Filippo Brunelleschi

Filippo Brunelleschi (/ˌbruːnəˈlɛski/ BROO-nə-LESK-ee, Italian: [fiˈlippo brunelˈleski]; 1377 – April 15, 1446), considered to be a founding father of Renaissance architecture, was an Italian architect and designer, recognized to be the first modern engineer, planner, and sole construction supervisor.[4][5] He is most famous for designing the dome of the Florence Cathedral, a feat of engineering that had not been accomplished since antiquity, as well as the development of the mathematical technique of linear perspective in art which governed pictorial depictions of space until the late 19th century and influenced the rise of modern science.[6][7] His accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering, and ship design.[5] His principal surviving works can be found in Florence, Italy.

Filippo Brunelleschi
Greatest architect - Brunelleschi
Presumed depiction in Resurrection of the Son of Theophilus, Masaccio
Filippo di ser Brunellesco di Lippo Lapi[1]

DiedApril 15, 1446 (aged 68–69)
Florence, Republic of Florence
Known forArchitecture, sculpture, mechanical engineering
Notable work
Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore
MovementEarly Renaissance
Santa Maria del Fiore
The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence possesses the largest brick dome in the world,[2][3] and is considered a masterpiece of European architecture.

Early life

Brunelleschi was born in Florence, Italy in 1377.[8] His family consisted of his father, Brunellesco di Lippo, a notary and civil servant, his mother Giuliana Spini, and his two brothers.[9] The family was well-off; the palace of the Spini family still exists, across from the Church of the Trinita in Florence. [10] The young Filippo was given a literary and mathematical education intended to enable him to follow in the footsteps of his father. Being artistically inclined, however, Filippo, at the age of twenty-two, was apprenticed to the Arte della Seta, the silk merchants' guild, the wealthiest and most prestigious guild in the city, which also included jewelers and metal craftsmen. In 1398, he became a master goldsmith and a sculptor working with cast bronze. [5]

Sculpture - Competition for the Florence Baptistry Doors

His earliest still-existing sculptures are two small bronze statues of evangelists and saints (1399-1400) made for the altar of the Crucifix Chapel Pistoia Cathedral. [11] In 1400 the City of Florence decided to celebrate the end of a deadly epidemic of the Black Death by creating new sculpted and gilded bronze doors for the Baptistry of Florence. A competition was held in 1401 for the design, which drew seven competitors, including Filippo Brunelleschi and another young sculptor, Lorenzo Ghiberti. For the competition, each sculptor was required produce a single bronze panel, depicting the Sacrifice of Isaac within a Gothic four-leaf frame. The panels each contained Abraham, Isaac, an angel and other figures imagined by the artists, and had to harmonize in style with the existing doors, made in 1330 by Andrea Pisano. The head of the jury was Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, who later became an important patron of Brunelleschi. The jury selected Ghiberti, whose composition was simpler and more classical, but the work of Brunneleschi, with more dramatic movement, made a good impression. Brunnelesci, however, did not like to be second at anything; he promptly abandoned sculpture and thereafter devoted his attention entirely to architecture and optics. [12][13]

Filippo Brunelleschi (attr.), san giovanni evangelista, 1400-01 ca. 01

St. John the Evangelist, Altar of Saint at Church of San Zeno, Pistoia (1399-1400)

Filippo brunelleschi, Geremia, 1400-1401, 05

Prophet Jeremiah detail of altarpiece, Church of San Zeno, Pistoia (1399-1400)

Filippo brunelleschi, Isaia, 1400-1401, 04

The Prophet Isaiah, Church of San Zeno, Pistoia detail of altarpiece (1399-1400)

Brunelleschi, sacrificio di Isacco

THe Sacrifice of Isaac, Brunneleschi's competition project for a door panel of the Baptistry of Florence (1401)

Rediscovery of antiquity (1402-04)

Around 1400, there emerged a new interest in the art of ancient Greece and Rome, which held the art of Greco-Roman antiquity in higher regard than the formal and less lifelike style of the medieval period. However, this interest was restricted to a few scholars, writers, and philosophers before it began to influence the visual arts. In this period (1402–1404), Brunelleschi and his friend the sculptor Donatello visited Rome to study its ancient ruins. Donatello, like Brunelleschi, was trained as a goldsmith, though he later worked in the studio of contemporarily well-known painter Ghiberti. Although the glories of Ancient Rome were a matter of popular discourse at the time, few people had actually studied the physical fabric of its ruins in any detail until Brunelleschi and Donatello. Brunelleschi’s study of classical Roman architecture can be seen in the characteristic elements of his building designs including even lighting, the minimization of distinct architectural elements within a building, and the balancing of those elements to homogenize the space.[14]

The Foundling Hospital (1419-1445)

Brunelleschi's first architectural commission was the Ospedale degli Innocenti (1419–c. 1445), or Foundling Hospital, designed as a home for orphans. The hospital was funded and administered by the Silk Merchants' Guild. to which he belonged. [15]As with many of his architectural projects, the building was completed much later, with considerable modifications, by other architects. He was the official architect until 1427, but he was rarely on the site after 1423. The hospital was completed by Francesco della Luna in 1445. [16] [17]

The major portion completed by Brunelleschi was an arcade or loggia with nine arches, supported on each side by pilasters, which gave the appearance of columns, and opening to the interior by a small door. The arcade was supported by slender columns with Corinthian capitals. This first arcade, with its columns, rounded arches and simple classical decoration, became the model for a long series of Renaissance buildings across Europe. [18] Its long loggia would have been a rare sight in the tight and curving streets of Florence, not to mention its impressive arches, each about 8 m high. The building was dignified and sober, with no displays of fine marble or decorative inlays.[19] It was also the first building in Florence to make clear reference—in its columns and capitals—to classical antiquity.

Ospedale degli innocenti, primo chiostro

Cloister of Men of the Founding Hospital (1419-1445)

Firenze - Florence - Piazza della Santissima Annunziata - View East on lo Spedale degli Innocenti 1445 by Filippo Brunelleschi & Pietro Tacca's Fountain 1629

Arcade of the Foundling Hospital (1419-1445)

Ospedale degli innocenti, primo chiostro, capitello

Corinthian column in the cloister

Soon, other commissions came, such as the Ridolfi Chapel in the church of San Jacopo sopr'Arno, now lost, and the Barbadori Chapel in Santa Felicita, also modified since its building. For both, Brunelleschi devised elements already used in the Ospedale degli Innocenti, and which would also be used in the Pazzi Chapel and the Sagrestia Vecchia. At the same time, he was using such smaller works as a sort of feasibility study for his most famous work, the dome of the Cathedral of Florence.

Basilica of San Lorenzo (1421 - 1442)

The Basilica of San Lorenzo was his next great project, undertaken soon after he began the Foundling Hospital. It was the largest church in Florence, sponsored by the Medici family, whose tombs were located there, and it was the work of several different architects, including, later, Michelangelo. The parts undertaken by Brunelleschi were the central nave, with the two collateral naves on either side bordered by small chapels, and the old sacristy.

The Old Sacristy was begun first, and built between 1419 and 1429. It contains the tomb of the donor, Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici and his wife, beneath a central dome, very simply decorated. The form is very simple; chapel is cube of about eleven meters on each side, covered with a hemispheric dome. A level of ornamental entablements divides the vertical space into two parts, and pilasters support the dome. The altar is set into a recess at one end beneath a smaller dome. All of the arcs of the ceiling are supported by pilasters, like classical columns, set into the walls. This room, using classical elements in an entirely original way, was one of the first perfectly Renaissiance spaces. [20]

In the nave, the massive pillars of Gothic architecture were replaced by slender columns with Corinthian capitals, and the traditional vaulted ceiling of the central nave by a coffered ceiling of square compartments with delicately gilded trim. To adjust to the difference of height between the low chapels and the much higher nave, he circular windows above each chapel. The finished interior gave an impression of perfect harmony and balance.[21]

One practice of Brunneleschi in the Old Sacristy, which later became a doctrine of Renaissance architecture, was the use of white walls in churches. The first major theorist of Renaissance art, Leon Battista Alberti, writing in 1450, declared that, since classical times, according to such authorities Cicero and Plato, white was the only color suitable for a temple or church, and praised "the purity and simplicity of the color, like like that of life."[22]

Basilica di San Lorenzo, looking toward the altar

Nave of the Basilica of San Lorenzo (1425-42)

Sagrestia vecchia, veduta 00

View of the Old Sacristy

Sagrestia vecchia, volta 02

Vault of the Old Sacristy (Sagrestia vecchia}, with the tomb of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici

Sagrestia Vecchia, Basilica of San Lorenzo (Florence)

Doorway inside the Old Sacristy with a classical pediment and columns, framed by pilasters

Giuliano d'Arrigo, detto Pesello, volta con cielo del luglio 1442, forse legato alla venuta di renato d'angiò a firenze 01

Sky of Florence decoration by Giuliano d'Arrigo on the small dome in the Old Sacristy (1442)

Basilica of Santo Spirito (1434-1466)

The Basilica of Santo Spirito in Florence was his next major project, which, characteristically, he carried out in parallel with his other major works. Though he began designing in 1434, construction did not begin until 1436, and continued beyond his lifetime. The columns for the facade were not delivered until 1446, ten days before his death, and the facade was not completed until 1482, and then was modified in the 18th century. The bell tower was also a later addition. [23]

Santo Spirito is an example of the mathematical proportion and harmony of Brunelleschi's work. The church is in the form of a cross. The choir, the two arms of the transept, and the space in the center of the transept are composed of squares exactly the same size. The continuation of the nave contains four more identical squares. and a half-square (a later addition) at the end. The length of the transept is exactly one-one half of the length of the nave. Each square of the lower collateral naves is one-quarter the size of the squares in the principal nave. The collateral naves are lined with thirty-eight small chapels, which were later filled with altars decorated with works of art. [24]

The vertical plan is also perfectly in proportion; the height of the central nave is exactly twice its width, and the height of the collateral naves on either side are exactly twice their width. Other aspects of his original plan, however, were modified after his death. The main aisle of the nave , lined by columns with Corinthian capitals, is topped by a row of semicircular arches, like his galleries. His original plan called the ceiling of the nave to be composed of a barrel vault, which would have echoed the collateral naves, but this was also changed after his death to the flat coffered ceiling. Little remains of the exterior walls that he had planned. They were unfinished at his death, and were covered with a facade in a different style in the Baroque period. [25]

Santo Spirito, inside 1

Central nave of Santo Spirito

Chiesa di Santo Spirito (15796831252)

The dome of Santo Spirito

Santo Spirito Grundriss Brunelleschi Filippo Florenz I 8c100589.jpeg

Brunelleschi's plan of Santo Spirito

Santo Spirito, sagrestia di giuliano da sangallo, capitelli 02

Detail of the classical pilasters of the Sacristy

Pazzi Chapel (1430-1444)

The Pazzi Chapel was commissioned in about 1429 by Andrea Pazzi to serve as the Chapter House, or meeting place of the monks of the Monastery of Santa Croce. Like nearly all of his works, the actual construction was delayed, beginning only in 1442, and the interior was not finished until 1444. The building was not entirely finished until about 1469, twenty years after his death. Some of the details, such as the lantern on top of the dome, were added after his death. [26]

The portico of the chapel is especially notable for its fine proportions, simplicity, and harmony. Its centerpiece is a sort of arch of triumph. Its six columns are by an entablature sculpted medallions, an upper level divided by pilasters and a central arch, and another band of sculpted entablature the top, below a terrace and the simple cupola. The interior spaces are framed by arches, entablatures, and pilasters. The floor is also divided into geometric sections. Light comes downward from the circular windows of the dome, and changes throughout the day. The interior is given touches of color by circular blue and white ceramic plaques made by the sculptor Luca Della Robbia. The architecture of the chapel is based on an arrangement of rectangles, rather than squares, which makes it appear slightly less balanced than his chapel in old Sacristy of San Lorenzeo. [27]

S. croce, cappella dei pazzi

Facade of the Pazzi Chapel

Plan of the chapel of the Pazzi (Character of Renaissance Architecture)

Plan of the Pazzi Chapel

Brunelleschi. Capilla Pazzi. Cúpula

Dome of the Pazzi Chapel

Pazzi Chapel Florence Apr 2008

Interior of the Pazzi Chapel with sculptural plaques by Luca Della Robbia

Santa Maria deli Angeli (1434-1437)

Santa Maria degli Angeli was an unfinished project by Brunelleschi which introduced a revolutionary concept in Renaissance architecture. Churches since the Romanesque and Gothic periods were traditionally in the form of a cross, with the altar in the transept or crossing point. Santa Maria deli Angeli was designed as a rotunda in an octagon shape, with eight equal sides, each containing a chapel, and the altar in the center.

The financing of the church came from the legacy of two Florentine merchants, Matteo and Andrea Scolari, and construction commenced in 1434. However, in 1437, the money for the church was seized by the Florentine government to help finance a war against the neighboring city of Lucca. The structure, which had reached a height of seven meters, was never completed as Brunelleschi designed it. The completed part was later integrated into a later church of a different design. [28]

The plans and model of Brunelleschi's church disappeared, and it is known only from an illustration in the Codex Rustichi from 1450, and from drawings of other architects. Leon Battista Alberti, in his De re aedificatoria, the first major treatise on Renaissance architecture, written in about 1455 and published in 1485, hailed the design as the "first complete plan of a Renaissance church." Leonardo Da Vinci, visited Florence in about 1490,studied Brunelleschi's churches and plans, and sketched a plan for a similar octagonal church with radiating chapels in his notebooks. It reached its fruition on an even larger scale in the 16th century. Donato Bramante proposed a similar central plan with radiating chapels for his Tempieto, and later, on an even larger scale, in his plan for Saint Peter's Basilica (1485-1514).[29] The central plan was finally realized, with some modifications, beginning in 1547, in Saint Peter's by Michelangelo and then its completed version by Carlo Maderna. [30]

Codice rustici, santa maria degli angeli

1450 Codex Rustici Drawing showing Brunelleschi's proposed octagonal church (lower right)

Angeli 11

Plan of the rotunda of Santa Maria degli Angeli

Rotonda del brunelleschi 12

Brunelleschi's rotunda from Santa Maria degli Angeli. Only the lower wall remains of his original design.

Basilica di San Pietro - Schema progetto di Michelangelo a confronto con la situazione attuale - Disegno di Etienne -Li-

Michelanglo's plan for Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome (1546), superimposed on the earlier plan by Bramante,

Florence Cathedral dome (1446-1461)

Santa Maria del Fiore was the cathedral and symbol of Florence, which had been begun in 1296. After the death of the first architect, Arnolfo di Cambio, work was interrupted for fifty years. The campanile, or bell tower, was added by Giotto soon after 1330. Between 1334 and 1366 a committee of architects and painters made a plan of a proposed dome, and the constructors were sworn to follow the plan. The proposed dome from the base to the lantern on top was more than eighty meters high, and the octagonal base was almost forty-two meters in diameter. It was larger than the dome of the ancient Pantheon, or any other dome in Europe, and no dome of that size had been built since antiquity. [31]

A competition was held in 1418 to select the builder, and other competitors included his old rival Ghiberti. It was won by Brunelleschi, with the help of a brick scale model of the dome made for him by his friend the sculptor Donatello. [32] Since buttresses were forbidden by the city fathers, and because obtaining rafters for scaffolding long and strong enough (and in sufficient quantity) for the task was impossible, how a dome of that size could be constructed without it collapsing under its own weight was unclear. Furthermore, the stresses of compression were not clearly understood, and the mortars used in the period would set only after several days, keeping the strain on the scaffolding for a long time.[33]

The work on the dome, the lantern (built 1446–circa 1461) and the exedra (built 1439–1445) occupied most of the remainder of Brunelleschi's life.[34] Brunelleschi's success can be attributed, in no small degree, to his technical and mathematical genius.[35] Brunelleschi used more than four million bricks in the construction of the octagonal dome. Notably, Brunelleschi left behind no building plans or diagrams detailing the dome's structure; scholars surmise that he constructed the dome as though it were hemispherical, which would have allowed the dome to support itself.[36]

Burnellleschi constructed two domes, one within the other, a practice that would later be followed by all the successive major domes, including those of Les Invalides in Paris and the United States Capitol in Washington. The outer dome protected the inner dome from the rain, and allowed a higher and more majestic form. The frame of the dome is composed of twenty-eight horizontal and vertical marble ribs, or, eperoni, eight of which are visible on the outside. Those visible on the outside are largely decorative, since the outer dome is supported by the structure of the inner dome. o. A narrow stairway runs upward between the two domes to the lantern on the top. [37]

Brunelleschi invented a new hoisting machine for raising the masonry needed for the dome, a task no doubt inspired by republication of Vitruvius' De Architectura, which describes Roman machines used in the first century AD to build large structures such as the Pantheon and the Baths of Diocletian, structures still standing, which he would have seen for himself.

Brunelleschi kept his workers up in the building during their breaks and brought food and diluted wine, similar to that given to pregnant women at the time, up to them. He felt the trip up and down the hundreds of stairs would exhaust them and reduce their productivity.[38]

Once the dome was completed, a new competition was held in 1436 for the decorative lantern on top of the dome, once again against his old rival Ghiberti. Brunelleschi won the competition and designed the structure and a built the base for the lantern, but he did not live long enough to see its final installation atop the dome. [39]

In 1438 Brunelleschi designed his last contribution to the cathedral; four hemispherical exedra, or small half-domes, based on a Roman model, set against the drum at the base of the main dome. They alternated the four small domes arranged around the main dome, and gave the appearance of a stairway of domes mounting upward. They were purely decorative, and were richly decorated with horizontal entablatures and vertical arches, pilasters. and double columns. Their architectural elements inspired later High Renaissance architecture, including the Tempietto of St. Peter built at Montorio by Bramante (1502). A similar structure appears the painting of an ideal city attributed to Piero della Francesca at Urbino (about 1475). [40]


Plan of the dome, showing the inner and outer domes

System of the dome, Florence Cathedral (Character of Renaissance Architecture)

Interior structure of the dome

Dome of Florence Cathedral viewed from top of bell tower (2014)

Dome seen from the bell tower

Scale interne per l'ascesa alla cupola del duomo di firenze 09

Stairway between the inner and outer domes

Lanterna on dome of Florence Cathedral viewed from top of bell tower

The lantern of the dome

Brunelleschis dome (3702727634)

The dome viewed from below

Duomo di firenze da terrazza in p. duomo, tribune morte

Exedra below the main dome

Linear Perspective

Besides his accomplishments in architecture, Brunelleschi is also generally credited as the first person describing one-point linear perspective which revolutionised painting and opened the way for the naturalistic styles of Renaissance art. He systematically studied exactly how and why objects, buildings, and landscapes changed and lines appeared to change shape when seen from a distance or from different angles, and made drawings of of the Baptistry in Florence, Place San Giovanni and other Florence landmarks in correct perspective. [41]

According to his early biographers Giorgio Vasari and Antonio Manetti, Brunelleschi conducted a series of experiments between 1415 and 1420, including making making drawings with correct perspective of the Florentine Baptistery and the Palazzo Vecchio, seen obliquely from its northwest corner. According to Manetti, his experiment used a wood panel divided into a grid of squares, a plaque with a hole at eye level, and a grid or set of crosshairs. He looked at the facade of the church through the hole in the plaque and the grid of crosshairs, and then copied onto the panel exactly what he saw, square by square. He made a similar drawing of the buildings of Place San Giovanni. The results were drawings with accurate perspective. Unfortunately the original panels were lost. [42]

To compare the accuracy of his image with the real object, he placed his drawing next to a mirror reflecting the building. the observer saw the striking similarity between the drawing and the mirror image. [43] Both panels have since been lost.[44]

These were not the first art works to accurately capture linear perspective, for Ambrogio Lorenzetti employed this in his Presentation at the Temple in 1342. But the experiments of Brunelleschi became well-known among artists and scientiss. His studies on perspective were amplified by further studies of the topic by Leon Battista Alberti, Piero della Francesca and Leonardo Da Vinci. Following the rules of perspective studied by Brunelleschi and the others, artists could paint imaginary landscapes and scenes with perfectly accurate three-dimensional perspective and realism. The most important treatise on painting of the Renaissance, Della Pittura libri tee by Alberti, with a description of Brunelleschi's experiment, was published in 1436, and was dedicated to Brunelleschi. Thanks to Brunelleschi, a painting could be an accurate three-dimensional window onto the world. The painting The Holy Trinity by Massacio (1425-1427) in the Santa Maria Novella, Florence, was a good example of the new style, which accurately created the illusion of three dimensions and also recreated, in painting, Brunelleschi's architectural style. This was the beginning of the standard method of painting studied by artists until the 19th century. [45]

Masaccio trinity

The Holy Trinity by Massacio (1425-27), used Brunelleschi's system of perspective

Brunelleschi's perspective experiment

Diagram of Brunelleschi's experiment in perspective

Entrega de las llaves a San Pedro (Perugino)

The Delivery of the Keys fresco, 1481–1482, Sistine Chapel, by Perugino (1481-1482), features both linear perspective and Brunelleschi's architectural style

An innovative boat

Il Badalone, Brunelleschi's patent boat 1427
Model of the boat built by Brunelleschi in 1427 to transport marble

In 1421, Brunelleschi was granted what is thought to be one of the first modern patents for his invention of a river transport vessel that was said to "bring in any merchandise and load on the river Arno etc for less money than usual, and with several other benefits."[46][47] It was intended to be used to transport marble. In the history of patent law, Brunelleschi is, therefore, accorded a special place.[47] In cultural and political terms, the grant of the patent was part of Brunelleschi's attempt to operate as a creative and commercial individual outside the constraints of the guilds and their monopolies.[46]

He was also active in shipbuilding. In 1427 he built a large boat named Il Badalone to transport marble to Florence from Pisa up the River Arno. The ship sank on its maiden voyage, along with a sizable chunk of Brunelleschi's personal fortune.[48]

Other activities

Brunelleschi's interests extended to mathematics and engineering and the study of ancient monuments. He invented hydraulic machinery and elaborate clockwork, none of which survives.

Brunelleschi designed machinery for use in churches during theatrical religious performances that re-enacted Biblical miracle stories. Contrivances were created by which characters and angels were made to fly through the air in the midst of spectacular explosions of light and fireworks. These events took place during state and ecclesiastical visits. It is not known for certain how many of these Brunelleschi designed, but at least one, for the church of San Felice, is confirmed in the records.[15]

Brunelleschi also designed fortifications used by Florence in its military struggles against Pisa and Siena. In 1424, he was working in Lastra a Signa, a village protecting the route to Pisa, and in 1431, in the south of Italy on the walls of the village of Staggia. These walls are still preserved, but whether they are specifically by Brunelleschi is uncertain.

In addition, he was somewhat involved in urban planning; he strategically positioned several of his buildings in relation to the nearby squares and streets for "maximum visibility". For example, demolitions in front of San Lorenzo were approved in 1433 to create a piazza facing the church. At Santo Spirito, he suggested that the façade be turned either towards the Arno so travellers would see it, or to the north, to face a large, prospective piazza.

Personal Life

Brunelleschi did not have children of his own, but in 1415, he adopted Andrea de Lazzaro Cavalcanti, who took the name Il Buggiano, after his birthplace. He was Brunelleschi's sole heir.

Brunelleschi was a member of the guild of silk merchants, which included jewelers and goldsmiths, but not of the guild of stone and wood masters, which included architects. In 1434, he was arrested at the request of the guild of masters of stone and wood for practicing his trade illegally. He was quickly released and the stone and wood masts were charged with false imprisonment. [49]


Duomo Firenze Apr 2008 (13)
Brunelleschi's tomb

Brunelleschi's body lies in the crypt of the Cathedral of Florence. As explained by Antonio Manetti, who knew Brunelleschi and who wrote his biography, Brunelleschi "was granted such honours as to be buried in the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore, and with a marble bust, which was said to be carved from life, and placed there in perpetual memory with such a splendid epitaph."[50] Inside the cathedral entrance is this epitaph: "Both the magnificent dome of this famous church and many other devices invented by Filippo the architect, bear witness to his superb skill. Therefore, in tribute to his exceptional talents, a grateful country that will always remember him buries him here in the soil below." A statue of Brunelleschi, looking up at his dome, was later placed in the square in front of the cathedral.

Fictional depictions

Brunelleschi is portrayed by Alessandro Preziosi in the 2016 television series Medici: Masters of Florence.[51]

Principal works

The principal buildings and works designed by Brunelleschi or which included his involvement, all situated in Florence:

See also


  1. ^ Walker, Paul Robert (2003). The Feud That Sparked the Renaissance: How Brunelleschi and Ghiberti Changed the Art World. HarperCollins. p. 5. ISBN 0-380-97787-7.
  2. ^ "The Duomo of Florence | Tripleman". Retrieved March 25, 2010.
  3. ^ "brunelleschi's dome – Brunelleschi's Dome". Archived from the original on April 16, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
  4. ^ Bodart, Diane (2008). Renaissance & Mannerism. New York: Sterling. ISBN 978-1402759222.
  5. ^ a b c Fanelli, Giovanni (1980). Brunelleschi. Harper & Row. p. 3.
  6. ^ Campbell, Stephen J; Cole, Michael Wayne (2012). Italian Renaissance Art. New York: Thames & Hudson Inc. pp. 95–97.
  7. ^ Edgerton, Samuel Y (2009). The Mirror, the Window, and the Telescope: How Renaissance Linear Perspective Changed Our Vision of the Universe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  8. ^ Bruschi, Arnaldo (2006). Filippo Brunelleschi. Milano: Electa. p. 9.
  9. ^ Manetti, Antonio (1970). The Life of Brunelleschi. Translated by Enggass, Catherine. Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 36–38.
  10. ^ Gärtner (1998), pg. 11
  11. ^ Gärtner (1998), pg. 20
  12. ^ Gärtner (1998), pg. 19
  13. ^ Paoletti, John T; Radke, Gray M (2012). Art in Renaissance Italy. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 203–205.
  14. ^ Meek, Harold (2010). "Filippo Brunelleschi". Grove Art Online.
  15. ^ a b Battisti, Eugenio (1981). Filippo Brunelleschi. New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 0-8478-5015-3.
  16. ^ Gärtner (1998) p. 28
  17. ^ Fanelli, Giovanni (1980). Brunelleschi. Firenze: Harper & Row. p. 41.
  18. ^ Gärtner (1998) p. 28
  19. ^ Klotz, Heinrich (1990). Filippo Brunelleschi: the Early Works and the Medieval Tradition. Translated by Hugh Keith. London: Academy Editions. ISBN 0-85670-986-7.
  20. ^ Gärtner (1998) p. 56-58
  21. ^ Gärtner (1998) p. 36-40
  22. ^ Gärtner (1998) p. 63
  23. ^ Gärtner (1998), pg. 44-55
  24. ^ Gärtner (1998), pg. 44-55
  25. ^ Gärtner (1998), pg. 44-55
  26. ^ Gärtner (1998), pp. 68-77
  27. ^ Gärtner (1998), pp. 68-77
  28. ^ Gärtner (1998) p. 78
  29. ^ cited by Gärtner (1998) p. 82
  30. ^ Gärtner (1998) p. 82-84
  31. ^ Gärtner (1998) pg. 86
  32. ^ Gärtner (1998) pg. 86
  33. ^ King, Ross (2001). Brunelleschi's Dome: The Story of the great Cathedral of Florence. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-8027-1366-1.
  34. ^ Saalman, Howard (1980). Filippo Brunelleschi: The Cupola of Santa Maria del Fiore. London: A. Zwemmer. ISBN 0-302-02784-X.
  35. ^ Prager, Frank (1970). Brunelleschi: Studies of his Technology and Inventions. Cambridge: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-16031-5.
  36. ^ Jones, Barry; Sereni, Andrea; Ricci, Massimo (January 1, 2008). "Building Brunelleschi's Dome: A practical methodology verified by experiment". Construction History. 23: 3–31. JSTOR 41613926.
  37. ^ Gärtner (1998) pg. 86
  38. ^ "The Medici Popes". Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. February 18, 2004. PBS. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
  39. ^ Gärtner (1998) pg. 95-96
  40. ^ Gärtner (1998) pg. 102-109
  41. ^ Gärtner|1998|pp. 22-25
  42. ^ Gärtner|1998|pp. 23
  43. ^ For proposed reconstructions of Brunelleschi's demonstration, see Edgerton, Samuel Y. (2009). The Mirror, the Window & the Telescope: How Renaissance Linear Perspective Changed Our Vision of the Universe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4758-7. And István Orosz, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  44. ^ For proposed reconstructions of Brunelleschi's demonstration, see Edgerton, Samuel Y. (2009). The Mirror, the Window & the Telescope: How Renaissance Linear Perspective Changed Our Vision of the Universe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4758-7. And István Orosz, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ Gärtner|1998|pp. 25
  46. ^ a b Prager, Frank D (1946). "Brunelleschi's Patent". Journal of the Patent Office Society. 28: 120.
  47. ^ a b Griset, Pascal (2013) The European Patent$File/european_patent_book_en.pdf
  48. ^ Brunelleschi's Monster Patent: Il Badalone Archived July 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Gärtner (1998) pg. 115
  50. ^ Manetti, Antonio (1970). The Life of Brunelleschi. English translation of the Italian text by Catherine Enggass. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-00075-9.
  51. ^ "Medici: Masters of Florence". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 24, 2016.


  • Gärtner, Peter (1998). Brunelleschi (in French). Cologne: Konemann. ISBN 3-8290-0701-9.
  • Oudin, Bernard (1992), Dictionnaire des Architects (in French), Paris: Seghers, ISBN 2-232-10398-6

Further reading

  • Argan, Giulio Carlo; Robb, Nesca A (1946). "The Architecture of Brunelleschi and the Origins of Perspective Theory in the Fifteenth Century". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 9: 96–121. doi:10.2307/750311. JSTOR 750311.
  • Fanelli, Giovanni (2004). Brunelleschi's Cupola: Past and Present of an Architectural Masterpiece. Florence: Mandragora.
  • Heydenreich, Ludwig H. (1996). Architecture in Italy, 1400–1500. New Haven/London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06467-4.
  • Hyman, Isabelle (1974). Brunelleschi in perspective. Prentice-Hall.
  • Kemp, Martin (1978). "Science, Non-science and Nonsense: The Interpretation of Brunelleschi's Perspective". Art History. 1 (2): 134–161.
  • Prager, F. D. (1950). "Brunelleschi's Inventions and the 'Renewal of Roman Masonry Work'". Osiris. 9: 457–554. doi:10.1086/368537.
  • Millon, Henry A.; Lampugnani, Vittorio Magnago, eds. (1994). The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo: the Representation of Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Trachtenberg, Marvin (1988). What Brunelleschi Saw: Monument and Site at the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. New York.
  • King, Ross (2000). Brunelleschi's Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture. New York: Walker. ISBN 0-8027-1366-1.
  • Devémy, Jean-François (2013). Sur les traces de Filippo Brunelleschi, l'invention de la coupole de Santa Maria del Fiore à Florence. Suresnes: Les Editions du Net. ISBN 978-2-312-01329-9. (in line presentation)
  • Saalman, Howard (1993). Filippo Brunelleschi: The Buildings. Penn State Press.
  • Vereycken, Karel, "The Secrets of the Florentine Dome", Schiller Institute, 2013. (Translation from the French, "Les secrets du dôme de Florence", la revue Fusion, n° 96, Mai, Juin 2003)
  • "The Great Cathedral Mystery", PBS Nova TV documentary, February 12, 2014

External links

Anello del Rinascimento

The Anello del Rinascimento (Ring of the Renaissance or Renaissance Ring) is a path that people can travel on foot or by bike; it is longer than 170 km and it traces a symbolic route around the city of Florence. The path skirts fields and woods, castles, ancient churches, and monasteries and penetrates to the heart of Florence, Fiesole and other municipalities in the Province of Florence. Its central reference point is the Florence Cathedral, the masterpiece of Filippo Brunelleschi.

Annunciation (Lippi, Rome)

The Annunciation is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Filippo Lippi, finished around 1445-1450. It is housed in the Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome.

Differences with other depictions of the Annunciation include the angel's position on the right and the use of a very bright source of light, inspired by works of Filippo Brunelleschi and Beato Angelico. On the top are the hands of God, emerging from the clouds and releasing the dove of the Holy Ghost. The dove descends along a luminous trail running toward the Virgin's shoulder, transmitting the Divine Will through materialized light.

The architectural framework may be the work of an assistant.

Antonio Manetti

Antonio Manetti (6 July 1423 – 26 May 1497) was an Italian mathematician and architect from Florence. He was also the biographer of the architect Filippo Brunelleschi.He is particularly noted for his investigations into the site, shape and size of Dante's Inferno. Although Manetti never himself published his research regarding the topic, the earliest Renaissance Florentine editors of the poem, Cristoforo Landino and Girolamo Benivieni, reported the results of his researches in their respective editions of the Divine Comedy. Manetti is also famous for his short story, The Fat Woodworker, which recounts a cruel practical joke devised by Brunelleschi.

Brunelleschi (crater)

Brunelleschi is a crater on Mercury. It has a diameter of 128.57 kilometres (79.89 mi). Its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1976. Brunelleschi is named for the Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi, who lived from 1377 to 1446.

Brunelleschi (disambiguation)

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance.

Brunelleschi may also refer to:

6055 Brunelleschi (2158 T-3), a Main-belt Asteroid discovered in 1977

Brunelleschi (crater), a crater on Mercury named for the architect

Capponi Chapel

The Barbadori Chapel, later Capponi Chapel, is a chapel in the church of Santa Felicita in Florence, central Italy. It was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, and was later decorated by a cycle of works by the Mannerist painter Pontormo.

Delizia di Belriguardo

Delizia di Belriguardo is the headquarters of the Museo civico di Belriguardo. It was built by Filippo Brunelleschi. Lucrezia Borgia stayed here frequently.At the end of 1400, Sabadino degli Arienti wrote a description of the palazzo. In 1493, Ludovico il Moro wrote a letter to Beatrice d'Este saying:

...Non voria per cosa del mondo esser manchato de venire perché ho veduto tanto grande casa, tanto bella et bene intesa et cussì ornata de picture excellentissime, che non credo ch’el mondo abia una simile...


Filippo is an Italian male given name, which is the equivalent of the English name Philip, meaning "friend of horses", from the Greek Philippos. The female variant is Filippa. The name may refer to:

Filippo I Colonna (1611–1639), Italian nobleman

Filippo II Colonna (1663–1714), Italian noblemen

Filippo Abbiati (1640–1715), Italian painter

Filippo Baldinucci (1624–1697), Italian historian

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446), Italian architect

Filippo Carli (1876–1938), Italian sociologist

Filippo Coarelli (born 1936), Italian archaeologist

Filippo Coletti (1811–1894), Italian singer

Filippo di Piero Strozzi (1541–1582), French general

Filippo Salvatore Gilii (1721–1789), Italian priest and linguist

Filippo Grandi (born 1957), Italian diplomat

Filippo Inzaghi (born 1973), Italian football player and manager

Filippo Lippi (1406–1469), Italian painter

Filippo Lombardi (footballer) (born 1990), Italian footballer

Filippo Lombardi (politician) (born 1956), Swiss politician

Filippo Lussana (1820–1897), Italian doctor

Filippo Magnini (born 1982), Italian swimmer

Filippo Mannucci (born 1974), Italian rower

Filippo Marinetti (1876–1944), Italian writer

Filippo Nigro (born 1970), Italian actor

Filippo Parlatore (1816–1877), Italian botanist

Filippo Raguzzini (1690–1771), Italian architect

Filippo Rusuti (1255–1325), Italian painter

Filippo Scelzo (1900–1980), Italian actor

Filippo Severoli (1762–1822), Italian general

Filippo Timi (born 1974), Italian actor

Filippo Turati (1857–1932), Italian politician

Florence Cathedral

Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (Italian pronunciation: [katteˈdraːle di ˈsanta maˈriːa del ˈfjoːre]; in English "Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Flower"), is the cathedral of Florence, Italy (Italian: Duomo di Firenze). It was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to a design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was structurally completed by 1436, with the dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi. The exterior of the basilica is faced with polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink, bordered by white, and has an elaborate 19th-century Gothic Revival façade by Emilio De Fabris.

The cathedral complex, in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and Giotto's Campanile. These three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major tourist attraction of Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italy's largest churches, and until the development of new structural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed.

The cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is Giuseppe Betori.

Giuliano da Sangallo

Giuliano da Sangallo (c. 1445 – 1516) was an Italian sculptor, architect and military engineer active during the Italian Renaissance. He is known primarily for being the favored architect of Lorenzo de' Medici, his patron. In this role, Giuliano designed a villa for Lorenzo as well as a monastery for Augustinians and a church where a miracle was said to have taken place. Additionally, Giuliano was commissioned to build multiple structures for Pope Julius II and Pope Leo X. Leon Battista Alberti and Filippo Brunelleschi heavily influenced Sangallo and in turn, he influenced other important Renaissance figures such as Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, his brother Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, and his sons, Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Francesco da Sangallo.

Historic Centre of Florence

The historic centre of Florence is part of quartiere 1 of the Italian city of Florence. This quarter was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982.

Built on the site of an Etruscan settlement, Florence, the symbol of the Renaissance, rose to economic and cultural pre-eminence under the Medici in the 15th and 16th centuries. Its 600 years of extraordinary artistic activity can be seen above all in the 13th-century cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore), the Church of Santa Croce, the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace, the work of great masters such as Giotto, Filippo Brunelleschi, Sandro Botticelli and Michelangelo.

List of Renaissance structures

The following is a list of notable Renaissance structures.

Palazzo Busini Bardi

The Palazzo Busini Bardi is a palace located on Via dei Benci #5 in central Florence, Tuscany, Italy. It is in front of the Museo Horne.

Design of the palace (circa 1430) was attributed to the architect Filippo Brunelleschi by the sixteenth century art biographer Giorgio Vasari.

Pazzi Chapel

The Pazzi Chapel (Italian: Cappella dei Pazzi) is a chapel located in the "first cloister" on the southern flank of the Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence, Italy. Commonly credited to Filippo Brunelleschi, it is considered to be one of the masterpieces of Renaissance architecture.

Sagrestia Vecchia

The Sagrestia Vecchia di San Lorenzo, or Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo, is the older of two sacristies of the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence, Italy. It is one of the most important monuments of the early Italian Renaissance architecture. Designed by Filippo Brunelleschi and paid for by the Medici family, who also used it for their tombs, it set the tone for the development of a new style of architecture that was built around proportion, the unity of elements, and the use of the classical orders. The space came to be called the "Old Sacristy" after a new one was begun in 1510 on the other side of S. Lorenzo’s transept.

San Jacopo sopr'Arno

San Jacopo sopr'Arno is a church in Florence, Italy.

The church was built in the 10th–11th centuries in Romanesque style. It subsequently experienced heavy modifications including the addition of a triple-arched portico.

According to the Renaissance art historian Giorgio Vasari, Filippo Brunelleschi built here a chapel, the Ridolfi Chapel, in which he studied, in smaller scale, architectural elements later used in his famous dome of Santa Maria del Fiore. The chapel is now destroyed. Since 1542 it was held by Franciscans of the Minorite Order. The entrance portico was remade by order of Cosimo I de' Medici in 1580, using the architect Bernardino Radi. The bell tower was designed by Gherardo Silvani in 1660.

The church was damaged when the Arno River flooded Florence in 1966. Repairs of the church after flood led to the restoration of some of the historical architectural features, and the discovery of columns belonging to the original Romanesque church in the Baroque interior.

San Lorenzo, Florence

The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district, and the burial place of all the principal members of the Medici family from Cosimo il Vecchio to Cosimo III. It is one of several churches that claim to be the oldest in Florence; when it was consecrated in 393 it stood outside the city walls. For three hundred years it was the city's cathedral before the official seat of the bishop was transferred to Santa Reparata. San Lorenzo was also the parish church of the Medici family. In 1419, Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici offered to finance a new church to replace the 11th-century Romanesque rebuilding. Filippo Brunelleschi, the leading Renaissance architect of the first half of the 15th century, was commissioned to design it, but the building, with alterations, was not completed until after his death. The church is part of a larger monastic complex that contains other important architectural and artistic works: the Old Sacristy by Brunelleschi, with interior decoration and sculpture by Donatello; the Laurentian Library by Michelangelo; the New Sacristy based on Michelangelo's designs; and the Medici Chapels by Matteo Nigetti.

Santa Maria degli Angeli, Florence

Santa Maria degli Angeli (St. Mary of the Angels) is the former church of a now-defunct monastery of that name in Florence, Italy. It belonged to the Camaldolese congregation, which was a reformed branch of the Benedictines. The congregation is based on the hermitage which was founded in 1012 by the hermit St. Romuald at Camaldoli, near Arezzo, hence the name. Very little of the medieval building exists today.

The monastery was a major center of studies in the early Renaissance and its scriptorium was a noted producer of manuscripts of high quality. Many of the illustrations from its work are found in museum collections around the world. The late High Gothic painter, Lorenzo Monaco, was a monk here for a time, while he tested his vocation, but ultimately he left. Nevertheless, he executed a series of artworks for this monastery and other Camaldolese institutions, both during his time in the Order and afterwards.

The so-called Rotonda degli Scolari, partially built by Filippo Brunelleschi, is part of the complex. The church once housed a series of artworks now located elsewhere, such as the Coronation of the Virgin by Lorenzo Monaco.

Santo Spirito, Florence

The Basilica di Santo Spirito ("Basilica of the Holy Spirit") is a church in Florence, Italy. Usually referred to simply as Santo Spirito, it is located in the Oltrarno quarter, facing the square with the same name. The interior of the building - internal length 97 meters - is one of the preeminent examples of Renaissance architecture.



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