Filmation Associates was an American production company that produced animation and live-action programming for television from 1963 to 1989.[3] Located in Reseda, California, the animation studio was founded in 1962.[4] Filmation's founders and principal producers were Lou Scheimer, Hal Sutherland and Norm Prescott.

Filmation Associates
FateClosed by Westinghouse Broadcasting (intellectual properties acquired by several companies since then)
FounderNorm Prescott[1]
Lou Scheimer[2]
Hal Sutherland
HeadquartersReseda, California, United States
Key people
Norm Prescott
Lou Scheimer
Hal Sutherland
ParentTelePrompTer Corporation (1969–1982)
Westinghouse Broadcasting Company (1982–1989)
SubsidiariesThe Sabrina Company


Filmation's third logo from 1975
Norm Prescott, Hal Sutherland and Lou Scheimer
From left to right: Norm Prescott, Hal Sutherland and Lou Scheimer.

Lou Scheimer and Filmation's main director Hal Sutherland met in 1957 while working at Larry Harmon Pictures on the made-for-TV Bozo and Popeye cartoons. Eventually Larry Harmon closed the studio by 1961. Scheimer and Sutherland went to work at a small company called True Line, one of whose owners was Marcus Lipsky, who then owned Reddi-wip whipped cream.[5] SIB Productions, a Japanese firm with U.S. offices in Chicago, approached them about producing a cartoon called Rod Rocket. The two agreed to take on the work and also took on a project for Family Films, owned by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, for ten short animated films based on the life of Christ. Paramount Pictures soon purchased SIB Productions, and True Line's staff increased, including the arrival of former radio disc jockey Norm Prescott, who became a partner in the firm. He had already been working on the animated feature Pinocchio in Outer Space which was primarily produced by Belvision Studios.


They eventually left True Line, and Scheimer began working on commercials, including for Gillette and others, which began what became Filmation. He met lawyer Ira Epstein, who had worked for Harmon but left the firm, and now put together the new corporation with Scheimer and Sutherland. It officially became Filmation Associates as of September 1962, so named because "We were working on film, but doing animation"; so putting them together yielded "Filmation".[5]

Both Rod Rocket and the Life of Christ series credited "Filmation Associates" with "Production Design" in addition to Scheimer and Sutherland as directors. (SIB Productions, whose logo bore a resemblance to the original Filmation logo designed by Ted Littlefield,[5] would soon go on to become "Sib-Tower 12 Productions" and produce the first few of Chuck Jones' Tom and Jerry films for MGM, until becoming MGM Animation/Visual Arts for the remainder of the films).[4]

Norm Prescott brought in Filmation's first major project, Journey Back to Oz, an animated sequel to the MGM film The Wizard of Oz (1939). Begun in 1962, storyboarding, voice recording, and most of the music scoring and animation had been completed when financial challenges caused the project to be put on hold for nearly eight years.

In the meantime, during the interim, the new Filmation studio turned their attention to a more successful medium, network television. For the next few years they made television commercials, and some other projects for other companies, made an unsuccessful pilot film for a Marx Brothers cartoon series, and tried to develop an original series The Adventures of Stanley Stoutheart (later renamed Yank and Doodle) about a boy and a dog, which they were never able to sell, and almost closed down;[5] until approached by DC Comics editor Mort Weisinger to do a Superman cartoon. This premiered on September 10, 1966, and was followed by several of the other DC superheroes, and then in 1968, the first Archie Show. Both series greatly helped Filmation's popularity to increase, into the 1970s, when it really scored big with several of its series.[6][7]

The Filmation studio was purchased by the TelePrompTer Corporation in 1969. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through its Group W Productions division, acquired Filmation along with its purchase of TelePrompTer's cable and entertainment properties in 1981.[8]

Filmation's last production was the feature film Happily Ever After (a sequel to the story of Snow White), released to theaters five years later in 1993. Also, at the time of the closing, two new animated series, Bugzburg (a spin-off of Pinocchio and the Emperor of the Night, concerning insect characters who had shown up in that movie) and Bravo (a spin-off of BraveStarr), were beginning production.

In 1989, Westinghouse sold Filmation to an investment consortium led by the L'Oréal cosmetics company, Paravision International. Before that sale was complete, Westinghouse shuttered the film studio on February 3, 1989, which left L'Oreal with the Filmation library only.[8] This happened a day before a new law went into practice requiring companies to give employees 60 days notice before a mass termination.

Film library ownership

Since then, the studio's intellectual property assets have changed hands on a number of occasions. The in-house productions (Archie, Fat Albert, etc.), which form a majority of the Filmation back catalog, were sold to Hallmark Cards in 1995,[9] and managed by its Hallmark Entertainment subsidiary. However, since the rest of Filmation's output was based on characters licensed from other companies, such titles were actually (and still are) under the control of other studios (such as CBS Television Distribution and Warner Bros./DC Comics).

In March 2004, ownership of the Filmation in-house library, which was under the ownership of Hallmark, was sold to Entertainment Rights. Entertainment Rights has since made the revelation that when Hallmark converted all of its Filmation series to digital format in the 1990s, only PAL-format copies were made, with the original film prints apparently discarded.[10] This was due to Hallmark's previously unstated (but long suspected) short-sighted policy of only distributing Filmation series outside of the United States. As a result, many of Entertainment Rights' DVD releases (distributed by BCI Eclipse in the United States prior to the latter company's folding) were based on the international versions (which have PAL prints).

Because they were taken from PAL-based transfers, without correction, these releases exhibit the so-called 576i speedup effect in which the soundtrack plays 4% too fast, which results in the pitch being a half-step higher than it was originally (see PAL and Telecine for more information). PAL-NTSC conversion artifacts also include softness and ghosting. The exception appears to be at least four titles from ER's library: Groovie Goolies, Ark II, and both the live-action and animated Ghostbusters series. These series appear to have been sourced from original NTSC transfers for their U.S. release by BCI. Another exception, Star Trek: The Animated Series, which was owned by Paramount Television (now CBS Television Studios), is also in the NTSC format.

On April 1, 2009, it was announced that Entertainment Rights would be acquired by Boomerang Media[11][12] and on May 11, 2009, it was announced that the subsidiaries and offices of Entertainment Rights would be absorbed under the name Classic Media.[13][14]

In 2012, it was announced that Classic Media, owner of the Filmation library, would be acquired by DreamWorks Animation. DreamWorks Animation and its programming library, including those of Filmation (not including shows whose rights are owned by other companies, such as The New Adventures of Gilligan and Star Trek: The Animated Series), would later be acquired on August 22, 2016 by Universal Studios for $3.8 billion.[15]

Filmation cartoons have been widely syndicated, and many are available from video streaming services. Four Filmation programs from 1983-1988 were also rebroadcast on Qubo's "Night Owl" programming block.

Animation style

Layout artist Lindsay Dawson working on a key-frame of animation for He-Man and the Masters of the Universe. This was a typical working desk for animators, layout artists, and background designers at Filmation in 1983.

As with other producers of Saturday morning cartoons, Filmation was more concerned with quantity rather than quality; however, it did make a number of attempts to rise above the standard animated fare and produce reasonably well-written cartoons. The best-known example of this is its animated adaptation Star Trek: The Animated Series, which included scripts contributed by well-known science fiction writers and starred most of the original cast.[16] Other favorably remembered Filmation series included a 16-part animated serial of Flash Gordon, originally intended as a movie for theatrical release, Flash Gordon: The Greatest Adventure of All. The original film edit was only aired three times on NBC, years after the series was cancelled. Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids was another hailed series created by and starring Bill Cosby with an explicit educational focus.[7] He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, based on the popular line of Mattel toys, opened up a vibrant new North American market for first-run television syndication for animation in the 1980s. The animated adaptations of the Archie Comics characters were also noteworthy for the original pop music produced for it, particularly the song "Sugar, Sugar", which was a #1 hit single.[17]

In addition, certain episodes of He-Man and BraveStarr, in substance, and often animation, were pioneers in children's animated series of their time and paved the way for broader storytelling. Examples include He-Man's "The Problem with Power" which dealt with He-Man believing he had killed an innocent bystander. Another is "Teela's Quest" which introduced a now-famous mythology on The Sorceress being Teela's mother, who is heir to the mantle of safeguarding Grayskull, the versed continuity shared between He-Man and She-Ra, among others. Other notable examples include the Bravestarr episode "The Price", which includes the death of a character due to drug addiction. The 1985 Fat Albert episode "Busted" was a direct homage to the primetime Scared Straight specials. A first for American children's cartoons, the original airing of this episode included mild profanity that has, however, been edited out of re-airings and home video versions. Likewise, the scripts for Star Trek, which were often written by the same people who had written for the live-action version of the series, tended to be quite sophisticated, and garnered the first Emmy Award for the franchise.


Filmation had a reputation for exploiting the technique of limited animation to produce a number of animated series with a distinct look. It made heavy use of rotoscoping in later years (beginning with its Tarzan and Flash Gordon series). It also re-used the same animated sequences over and over, many times, to the point where the Filmation style was instantly recognizable.

Filmation's animation often looked poor quality, due to the limiting of the number of frames per second used to fewer than the regular 24 frame/second seen on film or 25/30 frame/s seen on video. Frames would be repeated to compensate for the deficiency, resulting in a jerky and cheap look.

This frequent use of stock footage saved production money, but often resulted in sacrifice of continuity. This was countered by cutting from one stock shot to another after only a second or two, long enough to set the scene but before the eye could notice all of the unexplained errors. This became part of the Filmation style during a period when most television and motion picture productions tended to run minimum shots of 4–5 seconds.

In contrast to the rapid jump cuts during action sequences, another Filmation trademark was the recurring use of long establishing shots in which the camera would pan slowly across a very wide background painting, thus filling up screen time with sequences requiring little or no animation. Filmation also pioneered other animation technologies, particularly in Flash Gordon, which included backlighting effects for the first time in American animation (they were already in use in Japan), including moire effects to represent energy fields (a technique that was later used in He-Man and later in She-Ra). It also pioneered a unique method of generating 3-D vehicle animation by filming white-outlined black miniatures against black backgrounds using a computerized motion-control camera and high-contrast film, then printing the negatives onto acetate frame-by-frame, to create animation cels which were then hand-painted. This produced a three-dimensional effect that had been used by Disney in films such as One Hundred and One Dalmatians previously. It predated the modern use of 3-D computer animation for vehicles in 2-D animated productions. However, it had a distinctive "flicker" to it, because some of the painted lines went in and out of visibility as the miniatures moved.

Unlike many American studios, Filmation never relied on animation studios outside the United States for the bulk of its production; Ghostbusters and BraveStarr both state in the ending credits that they were "made entirely in the U.S.A." This occurred during a time when rival studio Hanna-Barbera shifted from saying in the final production credits (immediately before the production logo appearances) "A Hanna-Barbera Production" to "Produced in Association with: Wang Film Productions / Cuckoo's Nest Studios" which is located in Taiwan (along with H-B's own Philippines-based Fil-Cartoons). The quality of Filmation's "Made Entirely in the U.S.A." strategy was comparable to the outsourced animation. Filmation did, however, rely on outsourcing once, when the company created its animated Zorro series. It was animated by Tokyo Movie Shinsha of Japan; however, the storyboards and graphics were made by Filmation itself.

Filmation is also noteworthy for its background paintings under the direction of long-time department head Erv Kaplan, such as the purple-colored "night sky" backgrounds used in He-Man and She-Ra.[18][19]

Characters, as well as plots, were typically run of the mill for the time. For example, most episodes of Ghostbusters had the same scheme (bad guys develop an evil plan, the heroes are needed but always absent, Ghost Buggy the talking car complains about their dangerous position, Tracey the Gorilla pulls out of his back pack exactly the miscellaneous item the Ghostbuster needs in a moment of despair, Eddie doing a number of clumsy/stupid things etc.). Although as previously mentioned, Filmation made various attempts to rise above the norm. Many of the sound effects used in its cartoons are also very familiar, the majority of them being recycled from Hanna-Barbera (this was, and still is a common trait among animation companies, though Filmation's copies of the Hanna-Barbera sound effects were of a distinctively lower quality), though the company's DC Comics cartoons of 1966-67 used more realistic sound effects.


A trademark of the company's productions, beginning in 1969, was a rotating, circular "Produced by" (and on some series, "Executive Producers") credit seen in the ending credits (and in later productions, the opening sequences) of Filmation programs, as a device that was supposedly created to allow Prescott and Scheimer to share equal billing. Previously, Scheimer's name had been placed above Prescott's. However, the later Filmation productions credited only Scheimer, in the form of his signature ("Lou Scheimer, (Executive) Producer"), starting with Gilligan's Planet (1982).

Many of its series – particularly the productions of the late 1970s and 1980s – are notable for imparting a simple moral or life-lesson (explained by a key character, in a child-friendly manner) in the epilogue.

Original characters

The studio created very few original animated characters. Two examples were "Fraidy Cat", a timid feline who has lost eight of his nine lives, which come back to haunt him; and Wacky and Packy, a caveman and his pet mammoth ("Packy" refers to the latter character being a "pachyderm") who enter the modern age through a time warp. Both of these originally aired as segments of the Uncle Croc's Block series on ABC (hosted by Charles Nelson Reilly). In a period where comedy in cartoons was heavily scrutinized for violence.[20][21] and many shows duplicated the popular Scooby-Doo format,[22] Filmation's strong point was its adaptations of popular television series, movies and other works, although at least one series, M*U*S*H (the third animated segment on Uncle Croc's Block), while not a direct adaptation was inspired by the film (and later TV series) M*A*S*H.

Live-action shows

Filmation incorporated live-action into some of its animated series. Series like The Hardy Boys and Archie's Funhouse featured live-action footage of an audience watching the bands perform and Fat Albert had segments featuring series creator Bill Cosby. The Kid Super Power Hour with Shazam!, was more of a hybrid - a live-action variety show with animated segments. Actors appeared as characters from the Hero High portion of the series, singing songs and telling jokes.

Filmation made six fully live-action series, including Space Academy, its spin-off Jason of Star Command, Ark II, Shazam! (based on the DC Comics character Captain Marvel), The Ghost Busters and The Secrets of Isis.

The 2006 DVD release of the animated series Space Sentinels includes pre-production footage for an aborted live-action version entitled The Young Sentinels.

The Ghost Busters

Filmation produced a live-action series called The Ghost Busters (1975) starring former F Troop stars Larry Storch and Forrest Tucker, with noted science-fiction fan and collector Bob Burns as "Tracy the Gorilla".[7] The characters worked as paranormal investigators, working for an unseen "Chief" named "Zero" who delivered their "Ghost Busting Assignments" in whimsical disguised recording devices as in Mission: Impossible.

Nine years later, Columbia Pictures, who produced an unrelated 1984 movie of almost the same name, had to obtain the rights to the title from the company. Filmation capitalized on the popularity of the film by producing a new cartoon based on their earlier series. Like its other shows, it used stock footage heavily; in one episode, character designs and animation sequences were recycled from the Groovie Goolies series of nearly 15 years earlier.

To avoid confusion, the animated series based on the film was called The Real Ghostbusters. As a dig on the Filmation series, an episode was written about a group of fraudulent ghost fighters, trying to steal the "Real" Ghostbusters' business and thunder.[23]

Looney Tunes/Groovie Goolies crossover

Also of note is Daffy Duck and Porky Pig Meet the Groovie Goolies, a special featuring several of Warner Bros.' Looney Tunes stars (paired with Filmation's own Groovie Goolies, a group of classic monsters). Written by Len Janson and Chuck Menville (who played themselves in a live-action sequence), it aired on The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie in 1972. While most of the Warner Bros. characters were drawn well (veteran Warners animator Virgil Ross was working there at the time, along with other animators that had worked for Warner Bros. Animation in the late 1960s, such as Laverne Harding and Ed Solomon), and were voiced by veteran voice actor Mel Blanc, the special is not liked by many fans of classic Warner Bros. animation because of its limited animation, as well as a weak storyline.

This was not Filmation's last dalliance with classic cartoon characters; in the late 1970s the company produced new series based on the characters from the Terrytoons archive (Mighty Mouse and Heckle and Jeckle, titled The New Adventures of Mighty Mouse and Heckle & Jeckle) and a new Tom and Jerry series as well.

Feature films

Filmation also ventured into the feature film business. With their success in television firmly established by 1970, the company became profitable enough to return to the shelved Journey Back to Oz project, completing the animation and some minor voice-over work begun in 1962, and finished the film in 1971. It would take another year for Journey to be released theatrically in the United Kingdom, two more years before its 1974 US release, and yet another two (1976) before it finally found its audience in network television, the very medium in which Filmation became successful. There, the film was expanded with live-action segments featuring Bill Cosby, who ironically was in the midst of his success with the studio's Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids.

A deal with Warner Bros. yielded Treasure Island and Oliver Twist, and several others, which were never produced.[24]

In its final years, Filmation produced feature film versions of its He-Man and She-Ra franchises (The Secret of the Sword), as well as continuations to other established stories, such as Pinocchio and the Emperor of the Night and Happily Ever After.[25]

Voice talent

Like other animation studios, Filmation had its stock company of voice-over actors. Some of the most famous included Larry Storch, Dallas McKennon (best known as the voice of Archie in the Archie cartoon and as Cincinnatus, in the Daniel Boone TV series), Bud Collyer, the original radio voice of Superman, reprised the role for Filmation for their late 1960s version of the Man of Steel; Adam West and Burt Ward (who recreated their roles as "Batman and Robin" from their 1960s live-action series for Filmation's 1977 animated incarnation), Jane Webb, and good friends and colleagues Edward Asner and Linda Gary (Gary voiced a majority of Filmation's work in the 1980s), along with John Erwin (voice of Reggie Mantle, and later the voice of He-Man), Alan Oppenheimer (character actor in TV and film), Ted Knight, George DiCenzo (John Blackstar, Hordak, Bow on She-Ra), Melendy Britt, Howard Morris, Pat Fraley, Charlie Adler, Ed Gilbert, Susan Blu, Erika Scheimer (daughter of Lou Scheimer), and even Lou Scheimer himself (either uncredited, or under the pseudonym of "Erik (sometimes "Eric") Gunden").

Background musical talent

For the company's 1960s superhero efforts, composer John Gart (under the stage name John Marion) and music supervisor Gordon Zahler created strong themes and backing cues using a large orchestra, until the Batman entry in 1968, which used sparser production and jazzier themes.

The company's 1960s adventure series Journey to the Center of the Earth (1967) and Fantastic Voyage (1968) likewise used sparser music production. Journey made heavier emphasis on guitar than the company's previous series, while Voyage made use of deliberately haunting woodwinds to create a science fiction flavor.

According to the booklets accompanying some of the DVDs of Filmation's shows, legendary composer Ray Ellis (who was assisted by his son Marc Ellis [26]) had produced the background music for most Filmation series under the pseudonyms "Yvette Blais and Jeff Michael."[27] Yvette Blais was Ellis' wife, while "Jeff" and "Michael" were the names of producer Norm Prescott's two sons. (Exactly what role Prescott played in the music, other than hiring the composers and musicians, is unclear.) The full-length features Treasure Island and Oliver Twist credit "George Blais". Ellis' name does appear in Archie[28] and Sabrina the Teenage Witch credits, and both "Ray Ellis", and "Jeff Michaels" appear side by side on Groovie Goolies credits, where "Ellis" is credited for "Sabrina background music", and "Michaels" is credited for "Groovie Goolies background music".

Much of Ellis' background music in the late 1960s had a distinct, richly orchestrated sound not found on many other made-for-TV cartoon series of that period; though as time went on, it became more contemporary and often synthesized. Ellis' work at the studio lasted from 1968 to 1982. Haim Saban and Shuki Levy composed and produced the studio's music for He-Man and She-Ra (during 1983-1986), along with the other studios for which they produced music scores. Frank W. Becker provided the music for Filmation's final animated series BraveStarr.

In 1977, a young 24-year-old composer/recording artist/producer by the name of Dean Andre (Wallschlaeger) began writing theme and featured music for Filmation. His first series Archie's Bang-Shang Lalapalooza Show featured the voice of Daws Butler. He went on to compose themes for The New Adventures of Mighty Mouse and Heckle & Jeckle, and The Fabulous Funnies (featuring the voices of June Foray and Alan Oppenheimer). Dean also lent his vocal talents to Filmation for Thematic and featured music that he composed and produced for A Snow White Christmas, Sport Billy, and The Kid Super Power Hour with Shazam! In 1981, Dean also took on the position of Musical Director for The Kid Super Power Hour with Shazam!.

Filmation routinely included a plug for its music publisher, Shermley Music (ASCAP), in the closing credits of most of its series. This has never been common practice on American television.


  1. ^ "Norman Prescott". Variety. July 6, 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
  2. ^ Solomon, Charles (January 1, 1988). "Production Is Less Animated at Filmation Studio". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  3. ^ Bates, James (August 25, 1987). "Cartoon factory Filmation is under orders to cut costs, and a plan to shift some of its production overseas has alienated workers". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  4. ^ a b Bates, James (February 8, 1989). "Filmation Shuts Plant, Beats Closing Law Deadline by 1 Day". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  5. ^ a b c d Scheimer, Lou; Mangels, Andy (2012), Lou Scheimer: Creating the Filmation Generation, Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing, pp. 37–48, ISBN 978-1-60549-044-1
  6. ^ "'Sesame Street' Breakthrough For New Programming". Florence Times—Tri-Cities Daily. Florence, AL. Associated Press. April 27, 1970. p. 2. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
  7. ^ a b c Margulies, Lee (May 12, 1975). "Filmation - its sole product is for kids". The Free Lance-Star. Fredericksburg, VA. Associated Press. p. 20. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
  8. ^ a b "Group W sells Filmation." Broadcasting, February 13, 1989, pg. 94
  9. ^ "Hallmark buys Filmation library". The Hollywood Reporter. 20 January 1995. p. 20. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  10. ^ Ettinger, Paul (Feb 15, 2007). "Bad news for Filmation fans". Film Score Monthly. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  11. ^ Hodkinson, Paul (April 2, 2009). "He-Man, Casper Bought by Private-Equity Firm". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
  12. ^ "Boomerang Media Buys ER". World Screen News. April 1, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
  13. ^ "Classic Media Absorbs Subsidiaries". Home Media Magazine. May 11, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
  14. ^ "Entertainment Rights to Operate as Classic Media". Animation World Network. May 11, 2009. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
  15. ^ "Comcast's NBCUniversal buys DreamWorks Animation in $3.8-billion deal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  16. ^ Kleiner, Dick (June 14, 1973). "New Animated TV Show Is Aimed At Adults". Portsmouth Times. Newspaper Enterprise Association. p. 21. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
  17. ^ Solomon, Charles (January 1, 1988). "Production Is Less Animated at Filmation Studio". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  18. ^ Bates, James (August 25, 1987). "Cartoon factory Filmation is under orders to cut costs, and a plan to shift some of its production overseas has alienated workers". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  19. ^ Bates, James (August 25, 1987). "Color Cartoon Maker Blue Over Westinghouse Order to Cut Costs". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  20. ^ Richter, William. "Action for Children's Television". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on October 16, 2002. Retrieved June 9, 2006.
  21. ^ Hollis, Tim (2001). Hi there, boys and girls! : America's local children's TV shows. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. p. 20. ISBN 1578063965.
  22. ^ 1964-, Burke, Timothy, (1999). Saturday Morning Fever (1st St. Martin's Griffin ed.). New York: St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 105–119. ISBN 0312169965. OCLC 38832996.
  23. ^ Carter, R.J. (2007-06-11). "Interview: Lou Scheimer: A Candid Conversation with Filmation's Founder". Archived from the original on 2012-05-25.
  24. ^ Scheimer, Lou; Mangels, Andy (2012), Lou Scheimer: Creating the Filmation Generation, Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing, pp. 82, 93, 113, ISBN 978-1-60549-044-1
  25. ^ "Pinocchio Legend Grows New Animated Film Isn't A Sequel But A Continuation". Morning Call. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
  26. ^ "Biography". Marc Ellis Music.
  27. ^ Mangels, Andy, DVD booklets for Space Sentinels/The Freedom Force, Hero High, The Ghost Busters, Space Academy, Jason of Star Command and The Secrets of Isis
  28. ^ Ray Ellis - IMDb

External links

Archie's TV Funnies

Archie's TV Funnies is a Saturday morning cartoon animated series produced by Filmation which appeared on CBS from September 11, 1971 to September 1, 1973. The series starred Bob Montana's Archie characters.

Filmation (game engine)

Filmation is the trademark name of the isometric graphics engine employed in a series of games developed by Ultimate Play the Game during the 1980s, primarily on the 8-bit ZX Spectrum platform, but various titles also appeared on the BBC Micro, Amstrad CPC, MSX and Commodore 64 platforms.

The Filmation engine allowed the creation of 3D flip-screen environments and was designed to be used for platform-based arcade adventures. Player characters could move in four diagonal (from the player's perspective) directions, were able to jump over or onto obstacles, and could even push objects around the game environment.

Ghostbusters (1986 TV series)

Ghostbusters (later called Filmation's Ghostbusters) is a 1986 animated television series created by Filmation and distributed by Tribune Entertainment, serving as the sequel to Filmation's 1975 live-action television show The Ghost Busters. It is not to be confused with Columbia Pictures' 1984 film Ghostbusters or that film's subsequent animated television show The Real Ghostbusters, which premiered five days later. When making their film, Columbia Pictures needed to obtain rights to use the name from Filmation.

The success of Columbia's (unrelated) film spurred Filmation to resurrect their own property, producing an animated series based on the characters from the earlier TV show. This animated series ran from September 8 to December 5, 1986 in daytime syndication, and produced 65 episodes. The series is technically called simply Ghostbusters, but home video releases used the name Filmation's Ghostbusters to avoid confusion. In the US, reruns of the show previously aired on CBN Cable; The Family Channel; as part of Qubo Night Owl, which lasted from 2010 to 2013; and most recently on the Retro Television Network until 2015.

Journey Back to Oz

Journey Back To Oz is a 1972 American animated fantasy-adventure film and an official sequel to the 1939 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film The Wizard of Oz produced by Filmation. It is loosely based on L. Frank Baum's second Oz novel, The Marvelous Land of Oz, although Baum received no screen credit. However, the Wizard was nowhere to be found, at least in the theatrical version of the film. A television version shown in 1976 on ABC featured live-action segments starring Bill Cosby as the Wizard.

Unlike the 1939 film, Aunt Em and Uncle Henry only have one farmhand. His name is Amos (in a nod to the real name of Danny Thomas - the actor originally contracted to voice the part subsequently performed by Larry Storch), but he does not have an alter ego in Oz—unless it was the Tin Woodman, for whom Storch provided the singing voice, imitating Thomas, who did the character's speaking voice, and was credited as playing him.

Lou Scheimer

Louis "Lou" Scheimer (October 19, 1928 – October 17, 2013) was an American producer, one of the original founders of Filmation, an animation company, and also credited as an executive producer of many of its cartoons.

Masters of the Universe

Masters of the Universe (commonly abbreviated MOTU and sometimes referred to as He-Man, after the lead hero) is a media franchise created by Mattel. The main premise revolves around the conflict between the heroic He-Man (the most powerful man in the universe and the secret identity of Prince Adam), against the evil sorcerer Skeletor on the planet Eternia, with a vast line-up of supporting characters in a hybrid setting of medieval sword and sorcery and sci-fi technology. A spin-off series, with a similar premise, She-Ra, Princess Of Power, features He-Man's sister, She-Ra, and her struggle against the Evil Horde on the planet Etheria. Since its initial launch, the franchise has spawned a variety of products, including multiple lines of action figures, five animated television series, several comic series, video games, a daily newspaper comic strip, and two feature films (one animated, one live action).

Sabrina the Teenage Witch (1970 TV series)

Sabrina the Teenage Witch (titled Sabrina and the Groovie Goolies or The Sabrina Comedy Hour and promotionally referred to as The Sabrina the Teenage Witch Show or The Sabrina Comedy Show) is an American animated television series produced by Filmation that aired on CBS during Saturday mornings from 1970 to 1974. The series is also aired in primetime as a syndicated series. Based on Archie Comics' Sabrina the Teenage Witch, it was a spinoff of The Archie Comedy Hour. The series featured new episodes of Sabrina along with the Groovie Goolies. The series follows a teenaged witch who likes to hang out and fight enemies using her magical powers, without letting her friends at Riverdale High find out. This series was aimed primarily towards young girls ages 6 to 14, and contained an adult laugh track. Following its first season, the series was reduced to a half-hour when the Goolies were spun off into their own show.

The show's opening strapline is:

"Once upon a time, there were three witches, who lived in the little town of Riverdale. Two aunts, Hilda and Zelda, are choosing the ingredients to create an evil wicked witch. But suddenly, Zelda bumped right into Hilda and accidentally added beautiful girls' stuff as an extra ingredient. Thus, the grooviest teenage witch was born. She has white hair with a pink headband, and blue eyes. She wears a blue dress with a black belt and black shoes. She loves to goof off and battle evil forces using her ultra magical powers. It so happens that she is the first bewitching American superhero — Sabrina, the teenage witch!"

Filmation animated Sabrina once more in 1977 with The New Archie and Sabrina Hour.


Skeletor () is a fictional character and the main antagonist of the Masters of the Universe franchise created by Mattel. He is the archenemy of He-Man. Depicted as a muscular blue humanoid with a purple hood over his yellow bare-bone skull, Skeletor seeks to conquer Castle Grayskull so he can obtain its ancient secrets, which would make him unstoppable and enable him to conquer and rule the fictional world of Eternia. However, the incompetence of his henchmen is always an impediment to achieving his ambitions.In the 2002 series, Skeletor was once a man named Keldor whose face was accidentally splashed with acid. He survived, but it cost him his rugged good looks, and his entire face.

TelePrompTer Corporation

TelePrompTer Corporation was a media company that existed from approximately 1950 until 1981. The company was named for its eponymous primary product, a display device invented by Hubert Schlafly which scrolls text to people on video or giving speeches, replacing cue cards or scripts. Branded as the "TelePrompTer", the name has become a genericized trademark as "teleprompter".

The Batman/Superman Hour

The Batman/Superman Hour is a Filmation animated series that was broadcast on CBS from 1968 to 1969. Premiering on September 14, 1968, this 60-minute program featured new adventures of the DC Comics superheroes Batman, Robin and Batgirl alongside shorts from The New Adventures of Superman and The Adventures of Superboy.

The Batman/Tarzan Adventure Hour

The Batman/Tarzan Adventure Hour is a Filmation series that ran on CBS during the 1977–1978 television season. It consisted of the second season of Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle (six new episodes combined with reruns from the first season) and reruns of The New Adventures of Batman aired together.

For the 1978–1980 seasons the series was re-titled Tarzan and the Super 7 and expanded to ninety-minutes with additional content. For the 1980–1982 seasons, reruns of the Batman and the Super 7 episodes moved to NBC and Tarzan joined The Tarzan/Lone Ranger Adventure Hour.

The Hardy Boys (1969 TV series)

The Hardy Boys is an animated series, produced by Filmation and aired Saturday mornings on ABC in 1969. It featured the Hardy Boys, Joe and Frank, along with their friends Chubby Morton, Wanda Kay Breckenridge, and Pete Jones (one of the first black characters to appear on Saturday morning television) touring as a rock band while solving mysteries. The series is also notable for its opening and closing credits, in which the Hardys appeared in live action. The series debuted at the same time as Hanna-Barbera's similarly themed Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!, which was scheduled against the show on CBS. The series is noteworthy for including the producers' rotating wheel for the first time, which would make Filmation a household name.

The New Adventures of Batman

The New Adventures of Batman is an animated series that aired on CBS from February 12 to May 28, 1977, featuring the DC Comics superheroes Batman and Robin, and Batgirl. The series was a Filmation and DC Comics production in association with Warner Bros. Television (whose current parent company is Time Warner).

The Secret Lives of Waldo Kitty

The Secret Lives of Waldo Kitty (later called The New Adventures of Waldo Kitty) is an American animated and partially live-action television series, produced by Filmation, which originally aired for one season on the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) from September 6, 1975, to November 29, 1975. Howard Morris, Jane Webb, and Allan Melvin provided voices for the three main characters on the series. The show follows a cat named Waldo who daydreams of being a superhero and defeating the villainous bulldog Tyrone. It was inspired by James Thurber's 1939 short story "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty", and his wife Helen Thurber would later sue Filmation in 1975 for creating the series without the permission of her late husband's estate. The outcome of the decision resulted in the series being retitled in future broadcasts as The New Adventures of Waldo Kitty.

The Secret Lives of Waldo Kitty was produced by Lou Scheimer and Norm Prescott and directed by Don Christensen and Rudy Larriva. Critically, positive response was aimed at the show's imaginative story lines and its ability to parody pop culture events well. However, producer Scheimer was extremely upset by the series' final result, listing the issues that arose during production and the number of episodes produced as reasons why among others. The series has a total of just 13 episodes. In 1989, three episodes from The Secret Lives of Waldo Kitty were featured on a VHS tape released by United American Video.

The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure

The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure is a Filmation animated series that aired on CBS from 1967 to 1968. Premiering on September 9, 1967, this 60-minute program included a series of six-minute adventures featuring various DC Comics superheroes.

The Superman/Batman Adventures

Not to be confused with The New Batman/Superman Adventures.The Superman/Batman Adventures is a television series that aired on USA Network in 1995. It was later aired on Cartoon Network and Boomerang. The episodes were edited from various seasons of the Hanna-Barbera-produced Super Friends, as well as Filmation's 1960s series The New Adventures of Superman, The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure, and The Batman/Superman Hour. The Superman/Batman Adventures included for the first time on American television the "lost episodes" of the 1983–1984 season of Super Friends.

The Tarzan/Lone Ranger Adventure Hour

The Tarzan/Lone Ranger Adventure Hour is an animated television series produced by Filmation that aired on CBS during the early 1980s.

The series consisted of reruns of Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle paired with new episodes of Filmation's versions of The Lone Ranger and, in the second season, The New Adventures of Zorro—at which point the series was retitled The Tarzan/Lone Ranger/Zorro Adventure Hour. The series ran from 1980 to 1982.

Don Diamond who voiced Sergeant Gonzales in this animated series previously portrayed Corporal Reyes in Disney's 1950s live-action series of Zorro.

Uncle Croc's Block

Uncle Croc's Block is an hour-long live-action/animated television series. It was produced by Filmation, and broadcast on ABC in 1975–76.

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