement". Pearson. 28 January 2002. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  16. ^ "Why there is a need for this award". Financial Times. 10 April 2005. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  17. ^ "Financial Times unveils global refresh". Pearson. 23 April 2007. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  18. ^ "Special report: The news industry". Economist.com. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  19. ^ "FT Web App hits two million users". Aboutus.ft.com. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  20. ^ Barber, Lionel (12 February 2013). "FT at 125: The world in focus". Ft.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  21. ^ "Gillian Tett keynote remarks at the Knight-Bagehot 37th Anniversary Gala". Aboutus.ft.com. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  22. ^ "Financial Times now available on Bloomberg Professional". Pearson.com. 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  23. ^ "Financial Times launches on Wisers services". aboutus.ft.com.
  24. ^ "FT expands content marketing studio with majority stake in Alpha Grid".
  25. ^ "Financial Times acquires majority stake in research and content specialists Longitude".
  26. ^ Fall Wirecard: Staatsanwaltschaft ermittelt gegen einen Financial-Times-Journalisten. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 18. Februar 2019.
  27. ^ "Global Capital Markets Survey 2011". Gcmsurvey.com. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  28. ^ "Worldwide Professional Investment Community Study 2010". Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  29. ^ "About Lex". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 3 September 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  30. ^ "Julia Carrick". FT Conferences. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  31. ^ a b c Allen, Katie (2 October 2009). "How To Spend It goes online – FT lures advertisers into uncharted waters". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  32. ^ Beckett, Andy (19 July 2018). "How to Spend It: the shopping list for the 1%". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  33. ^ Oborne, Peter (11 August 2011). "The moral decay of our society is as bad at the top as the bottom". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  34. ^ Flynn, Paul (29 August 2011). "Why Absolutely Fabulous now looks absolutely prescient". Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  35. ^ Walker, Portia (11 August 2011). "Under the broken city, families explore Gaddafi's warren". The Independent. London. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  36. ^ "Too Big to Fail undermines the free market faith". Financial Times.
  37. ^ "Margaret Thatcher: Right about nearly everything". Financial Times.
  38. ^ "Demise of Reaganomics poses grave intellectual challenge to Republicans". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015.
  39. ^ a b Lionel Barber (12 February 2013). "FT at 125: The world in focus". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  40. ^ "Europe needs a bold reformer". FT.com. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  41. ^ "Financial Times backs Conservatives". Reuters. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  42. ^ "The case for change in the UK". Financial Times.
  43. ^ Subscribe to read. 'Election 2017: The safer bet of a Conservative vote'. The Financial Times. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  44. ^ "Obama is the better choice". Financial Times. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  45. ^ "Obama the wiser bet for crisis-hit US". Financial Times. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  46. ^ "FT endorsement: For all her weaknesses, Clinton is the best hope". Financial Times.
  47. ^ Plunkett, John; Martinson, Jane. "Financial Times sold to Japanese media group Nikkei for £844m". the Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  48. ^ "Pearson sells Economist Group stake". BBC News. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  49. ^ "Pearson agrees to sell Mergermarket unit to BC Partners". Financial Times. 29 November 2013.
  50. ^ a b "About Us". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  51. ^ "Newssift.com". Newssift.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  52. ^ "Money Media". Money Media. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
  53. ^ "Exec-Appointments". Exec-Appointments. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
  54. ^ Pearson to start a Business Daily in Indian market WSJ
  55. ^ FT sells Stake in Business Standard Archived 7 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Paidcontent.co.uk
  56. ^ "Financial Times looks to publish in India". Moneycontrol.com. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
  57. ^ Business and Company Resource Center, Gale Cengage Learning, 2009.
  58. ^ "About Us". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  59. ^ a b c The Stock Market, John Littlewood.
  60. ^ "New editor at the FINANCIAL TIMES" (PDF). Press Business (1). February 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  61. ^ "Directory of the Management Department at the London School of Economics". Lse.ac.uk. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.

External links

2008–09 Keynesian resurgence

Following the global financial crisis of 2007–08, there was a worldwide resurgence of interest in Keynesian economics among prominent economists and policy makers. This included discussions and implementation of economic policies in accordance with the recommendations made by John Maynard Keynes in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s—most especially fiscal stimulus and expansionary monetary policy.From the end of the Great Depression until the early 1970s, Keynesian economics provided the main inspiration for economic policy makers in Western industrialized countries. The influence of Keynes's theories waned in the 1970s, due to stagflation and critiques from Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman, Robert Lucas, Jr. and other economists, who were less optimistic about the ability of interventionist government policy to positively regulate the economy or otherwise opposed to Keynesian policies. From the early 1980s to 2008, the normative consensus among economists was that attempts at fiscal stimulus would be ineffective even in a recession, and such policies were only occasionally employed by the governments of developed countries.In 2008, a rapid shift of opinion took place among many prominent economists in favour of Keynesian stimulus, and, from October onward, policy makers began announcing major stimulus packages, in hopes of heading off the possibility of a global depression. By early 2009 there was widespread acceptance among the world's economic policy makers about the need for fiscal stimulus. Yet by late 2009 the consensus among economists began to break down. In 2010 with a depression averted but unemployment in many countries still high, policy makers generally decided against further fiscal stimulus, with several citing concerns over public debt as a justification. Unconventional monetary policy continued to be used in attempts to raise economic activity. By 2016, increasing concerns had arisen that monetary policy was reaching the limit of its effectiveness, and several countries began to return to fiscal stimulus.

ArcelorMittal

ArcelorMittal S.A. (French pronunciation: ​[aʁsəlɔʁmiˈtal]) is an Indian multinational steel manufacturing corporation headquartered in Luxembourg . It was formed in 2006 from the takeover and merger of Arcelor by Indian-owned Mittal Steel. ArcelorMittal is the world's largest steel producer, with an annual crude steel production of 98.1 million tons as of 2014. It is ranked 123 in the 2017 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations.

BAE Systems

BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company. Its headquarters are in London in the United Kingdom with operations worldwide. It is the largest defence contractor in Europe and among the world's largest defence companies; it was ranked as the third-largest based on applicable 2017 revenues. Its largest operations are in the United Kingdom and United States, where its BAE Systems Inc. subsidiary is one of the six largest suppliers to the US Department of Defense. Other major markets include Australia, India, and Saudi Arabia, which account for about 20% of BAE's overall sales. It is the biggest manufacturer in Britain. The company was formed on 30 November 1999 by the £7.7 billion merger of two British companies: Marconi Electronic Systems (MES) – the defence electronics and naval shipbuilding subsidiary of the General Electric Company plc (GEC) – and British Aerospace (BAe) – an aircraft, munitions and naval systems manufacturer.

BAE Systems is the successor to various aircraft, shipbuilding, armoured vehicle, armaments and defence electronics companies, including the Marconi Company, the first commercial company devoted to the development and use of radio; A.V. Roe and Company, one of the world's first aircraft companies; de Havilland, manufacturer of the Comet, the world's first commercial jet airliner; British Aircraft Corporation, co-manufacturer of the Concorde supersonic transport; Supermarine, manufacturer of the Spitfire; Yarrow Shipbuilders, builder of the Royal Navy's first destroyers; Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, pioneer of the triple-expansion engine and builder of the world's first battlecruiser; and Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering, builder of the Royal Navy's first submarines. Since its formation it has made a number of acquisitions, most notably of United Defense and Armor Holdings of the United States, and sold its shares in Airbus, Astrium, AMS and Atlas Elektronik.

BAE Systems is involved in several major defence projects, including the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, the Eurofighter Typhoon, the Astute-class submarine and the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers. BAE Systems is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

Balance of payments

The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and the rest of the world in a particular period of time (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year). The balance of payments is a summary of all monetary transactions between a country and rest of the world. These transactions are made by individuals, firms and government bodies. Thus the balance of payments includes all external visible and non-visible transactions of a country. It is an important issue to be studied, especially in international financial management field, for a few reasons.

First, the balance of payments provides detailed information concerning the demand and supply of a country's currency. For example, if Sudan imports more than it exports, then this means that the quantity supplied of Sudanese pounds by the domestic market is likely to exceed the quantity demanded in the foreign exchanging market, ceteris paribus. One can thus infer that the Sudanese pound would be under pressure to depreciate against other currencies. On the other hand, if Sudan exports more than it imports, then the Sudanese pound would be likely to appreciate.

Second, a country's balance of payments data may signal its potential as a business partner for the rest of the world. If a country is grappling with a major balance of payments difficulty, it may not be able to expand imports from the outside world. Instead, the country may be tempted to impose measures to restrict imports and discourage capital outflows in order to improve the balance of payments situation. On the other hand, a country with a significant balance of payments surplus would be more likely to expand imports, offering marketing opportunities for foreign enterprises, and less likely to impose foreign exchange restrictions.

Third, balance of payments data can be used to evaluate the performance of the country in international economic competition. Suppose a country is experiencing trade deficits year after year. This trade data may then signal that the country's domestic industries lack international competitiveness.

To interpret balance of payments data properly, it is necessary to understand how the balance of payments account is constructed.

These transactions include payments for the country's exports and imports of goods, services, financial capital, and financial transfers. It is prepared in a single currency, typically the domestic currency for the country concerned. The balance of payments accounts keep systematic records of all the economic transactions (visible and non-visible) of a country with all other countries in the given time period. In the BoP accounts, all the receipts from abroad are recorded as credit and all the payments to abroad are debits. Since the accounts are maintained by double entry bookkeeping, they show the balance of payments accounts are always balanced. Sources of funds for a nation, such as exports or the receipts of loans and investments, are recorded as positive or surplus items. Uses of funds, such as for imports or to invest in foreign countries, are recorded as negative or deficit items.

When all components of the BoP accounts are included they must sum to zero with no overall surplus or deficit. For example, if a country is importing more than it exports, its trade balance will be in deficit, but the shortfall will have to be counterbalanced in other ways – such as by funds earned from its foreign investments, by running down currency reserves or by receiving loans from other countries.

While the overall BoP accounts will always balance when all types of payments are included, imbalances are possible on individual elements of the BoP, such as the current account, the capital account excluding the central bank's reserve account, or the sum of the two. Imbalances in the latter sum can result in surplus countries accumulating wealth, while deficit nations become increasingly indebted. The term "balance of payments" often refers to this sum: a country's balance of payments is said to be in surplus (equivalently, the balance of payments is positive) by a specific amount if sources of funds (such as export goods sold and bonds sold) exceed uses of funds (such as paying for imported goods and paying for foreign bonds purchased) by that amount. There is said to be a balance of payments deficit (the balance of payments is said to be negative) if the former are less than the latter. A BoP surplus (or deficit) is accompanied by an accumulation (or decumulation) of foreign exchange reserves by the central bank.

Under a fixed exchange rate system, the central bank accommodates those flows by buying up any net inflow of funds into the country or by providing foreign currency funds to the foreign exchange market to match any international outflow of funds, thus preventing the funds flows from affecting the exchange rate between the country's currency and other currencies. Then the net change per year in the central bank's foreign exchange reserves is sometimes called the balance of payments surplus or deficit. Alternatives to a fixed exchange rate system include a managed float where some changes of exchange rates are allowed, or at the other extreme a purely floating exchange rate (also known as a purely flexible exchange rate). With a pure float the central bank does not intervene at all to protect or devalue its currency, allowing the rate to be set by the market, the central bank's foreign exchange reserves do not change, and the balance of payments is always zero.

BlackRock

BlackRock, Inc. is an American global investment management corporation based in New York City. Founded in 1988, initially as a risk management and fixed income institutional asset manager, BlackRock is today the world's largest asset manager with $5.98 trillion in assets under management as of December 2018. BlackRock operates globally with 70 offices in 30 countries and clients in 100 countries. Due to its power and the sheer size and scope of its financial assets and activities, BlackRock has been called the world's largest shadow bank.

Cambridge Judge Business School

Cambridge Judge Business School is the business school of the University of Cambridge. The School is a provider of management education and is consistently ranked as one of the world's top business schools, with the Cambridge MBA programme ranked among the top in the world by Bloomberg, the Financial Times, BusinessInsider, US News & World Report and Forbes Magazine. It is named after Sir Paul Judge, a founding benefactor of the school.The School is considered to be particularly strong in entrepreneurship and innovation management, with its own accelerator and close ties with Cambridge Enterprise, the university's technology transfer office, as well as with the local high-tech cluster known as the Silicon Fen.

The School is situated on the site of the Old Addenbrooke's Site on Trumpington Street, near the Fitzwilliam Museum.

FTSE 100 Index

The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie" , is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalisation. It is seen as a gauge of prosperity for businesses regulated by UK company law. The index is maintained by the FTSE Group, a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group.

FTSE Group

FTSE International Limited trading as FTSE Russell ( is a British provider of stock market indices and associated data services, wholly owned by the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and operating from premises in Canary Wharf. It operates the well known UK FTSE 100 Index and the Russell 2000 as well as a number of other indices. FTSE stands for Financial Times Stock Exchange.

Financial Times and McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award

Financial Times and McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award is an annual award given to the best business book of the year as determined by the Financial Times and McKinsey & Company. It aims to find the book that has 'the most compelling and enjoyable insight into modern business issues'. The award was established in 2005 and is worth £30,000. Beginning in 2010, five short-listed authors each receive £10,000, previously it was £5,000.The award's principal partner was Goldman Sachs from 2005–2013, when it was known as the "Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award". The principal partner became McKinsey & Company beginning in 2014.

Since 2014, the Financial Times and McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award is presented at the same time as the Bracken Bower Prize for young business writers.

INSEAD

INSEAD is a graduate business school with campuses in Europe (Fontainebleau, France), Asia (Singapore), and the Middle East (Abu Dhabi). "INSEAD" is originally an acronym for the French "Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires" or European Institute of Business Administration.

INSEAD is consistently ranked among the best business schools in the world. Financial Times ranked it first across all full-time MBA programmes in 2016 and 2017, and second in 2018.INSEAD offers a full-time MBA programme, an Executive MBA (EMBA) programme, a Master in Finance programme, a PhD in management programme, and a variety of executive education programmes.

KEDGE Business School

KEDGE Business School is a French business school and grande école. Located in Marseille, Bordeaux, Toulon and Paris plus two campuses in China (Shanghai and Suzhou) the school is a merger between two business schools: BEM (ESC Bordeaux, founded in 1874) and Euromed (ESC Marseille, founded in 1872). Following the merger, Kedge is the largest business school in France. It is consistently ranked near the top 10 business schools in France by the Financial Times and is the one of the best 30 business schools in Europe, according to the Financial Times 2014.

Nationally, it ranks 3rd for its MBA, 3rd for its budget, 2nd for research and is accredited by Palmes League as TOP business school with significant international influence. The institution also holds the Triple accreditation (AACSB, AMBA, EQUIS). The Global Executive MBA from Kedge Business School is now ranked n°22 worldwide, one place up from last year, the KEDGE BS Global Executive MBA pursues its progress in the Top 25 of the 2016 Financial Times Executive MBA ranking. In seven years, it has moved up 62 places in this reference ranking.

List of public corporations by market capitalization

The following is a list of publicly traded companies having the greatest market capitalization. This list is primarily based on the Financial Times Global 500 rankings. The list of non-public companies by estimated market value is attached for comparison.

Market capitalization is calculated from the share price (as recorded on selected day) multiplied by the number of outstanding shares. Figures are converted into USD millions (using rate from selected day) to allow for comparison. Only companies with free float at least 15% are included, value of unlisted stock classes is excluded. Investment companies are not included in the list.

London Business School

London Business School (LBS) is a business school and a constituent college of the federal University of London. LBS was founded in 1964 and awards post-graduate degrees (Master's degrees in management and finance, MBA and PhD). LBS is widely considered to be one of the world's best business schools and its motto is "To have a profound impact on the way the world does business".LBS was ranked 1st in Europe (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018) by the Financial Times and 2nd in the world (for Business and Management Studies; 2017) by the QS ranking. LBS' post-experience Masters in Finance programme is ranked 1st in the world by the Financial Times.The main campus is located in London next to Regent's Park in Sussex Place, built by the architect John Nash. In 2015, the school acquired the Marylebone Town Hall and spent £60 million to refurbish it with the objective of expanding its teaching facilities by 70%. LBS also has a secondary campus in Dubai that is dedicated to Executive Education and the Dubai EMBA.

Skema Business School

SKEMA Business School is a school created by the merger of two French schools, CERAM Business School and Groupe ESC Lille in 2009. The school offers a BBA in Global Management, masters, MBA, doctoral and executive education programs in China, France, Brazil and in the US.

Stanley Sadie

Stanley John Sadie (; 30 October 1930 – 21 March 2005) was an influential and prolific British musicologist, music critic, and editor. He was editor of the sixth edition of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), which was published as the first edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.

The Nikkei

The Nikkei, formally known as The Nihon Keizai Shinbun (日本経済新聞, Japan Economics Newspaper), is Nikkei, Inc.'s flagship publication and the world's largest financial newspaper, with a daily circulation exceeding three million. The Nikkei 225, a stock market index for the Tokyo Stock Exchange, has been calculated by the newspaper since 1950.The roots of the Nikkei started with an in-house newspaper department of Mitsui & Company in 1876 when it started publication of Chugai Bukka Shimpo (literally Domestic and Foreign Commodity Price Newspaper), a weekly market-quotation bulletin. The department was spun out as the Shokyosha in 1882. The paper became daily (except Sunday) in 1885 and was renamed Chugai Shogyo Simpo in 1889. It was merged with Nikkan Kogyo and Keizai Jiji and renamed Nihon Sangyo Keizai Shimbun in 1942. The paper changed its name to the Nihon Keizai Shimbun in 1946.As of 30 November 2015 Nikkei became the official owner of the Financial Times, having bought the newspaper from Pearson PLC.

The Times Group

Bennett Coleman and Company Limited, commonly known as The Times Group, is India’s largest media conglomerate, according to Financial Times as of March 2015. The Audit Bureau of Circulations reported in May 2014 that the Times of India had the largest circulation of any English-language newspaper in the world, with 3,321,702 average qualifying sales. The company remains a family-owned business as the descendants of Sahu Jain own a majority stake in The Times Group. The Times Group has over 11,000 employees and revenue exceeding $1.5 billion.

Trafigura

Trafigura Group Pte. Ltd. is a multinational commodity trading company founded in 1993 that trades in base metals and energy. Headquartered in Geneva, Trafigura is legally registered in Singapore. Farringford N.V., registered in Curaçao, is the ultimate parent company. It is the world's second largest private oil trader after Vitol and the world's largest private metals trader.Trafigura was set up by Claude Dauphin and Eric de Turckheim. It split off from a group of companies managed by Marc Rich in 1993. Before his death, in September 2015, Dauphin owned less than 20% of the company, with the rest owned by 500 senior staff.Trafigura has been named or involved in several scandals, particularly the 2006 Ivory Coast toxic waste dump, which left up to 100,000 people with skin rashes, headaches and respiratory problems. The company was also involved in the Iraq Oil-for-Food Scandal.

Trafigura has built or purchased stakes in pipelines, mines, smelters, ports and storage terminals.

Vedomosti

Vedomosti (Russian: Ведомости, IPA: [ˈvʲedəməsʲtʲɪ], lit. "The Record") is a Russian-language business daily published in Moscow. It was previously a joint venture between Dow Jones, the Financial Times and the publishers of The Moscow Times. The Financial Times and the Wall Street Journal sold their stakes in 2015, ahead of a new Russian media ownership law prohibiting foreign enterprises from owning more than 20% of stake in Russian media companies which came into effect in 2016. Sanoma also sold its stake in the paper in 2015. The paper is now owned by Demyan Kudryavtsev, who also owns The Moscow Times, and was previously chief executive of Kommersant.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.