Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to describe the relationship between exposure and output image lightness in digital cameras.
Relatively insensitive film, with a correspondingly lower speed index, requires more exposure to light to produce the same image density as a more sensitive film, and is thus commonly termed a slow film. Highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality (via coarser film grain or higher image noise of other types). In short, the higher the sensitivity, the grainier the image will be. Ultimately sensitivity is limited by the quantum efficiency of the film or sensor.
The first known practical sensitometer, which allowed measurements of the speed of photographic materials, was invented by the Polish engineer Leon Warnerke – pseudonym of Władysław Małachowski (1837–1900) – in 1880, among the achievements for which he was awarded the Progress Medal of the Photographic Society of Great Britain in 1882. It was commercialized since 1881.
The Warnerke Standard Sensitometer consisted of a frame holding an opaque screen with an array of typically 25 numbered, gradually pigmented squares brought into contact with the photographic plate during a timed test exposure under a phosphorescent tablet excited before by the light of a burning magnesium ribbon. The speed of the emulsion was then expressed in 'degrees' Warnerke (sometimes seen as Warn. or °W.) corresponding with the last number visible on the exposed plate after development and fixation. Each number represented an increase of 1/3 in speed, typical plate speeds were between 10° and 25° Warnerke at the time.
His system saw some success but proved to be unreliable due to its spectral sensitivity to light, the fading intensity of the light emitted by the phosphorescent tablet after its excitation as well as high built-tolerances. The concept, however, was later built upon in 1900 by Henry Chapman Jones (1855–1932) in the development of his plate tester and modified speed system.
Another early practical system for measuring the sensitivity of an emulsion was that of Hurter and Driffield (H&D), originally described in 1890, by the Swiss-born Ferdinand Hurter (1844–1898) and British Vero Charles Driffield (1848–1915). In their system, speed numbers were inversely proportional to the exposure required. For example, an emulsion rated at 250 H&D would require ten times the exposure of an emulsion rated at 2500 H&D.
The methods to determine the sensitivity were later modified in 1925 (in regard to the light source used) and in 1928 (regarding light source, developer and proportional factor)—this later variant was sometimes called "H&D 10". The H&D system was officially accepted as a standard in the former Soviet Union from 1928 until September 1951, when it was superseded by GOST 2817-50.
The Scheinergrade (Sch.) system was devised by the German astronomer Julius Scheiner (1858–1913) in 1894 originally as a method of comparing the speeds of plates used for astronomical photography. Scheiner's system rated the speed of a plate by the least exposure to produce a visible darkening upon development. Speed was expressed in degrees Scheiner, originally ranging from 1° Sch. to 20° Sch., where an increment of 19° Sch. corresponded to a hundredfold increase in sensitivity, which meant that an increment of 3° Sch. came close to a doubling of sensitivity.
The system was later extended to cover larger ranges and some of its practical shortcomings were addressed by the Austrian scientist Josef Maria Eder (1855–1944) and Flemish-born botanist Walter Hecht (1896–1960), (who, in 1919/1920, jointly developed their Eder–Hecht neutral wedge sensitometer measuring emulsion speeds in Eder–Hecht grades). Still, it remained difficult for manufactures to reliably determine film speeds, often only by comparing with competing products, so that an increasing number of modified semi-Scheiner-based systems started to spread, which no longer followed Scheiner's original procedures and thereby defeated the idea of comparability.
Scheiner's system was eventually abandoned in Germany, when the standardized DIN system was introduced in 1934. In various forms, it continued to be in widespread use in other countries for some time.
The DIN system, officially DIN standard 4512 by Deutsches Institut für Normung (but still named Deutscher Normenausschuß (DNA) at this time), was published in January 1934. It grew out of drafts for a standardized method of sensitometry put forward by Deutscher Normenausschuß für Phototechnik as proposed by the committee for sensitometry of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für photographische Forschung since 1930 and presented by Robert Luther (1868–1945) and Emanuel Goldberg (1881–1970) at the influential VIII. International Congress of Photography (German: Internationaler Kongreß für wissenschaftliche und angewandte Photographie) held in Dresden from August 3 to 8, 1931.
The DIN system was inspired by Scheiner's system, but the sensitivities were represented as the base 10 logarithm of the sensitivity multiplied by 10, similar to decibels. Thus an increase of 20° (and not 19° as in Scheiner's system) represented a hundredfold increase in sensitivity, and a difference of 3° was much closer to the base 10 logarithm of 2 (0.30103…):
As in the Scheiner system, speeds were expressed in 'degrees'. Originally the sensitivity was written as a fraction with 'tenths' (for example "18/10° DIN"), where the resultant value 1.8 represented the relative base 10 logarithm of the speed. 'Tenths' were later abandoned with DIN 4512:1957-11, and the example above would be written as "18° DIN". The degree symbol was finally dropped with DIN 4512:1961-10. This revision also saw significant changes in the definition of film speeds in order to accommodate then-recent changes in the American ASA PH2.5-1960 standard, so that film speeds of black-and-white negative film effectively would become doubled, that is, a film previously marked as "18° DIN" would now be labeled as "21 DIN" without emulsion changes.
Originally only meant for black-and-white negative film, the system was later extended and regrouped into nine parts, including DIN 4512-1:1971-04 for black-and-white negative film, DIN 4512-4:1977-06 for color reversal film and DIN 4512-5:1977-10 for color negative film.
On an international level the German DIN 4512 system has been effectively superseded in the 1980s by ISO 6:1974, ISO 2240:1982, and ISO 5800:1979 where the same sensitivity is written in linear and logarithmic form as "ISO 100/21°" (now again with degree symbol). These ISO standards were subsequently adopted by DIN as well. Finally, the latest DIN 4512 revisions were replaced by corresponding ISO standards, DIN 4512-1:1993-05 by DIN ISO 6:1996-02 in September 2000, DIN 4512-4:1985-08 by DIN ISO 2240:1998-06 and DIN 4512-5:1990-11 by DIN ISO 5800:1998-06 both in July 2002.
The film speed scale recommended by the British Standards Institution (BSI) was almost identical to the DIN system except that the BS number was 10 degrees greater than the DIN number.
Before the advent of the ASA system, the system of Weston film speed ratings was introduced by Edward Faraday Weston (1878–1971) and his father Dr. Edward Weston (1850–1936), a British-born electrical engineer, industrialist and founder of the US-based Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation, with the Weston model 617, one of the earliest photo-electric exposure meters, in August 1932. The meter and film rating system were invented by William Nelson Goodwin, Jr., who worked for them and later received a Howard N. Potts Medal for his contributions to engineering.
The company tested and frequently published speed ratings for most films of the time. Weston film speed ratings could since be found on most Weston exposure meters and were sometimes referred to by film manufactures and third parties in their exposure guidelines. Since manufactures were sometimes creative about film speeds, the company went as far as to warn users about unauthorized uses of their film ratings in their "Weston film ratings" booklets.
The Weston Cadet (model 852 introduced in 1949), Direct Reading (model 853 introduced 1954) and Master III (models 737 and S141.3 introduced in 1956) were the first in their line of exposure meters to switch and utilize the meanwhile established ASA scale instead. Other models used the original Weston scale up until ca. 1955. The company continued to publish Weston film ratings after 1955, but while their recommended values often differed slightly from the ASA film speeds found on film boxes, these newer Weston values were based on the ASA system and had to be converted for use with older Weston meters by subtracting 1/3 exposure stop as per Weston's recommendation. Vice versa, "old" Weston film speed ratings could be converted into "new" Westons and the ASA scale by adding the same amount, that is, a film rating of 100 Weston (up to 1955) corresponded with 125 ASA (as per ASA PH2.5-1954 and before). This conversion was not necessary on Weston meters manufactured and Weston film ratings published since 1956 due to their inherent use of the ASA system; however the changes of the ASA PH2.5-1960 revision may be taken into account when comparing with newer ASA or ISO values.
Prior to the establishment of the ASA scale and similar to Weston film speed ratings another manufacturer of photo-electric exposure meters, General Electric, developed its own rating system of so-called General Electric film values (often abbreviated as G-E or GE) around 1937.
General Electric switched to use the ASA scale in 1946. Meters manufactured since February 1946 are equipped with the ASA scale (labeled "Exposure Index") already. For some of the older meters with scales in "Film Speed" or "Film Value" (e.g. models DW-48, DW-49 as well as early DW-58 and GW-68 variants), replaceable hoods with ASA scales were available from the manufacturer. The company continued to publish recommended film values after that date, however, they were then aligned to the ASA scale.
Based on earlier research work by Loyd Ancile Jones (1884–1954) of Kodak and inspired by the systems of Weston film speed ratings and General Electric film values, the American Standards Association (now named ANSI) defined a new method to determine and specify film speeds of black-and-white negative films in 1943. ASA Z38.2.1-1943 was revised in 1946 and 1947 before the standard grew into ASA PH2.5-1954. Originally, ASA values were frequently referred to as American standard speed numbers or ASA exposure-index numbers. (See also: Exposure Index (EI).)
The ASA scale is a linear scale, that is, a film denoted as having a film speed of 200 ASA is twice as fast as a film with 100 ASA.
The ASA standard underwent a major revision in 1960 with ASA PH2.5-1960, when the method to determine film speed was refined and previously applied safety factors against under-exposure were abandoned, effectively doubling the nominal speed of many black-and-white negative films. For example, an Ilford HP3 that had been rated at 200 ASA before 1960 was labeled 400 ASA afterwards without any change to the emulsion. Similar changes were applied to the DIN system with DIN 4512:1961-10 and the BS system with BS 1380:1963 in the following years.
In addition to the established arithmetic speed scale, ASA PH2.5-1960 also introduced logarithmic ASA grades (100 ASA = 5° ASA), where a difference of 1° ASA represented a full exposure stop and therefore the doubling of a film speed. For some while, ASA grades were also printed on film boxes, and they saw life in the form of the APEX speed value Sv (without degree symbol) as well.
ASA PH2.5-1960 was revised as ANSI PH2.5-1979, without the logarithmic speeds, and later replaced by NAPM IT2.5-1986 of the National Association of Photographic Manufacturers, which represented the US adoption of the international standard ISO 6. The latest issue of ANSI/NAPM IT2.5 was published in 1993.
The standard for color negative film was introduced as ASA PH2.27-1965 and saw a string of revisions in 1971, 1976, 1979 and 1981, before it finally became ANSI IT2.27-1988 prior to its withdrawal.
Color reversal film speeds were defined in ANSI PH2.21-1983, which was revised in 1989 before it became ANSI/NAPM IT2.21 in 1994, the US adoption of the ISO 2240 standard.
On an international level, the ASA system was superseded by the ISO film speed system between 1982 and 1987, however, the arithmetic ASA speed scale continued to live on as the linear speed value of the ISO system.
GOST (Cyrillic: ГОСТ) was an arithmetic film speed scale defined in GOST 2817-45 and GOST 2817-50. It was used in the former Soviet Union since October 1951, replacing Hurter & Driffield (H&D, Cyrillic: ХиД) numbers, which had been used since 1928.
GOST 2817-50 was similar to the ASA standard, having been based on a speed point at a density 0.2 above base plus fog, as opposed to the ASA's 0.1. GOST markings are only found on pre-1987 photographic equipment (film, cameras, lightmeters, etc.) of Soviet Union manufacture.
The current International Standard for measuring the speed of color negative film is ISO 5800:2001 (first published in 1979, revised in November 1987) from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Related standards ISO 6:1993 (first published in 1974) and ISO 2240:2003 (first published in July 1982, revised in September 1994, and corrected in October 2003) define scales for speeds of black-and-white negative film and color reversal film, respectively.
The determination of ISO speeds with digital still-cameras is described in ISO 12232:2006 (first published in August 1998, revised in April 2006, and corrected in October 2006).
The ISO system defines both an arithmetic and a logarithmic scale. The arithmetic ISO scale corresponds to the arithmetic ASA system, where a doubling of film sensitivity is represented by a doubling of the numerical film speed value. In the logarithmic ISO scale, which corresponds to the DIN scale, adding 3° to the numerical value constitutes a doubling of sensitivity. For example, a film rated ISO 200/24° is twice as sensitive as one rated ISO 100/21°.
Commonly, the logarithmic speed is omitted; for example, "ISO 100" denotes "ISO 100/21°", while logarithmic ISO speeds are written as "ISO 21°" as per the standard.
Conversion from arithmetic speed S to logarithmic speed S° is given by
and rounding to the nearest integer; the log is base 10. Conversion from logarithmic speed to arithmetic speed is given by
and rounding to the nearest standard arithmetic speed in Table 1 below.
|APEX Sv (1960–)||ISO (1974–)
|Camera mfrs. (2009–)||ASA (1960–1987)
|Example of film stock|
with this nominal speed
|1/1°||1||1||(1)||Svema Micrat-orto, Astrum Micrat-orto|
|0||3/6°||3||6||2.8||Svema MZ-3, Astrum MZ-3|
|5/8°||5||8||(4)||original three-strip Technicolor|
|10/11°||10||11||(8)||Kodachrome 8 mm film|
|2||12/12°||12||12||11||Gevacolor 8 mm reversal film, later Agfa Dia-Direct|
|16/13°||16||13||(16)||Agfacolor 8 mm reversal film|
|20/14°||20||14||(16)||Adox CMS 20|
|3||25/15°||25||15||22||old Agfacolor, Kodachrome II and (later) Kodachrome 25, Efke 25|
|40/17°||40||17||(32)||Kodachrome 40 (movie)|
|4||50/18°||50||18||45||Fuji RVP (Velvia), Ilford Pan F Plus, Kodak Vision2 50D 5201 (movie), AGFA CT18, Efke 50, Polaroid type 55|
|64/19°||64||19||(65)||Kodachrome 64, Ektachrome-X, Polaroid type 64T|
|80/20°||80||20||(65)||Ilford Commercial Ortho, Polaroid type 669|
|5||100/21°||100||21||90||Kodacolor Gold, Kodak T-Max (TMX), Fujichrome Provia 100F, Efke 100, Fomapan/Arista 100|
|125/22°||125||22||(130)||Ilford FP4+, Kodak Plus-X Pan, Svema Color 125|
|160/23°||160||23||(130)||Fujicolor Pro 160C/S, Kodak High-Speed Ektachrome, Kodak Portra 160NC and 160VC|
|6||200/24°||200||24||180||Fujicolor Superia 200, Agfa Scala 200x, Fomapan/Arista 200, Wittner Chrome 200D/Agfa Aviphot Chrome 200 PE1|
|320/26°||320||26||(250)||Kodak Tri-X Pan Professional (TXP)|
|7||400/27°||400||27||350||Kodak T-Max (TMY), Kodak Tri-X 400, Ilford HP5+, Fujifilm Superia X-tra 400, Fujichrome Provia 400X, Fomapan/Arista 400|
|500/28°||500||28||(500)||Kodak Vision3 500T 5219 (movie)|
|8||800/30°||800||30||700||Fuji Pro 800Z, Fuji Instax|
|1000/31°||1000||31||(1000)||Ilford Delta 3200, Kodak P3200 TMAX|
|1250/32°||1250||32||(1000)||Kodak Royal-X Panchromatic|
|9||1600/33°||1600||33||1400 (1440)||Fujicolor 1600|
|10||3200/36°||3200||36||2800 (2880)||Konica 3200, Polaroid type 667, Fujifilm FP-3000B, Kodak Tmax 3200 B&W|
|12||12500/42°||12800||12500||No ISO speeds greater than 10000 have been assigned officially as of 2013.|
|20000/44°||Polaroid type 612|
|15||100000/51°||102400||51||Nikon D3s and Canon EOS-1D Mark IV (2009)|
|16||200000/54°||204800||Canon EOS-1D X (2011), Nikon D4 (2012), Pentax 645Z (2014)|
|17||400000/57°||409600||Nikon D4s, Sony α ILCE-7S (2014), Canon EOS 1D X Mark II (2016)|
|20||3200000/66°||3280000||Nikon D5 (2016)|
|4000000/67°||4560000||Canon ME20F-SH (2015)|
As discussed in the ASA and DIN sections, the definition of the ASA and DIN scales changed several times in the 1950s up into the early 1960s making it necessary to convert between the different scales. Since the ISO system combines the newer ASA and DIN definitions, this conversion is also necessary when comparing older ASA and DIN scales with the ISO scale.
The picture shows an ASA/DIN conversion in a 1952 photography book in which 21/10° DIN was converted to ASA 80 instead of ASA 100.
Some classic camera's exposure guides show the old conversion as they were valid at the time of production, for example the exposure guide of the classic camera Tessina (since 1957), where 21/10° DIN is related to ASA 80, 18° DIN to ASA 40, etc. Users of classic cameras, who do not know the historic background, may be confused.
Film speed is found from a plot of optical density vs. log of exposure for the film, known as the D–log H curve or Hurter–Driffield curve. There typically are five regions in the curve: the base + fog, the toe, the linear region, the shoulder, and the overexposed region. For black-and-white negative film, the "speed point" m is the point on the curve where density exceeds the base + fog density by 0.1 when the negative is developed so that a point n where the log of exposure is 1.3 units greater than the exposure at point m has a density 0.8 greater than the density at point m. The exposure Hm, in lux-s, is that for point m when the specified contrast condition is satisfied. The ISO arithmetic speed is determined from:
This value is then rounded to the nearest standard speed in Table 1 of ISO 6:1993.
Determining speed for color negative film is similar in concept but more complex because it involves separate curves for blue, green, and red. The film is processed according to the film manufacturer’s recommendations rather than to a specified contrast. ISO speed for color reversal film is determined from the middle rather than the threshold of the curve; it again involves separate curves for blue, green, and red, and the film is processed according to the film manufacturer’s recommendations.
Film speed is used in the exposure equations to find the appropriate exposure parameters. Four variables are available to the photographer to obtain the desired effect: lighting, film speed, f-number (aperture size), and shutter speed (exposure time). The equation may be expressed as ratios, or, by taking the logarithm (base 2) of both sides, by addition, using the APEX system, in which every increment of 1 is a doubling of exposure; this increment is commonly known as a "stop". The effective f-number is proportional to the ratio between the lens focal length and aperture diameter, the diameter itself being proportional to the square root of the aperture area. Thus, a lens set to f/1.4 allows twice as much light to strike the focal plane as a lens set to f/2. Therefore, each f-number factor of the square root of two (approximately 1.4) is also a stop, so lenses are typically marked in that progression: f/1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, etc.
The ISO arithmetic speed has a useful property for photographers without the equipment for taking a metered light reading. Correct exposure will usually be achieved for a frontlighted scene in bright sun if the aperture of the lens is set to f/16 and the shutter speed is the reciprocal of the ISO film speed (e.g. 1/100 second for 100 ISO film). This known as the sunny 16 rule.
Exposure index, or EI, refers to speed rating assigned to a particular film and shooting situation in variance to the film's actual speed. It is used to compensate for equipment calibration inaccuracies or process variables, or to achieve certain effects. The exposure index may simply be called the speed setting, as compared to the speed rating.
For example, a photographer may rate an ISO 400 film at EI 800 and then use push processing to obtain printable negatives in low-light conditions. The film has been exposed at EI 800.
Another example occurs where a camera's shutter is miscalibrated and consistently overexposes or underexposes the film; similarly, a light meter may be inaccurate. One may adjust the EI rating accordingly in order to compensate for these defects and consistently produce correctly exposed negatives.
Upon exposure, the amount of light energy that reaches the film determines the effect upon the emulsion. If the brightness of the light is multiplied by a factor and the exposure of the film decreased by the same factor by varying the camera's shutter speed and aperture, so that the energy received is the same, the film will be developed to the same density. This rule is called reciprocity. The systems for determining the sensitivity for an emulsion are possible because reciprocity holds. In practice, reciprocity works reasonably well for normal photographic films for the range of exposures between 1/1000 second to 1/2 second. However, this relationship breaks down outside these limits, a phenomenon known as reciprocity failure.
The size of silver halide grains in the emulsion affects film sensitivity, which is related to granularity because larger grains give film greater sensitivity to light. Fine-grain film, such as film designed for portraiture or copying original camera negatives, is relatively insensitive, or "slow", because it requires brighter light or a longer exposure than a "fast" film. Fast films, used for photographing in low light or capturing high-speed motion, produce comparatively grainy images.
Kodak has defined a "Print Grain Index" (PGI) to characterize film grain (color negative films only), based on perceptual just-noticeable difference of graininess in prints. They also define "granularity", a measurement of grain using an RMS measurement of density fluctuations in uniformly exposed film, measured with a microdensitometer with 48 micrometre aperture. Granularity varies with exposure — underexposed film looks grainier than overexposed film.
Some high-speed black-and-white films, such as Ilford Delta 3200, P3200 T-Max, and T-MAX P3200 are marketed with film speeds in excess of their true ISO speed as determined using the ISO testing method. According to the respective data sheets, the Ilford product is actually an ISO 1000 film, while the Kodak film's speed is nominally 800 to 1000 ISO. The manufacturers do not indicate that the 3200 number is an ISO rating on their packaging. Kodak and Fuji also marketed E6 films designed for pushing (hence the "P" prefix), such as Ektachrome P800/1600 and Fujichrome P1600, both with a base speed of ISO 400. The DX codes on the film cartridges indicate the marketed film speed (ie. 3200), not the ISO speed, in order to automate shooting and development.
In digital camera systems, an arbitrary relationship between exposure and sensor data values can be achieved by setting the signal gain of the sensor. The relationship between the sensor data values and the lightness of the finished image is also arbitrary, depending on the parameters chosen for the interpretation of the sensor data into an image color space such as sRGB.
For digital photo cameras ("digital still cameras"), an exposure index (EI) rating—commonly called ISO setting—is specified by the manufacturer such that the sRGB image files produced by the camera will have a lightness similar to what would be obtained with film of the same EI rating at the same exposure. The usual design is that the camera's parameters for interpreting the sensor data values into sRGB values are fixed, and a number of different EI choices are accommodated by varying the sensor's signal gain in the analog realm, prior to conversion to digital. Some camera designs provide at least some EI choices by adjusting the sensor's signal gain in the digital realm("expanded ISO"). A few camera designs also provide EI adjustment through a choice of lightness parameters for the interpretation of sensor data values into sRGB; this variation allows different tradeoffs between the range of highlights that can be captured and the amount of noise introduced into the shadow areas of the photo.
Digital cameras have far surpassed film in terms of sensitivity to light, with ISO equivalent speeds of up to 4,560,000, a number that is unfathomable in the realm of conventional film photography. Faster processors, as well as advances in software noise reduction techniques allow this type of processing to be executed the moment the photo is captured, allowing photographers to store images that have a higher level of refinement and would have been prohibitively time consuming to process with earlier generations of digital camera hardware.
The ISO standard ISO 12232:2006 gives digital still camera manufacturers a choice of five different techniques for determining the exposure index rating at each sensitivity setting provided by a particular camera model. Three of the techniques in ISO 12232:2006 are carried over from the 1998 version of the standard, while two new techniques allowing for measurement of JPEG output files are introduced from CIPA DC-004. Depending on the technique selected, the exposure index rating can depend on the sensor sensitivity, the sensor noise, and the appearance of the resulting image. The standard specifies the measurement of light sensitivity of the entire digital camera system and not of individual components such as digital sensors, although Kodak has reported using a variation to characterize the sensitivity of two of their sensors in 2001.
The Recommended Exposure Index (REI) technique, new in the 2006 version of the standard, allows the manufacturer to specify a camera model’s EI choices arbitrarily. The choices are based solely on the manufacturer’s opinion of what EI values produce well-exposed sRGB images at the various sensor sensitivity settings. This is the only technique available under the standard for output formats that are not in the sRGB color space. This is also the only technique available under the standard when multi-zone metering (also called pattern metering) is used.
The Standard Output Sensitivity (SOS) technique, also new in the 2006 version of the standard, effectively specifies that the average level in the sRGB image must be 18% gray plus or minus 1/3 stop when the exposure is controlled by an automatic exposure control system calibrated per ISO 2721 and set to the EI with no exposure compensation. Because the output level is measured in the sRGB output from the camera, it is only applicable to sRGB images—typically JPEG—and not to output files in raw image format. It is not applicable when multi-zone metering is used.
The CIPA DC-004 standard requires that Japanese manufacturers of digital still cameras use either the REI or SOS techniques, and DC-008 updates the Exif specification to differentiate between these values. Consequently, the three EI techniques carried over from ISO 12232:1998 are not widely used in recent camera models (approximately 2007 and later). As those earlier techniques did not allow for measurement from images produced with lossy compression, they cannot be used at all on cameras that produce images only in JPEG format.
The saturation-based (SAT or Ssat) technique is closely related to the SOS technique, with the sRGB output level being measured at 100% white rather than 18% gray. The SOS value is effectively 0.704 times the saturation-based value. Because the output level is measured in the sRGB output from the camera, it is only applicable to sRGB images—typically TIFF—and not to output files in raw image format. It is not applicable when multi-zone metering is used.
The two noise-based techniques have rarely been used for consumer digital still cameras. These techniques specify the highest EI that can be used while still providing either an "excellent" picture or a "usable" picture depending on the technique chosen.
An update to this standard has now been published ISO 12236:2019. I believe it extends the range of official ISO values https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:12232:ed-3:v1:en gives an overview.
ISO speed ratings of a digital camera are based on the properties of the sensor and the image processing done in the camera, and are expressed in terms of the luminous exposure H (in lux seconds) arriving at the sensor. For a typical camera lens with an effective focal length f that is much smaller than the distance between the camera and the photographed scene, H is given by
is a factor depending on the transmittance T of the lens, the vignetting factor v(θ), and the angle θ relative to the axis of the lens. A typical value is q = 0.65, based on θ = 10°, T = 0.9, and v = 0.98.
The saturation-based speed is defined as
where is the maximum possible exposure that does not lead to a clipped or bloomed camera output. Typically, the lower limit of the saturation speed is determined by the sensor itself, but with the gain of the amplifier between the sensor and the analog-to-digital converter, the saturation speed can be increased. The factor 78 is chosen such that exposure settings based on a standard light meter and an 18-percent reflective surface will result in an image with a grey level of 18%/√ = 12.7% of saturation. The factor √ indicates that there is half a stop of headroom to deal with specular reflections that would appear brighter than a 100% reflecting white surface.
The noise-based speed is defined as the exposure that will lead to a given signal-to-noise ratio on individual pixels. Two ratios are used, the 40:1 ("excellent image quality") and the 10:1 ("acceptable image quality") ratio. These ratios have been subjectively determined based on a resolution of 70 pixels per cm (178 DPI) when viewed at 25 cm (9.8 inch) distance. The signal-to-noise ratio is defined as the standard deviation of a weighted average of the luminance and color of individual pixels. The noise-based speed is mostly determined by the properties of the sensor and somewhat affected by the noise in the electronic gain and AD converter.
In addition to the above speed ratings, the standard also defines the standard output sensitivity (SOS), how the exposure is related to the digital pixel values in the output image. It is defined as
The standard specifies how speed ratings should be reported by the camera. If the noise-based speed (40:1) is higher than the saturation-based speed, the noise-based speed should be reported, rounded downwards to a standard value (e.g. 200, 250, 320, or 400). The rationale is that exposure according to the lower saturation-based speed would not result in a visibly better image. In addition, an exposure latitude can be specified, ranging from the saturation-based speed to the 10:1 noise-based speed. If the noise-based speed (40:1) is lower than the saturation-based speed, or undefined because of high noise, the saturation-based speed is specified, rounded upwards to a standard value, because using the noise-based speed would lead to overexposed images. The camera may also report the SOS-based speed (explicitly as being an SOS speed), rounded to the nearest standard speed rating.
For example, a camera sensor may have the following properties: , , and . According to the standard, the camera should report its sensitivity as
The SOS rating could be user controlled. For a different camera with a noisier sensor, the properties might be , , and . In this case, the camera should report
as well as a user-adjustable SOS value. In all cases, the camera should indicate for the white balance setting for which the speed rating applies, such as daylight or tungsten (incandescent light).
Despite these detailed standard definitions, cameras typically do not clearly indicate whether the user "ISO" setting refers to the noise-based speed, saturation-based speed, or the specified output sensitivity, or even some made-up number for marketing purposes. Because the 1998 version of ISO 12232 did not permit measurement of camera output that had lossy compression, it was not possible to correctly apply any of those measurements to cameras that did not produce sRGB files in an uncompressed format such as TIFF. Following the publication of CIPA DC-004 in 2006, Japanese manufacturers of digital still cameras are required to specify whether a sensitivity rating is REI or SOS.
As should be clear from the above, a greater SOS setting for a given sensor comes with some loss of image quality, just like with analog film. However, this loss is visible as image noise rather than grain. Current (January 2010) APS and 35mm sized digital image sensors, both CMOS and CCD based, do not produce significant noise until about ISO 1600.
110 is a cartridge-based film format used in still photography. It was introduced by Kodak in 1972. 110 is essentially a miniaturised version of Kodak's earlier 126 film format. Each frame is 13 mm × 17 mm (0.51 in × 0.67 in), with one registration hole. There were 24 frames per cartridge that occasionally enabled the user to capture an extra image due to production variations.
The film is fully housed in a plastic cartridge, which also registers the image when the film is advanced. There is a continuous backing paper, and the frame number and film type are visible through a window at the rear of the cartridge. The film does not need to be rewound and is very simple to load and unload. It is pre-exposed with frame lines and numbers, a feature intended to make it easier and more efficient for photofinishers to print.
Unlike later competing formats, such as disc and APS film, processed 110 negatives are returned in strips, without the original cartridge.200 (number)
200 (two hundred) is the natural number following 199 and preceding 201.
The number appears in the Padovan sequence, preceded by 86, 114, 151 (it is the sum of the first two of these).The sum of Euler's totient function φ(x) over the first twenty-five integers is 200.
200 is the smallest base 10 unprimeable number – it can not be turned into a prime number by changing just one of its digits to any other digit. It is also a Harshad number.
Two hundred is also:
A common ISO-standard film speed for photographic films. However, 200 speed film is being phased out in consumer films in favor of faster films.
A denomination of the euro note. The 200 euro note was designed by Robert Kalina.
200 MeV is the temperature of quark–gluon plasma phase transition.
An HTTP status code indicating a successful connection.
The sum of pounds (or dollars) given in the classical Monopoly game to a player passing Go.
A cholesterol level of 200 and below is considered "desirable level corresponding to lower risk for heart disease".
The number of NASCAR Cup Series races won by Richard Petty.
A vehicle that has reached 200 mph.
The North West 200, a motorcycle race held in Northern Ireland.APEX system
APEX stands for Additive System of Photographic Exposure, which
was proposed in the 1960 ASA standard
for monochrome film speed, ASA PH2.5-1960,
as a means of simplifying exposure computation.Camera
A camera is an optical instrument to capture still images or to record moving images, which are stored in a physical medium such as in a digital system or on photographic film. A camera consists of a lens which focuses light from the scene, and a camera body which holds the image capture mechanism.
Still images stored in digital form are called "image files," while moving images similarly stored are called "video files." In the deprecated paradigm of photographic film for image storage, still images are simply called "photographs," and moving images are called "films." The still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography and captured images may be reproduced later as a part of the process of photography, digital imaging, photographic printing. The similar artistic fields in the moving image camera domain are film, videography, and cinematography.
The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura. The functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. The first permanent photograph was made in 1825 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.Canon T50
The Canon T50, introduced in March 1983 and discontinued in December 1989, was the first in Canon's new T series of 35mm single-lens reflex cameras compatible with Canon's FD lens mount. SLR sales were falling in 1983 from the market's 1981 peak, and Canon chose to try greater automation to revive sales and remain competitive. This approach had found favor in compact cameras such as the AF35M "Autoboy" (Japan) or "Sure Shot" (US). The T50 had a power winder built in giving a continuous shooting rate of 1.4 frames per second, as well as an advanced auto-exposure mode, although it was still a manual focus camera. Unlike those compact cameras and the higher-end models in the T series, the T50 did not have power rewind, relying on a manual crank. The camera's electric systems were powered by two AA batteries in the grip, which gave enough power to shoot 75 24-exposure rolls, or 50 36-exposure rolls.
The T50 used a new shutter design. Canon's previous A series cameras used a horizontally travelling cloth shutter, while the T50 (and subsequent T series models) used a vertically travelling metal blade shutter which allowed for faster shutter speeds and higher flash X-sync speeds. Only a modest increase was seen in the T50; more would be available in subsequent cameras.
Only Program AE (Auto Exposure) mode was available on the T50, in line with its role as a simple beginner's camera. A couple of years earlier, Konica had tried a similar approach with their FP-1.
Canon released a new flash unit for the T50, the Speedlite 244T. This simple-to-use flash used an infrared preflash to judge the distance to the subject, and only had two buttons; a power switch and a film speed setting which toggled between 100 and 400 ISO film speed.DX encoding
DX (Digital indeX) encoding is an ANSI and I3A standard, originally introduced by Kodak in March 1983, for marking 135 and APS photographic film and film cartridges. It consists of several parts, a latent image DX film edge barcode on the film below the sprocket holes, a code on the cartridge used by automatic cameras, and a barcode on the cartridge read by photo-finishing machines.Digital versus film photography
The merits of digital versus film photography were considered by photographers and filmmakers in the early 21st century after consumer digital cameras became widely available. Digital photography and digital cinematography have both advantages and disadvantages relative to still film and motion picture film photography. In the 21st century photography came to be predominantly digital, but traditional photochemical methods continue to serve many users and applications.Exposure (photography)
In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film or electronic image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance. Exposure is measured in lux seconds, and can be computed from exposure value (EV) and scene luminance in a specified region.
In photographic jargon, an exposure is a single shutter cycle. For example: a long exposure refers to a single, protracted shutter cycle to capture enough low-intensity light, whereas a multiple exposure involves a series of relatively brief shutter cycles; effectively layering a series of photographs in one image. For the same film speed, the accumulated photometric exposure (Hv) should be similar in both cases.Exposure compensation
Exposure compensation is a technique for adjusting the exposure indicated by a photographic exposure meter, in consideration of factors that may cause the indicated exposure to result in a less-than-optimal image. Factors considered may include unusual lighting distribution, variations within a camera system, filters, non-standard processing, or intended underexposure or overexposure. Cinematographers may also apply exposure compensation for changes in shutter angle or film speed (as exposure index), among other factors.
Many digital cameras have a display setting and possibly a physical dial whereby the photographer can set the camera to either over or under expose the subject by up to three f-stops (f-numbers) in 1/3rd stop intervals. Each number on the scale (1,2,3) represents one f-stop, decreasing the exposure by one f-stop will halve the amount of light reaching the sensor. The dots in between the numbers represent 1/3rd of an f-stop.Exposure value
In photography, exposure value (EV) is a number that represents a combination of a camera's shutter speed and f-number, such that all combinations that yield the same exposure have the same EV (for any fixed scene luminance). Exposure value is also used to indicate an interval on the photographic exposure scale, with a difference of 1 EV corresponding to a standard power-of-2 exposure step, commonly referred to as a stop.The EV concept was developed by the German shutter manufacturer Friedrich Deckel in the 1950s (Gebele 1958; Ray 2000, 318). Its intent was to simplify choosing among equivalent camera exposure settings by replacing combinations of shutter speed and f-number (e.g., 1/125 s at f/16) with a single number (e.g., 15).
On some lenses with leaf shutters, the process was further simplified by allowing the shutter and aperture controls to be linked such that, when one was changed, the other was automatically adjusted to maintain the same exposure. This was especially helpful to beginners with limited understanding of the effects of shutter speed and aperture and the relationship between them. But it was also useful for experienced photographers who might choose a shutter speed to stop motion or an f-number for depth of field, because it allowed for faster adjustment—without the need for mental calculations—and reduced the chance of error when making the adjustment.
The concept became known as the Light Value System (LVS) in Europe; it was generally known as the Exposure Value System (EVS) when the features became available on cameras in the United States (Desfor 1957).
Because of mechanical considerations, the coupling of shutter and aperture was limited to lenses with leaf shutters; however, various automatic exposure modes now work to somewhat the same effect in cameras with focal-plane shutters.
The proper EV was determined by the scene luminance and film speed; it was intended that the system also include adjustment for filters, exposure compensation, and other variables. With all of these elements included, the camera would be set by transferring the single number thus determined.
Exposure value has been indicated in various ways. The ASA and ANSI standards used the quantity symbol Ev, with the subscript v indicating the logarithmic value; this symbol continues to be used in ISO standards, but the acronym EV is more common elsewhere. The Exif standard uses Ev (CIPA 2016).
Although all camera settings with the same EV nominally give the same exposure, they do not necessarily give the same picture. The f-number (relative aperture) determines the depth of field, and the shutter speed (exposure time) determines the amount of motion blur, as illustrated by the two images at the right (and at long exposure times, as a second-order effect, the light-sensitive medium may exhibit reciprocity failure, which is a change of light sensitivity dependent on the irradiance at the film).Lego Speed Racer
Lego Speed Racer is a 2008 Lego theme based on the 2008 film Speed Racer (which is based on the anime of the same name). It consists of four sets which were first released in April 2008.Light meter
A light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light. In photography, a light meter is often used to determine the proper exposure for a photograph. Typically a light meter will include either digital or analog electronic circuit, which allows the photographer to determine which shutter speed and f-number should be selected for an optimum exposure, given a certain lighting situation and film speed.
Light meters are also used in the fields of cinematography and scenic design, in order to determine the optimum light level for a scene. They are used in the general field of architectural lighting design to verify proper installation and performance of a building lighting system, and in assessing the light levels for growing plants.Photographic film
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film.The emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a very short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change, proportional to the amount of light absorbed by each crystal. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed into a visible photograph. In addition to visible light, all films are sensitive to ultraviolet, X-rays and high-energy particles. Unmodified silver halide crystals are sensitive only to the blue part of the visible spectrum, producing unnatural-looking renditions of some colored subjects. This problem was resolved with the discovery that certain dyes, called sensitizing dyes, when adsorbed onto the silver halide crystals made them respond to other colors as well. First orthochromatic (sensitive to blue and green) and finally panchromatic (sensitive to all visible colors) films were developed. Panchromatic film renders all colors in shades of gray approximately matching their subjective brightness. By similar techniques, special-purpose films can be made sensitive to the infrared (IR) region of the spectrum.In black-and-white photographic film, there is usually one layer of silver halide crystals. When the exposed silver halide grains are developed, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, which blocks light and appears as the black part of the film negative. Color film has at least three sensitive layers, incorporating different combinations of sensitizing dyes. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by a yellow filter layer to stop any remaining blue light from affecting the layers below. Next comes a green-and-blue sensitive layer, and a red-and-blue sensitive layer, which record the green and red images respectively. During development, the exposed silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. But in a color film, the by-products of the development reaction simultaneously combine with chemicals known as color couplers that are included either in the film itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, the dye clouds formed are also in proportion to the exposure and development. Following development, the silver is converted back to silver halide crystals in the bleach step. It is removed from the film during the process of fixing the image on the film with a solution of ammonium thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate (hypo or fixer). Fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Later color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers, with upwards of 20 different chemicals in each layer.Push processing
Push processing in photography, sometimes called uprating, refers to a film developing technique that increases the effective sensitivity of the film being processed. Push processing involves developing the film for more time, possibly in combination with a higher temperature, than the manufacturer's recommendations. This technique results in effective overdevelopment of the film, compensating for underexposure in the camera.Roll film
Rollfilm or roll film is any type of spool-wound photographic film protected from white light exposure by a paper backing, as opposed to film which is protected from exposure and wound forward in a cartridge. The term originated in contrast to sheet film. Confusingly, roll film was originally often referred to as "cartridge" film because of its resemblance to a shotgun cartridge.
The opaque backing paper allows roll film to be loaded in daylight. It is typically printed with frame number markings which can be viewed through a small red window at the rear of the camera. A spool of roll film is usually loaded on one side of the camera and pulled across to an identical take up spool on the other side of the shutter as exposures are made. When the roll is fully exposed, the take up spool is removed for processing and the empty spool on which the film was originally wound is moved to the other side, becoming the take up spool for the next roll of film.Signal-to-noise ratio (imaging)
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used in imaging as a physical measure of the sensitivity of a (digital or film) imaging system. Industry standards measure SNR in decibels (dB) of power and therefore apply the 10 log rule to the "pure" SNR ratio (a ratio of 1:1 yields 0 decibels, for instance). In turn, yielding the "sensitivity." Industry standards measure and define sensitivity in terms of the ISO film speed equivalent; SNR:32.04 dB = excellent image quality and SNR:20 dB = acceptable image quality.Street Racer (film)
Street Racer is a 2008 action film by The Asylum. Its title is similar to the film Speed Racer, but its overall plot bears a closer similarity to The Fast and the Furious, and particularly The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift, which had been released in 2006. The film is advertised by The Asylum as being based on true events.Zone System
The Zone System is a photographic technique for determining optimal film exposure and development, formulated by Ansel Adams and Fred Archer. Adams described the Zone System as "[...] not an invention of mine; it is a codification of the principles of sensitometry, worked out by Fred Archer and myself at the Art Center School in Los Angeles, around 1939–40."The technique is based on the late 19th century sensitometry studies of Hurter and Driffield. The Zone System provides photographers with a systematic method of precisely defining the relationship between the way they visualize the photographic subject and the final results. Although it originated with black-and-white sheet film, the Zone System is also applicable to roll film, both black-and-white and color, negative and reversal, and to digital photography.
ISO standards by standard number