Fifth Military District

The 5th Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South. The district was stipulated by the Reconstruction Acts during the Reconstruction period following the American Civil War. It included Texas, from Brazos Santiago Harbor, (previously Port Matamoros), at the Mexican border, north to Louisiana. General Philip Sheridan served as its first military governor, until removed by U.S. President Andrew Johnson because of a charge of excessive harshness in Sheridan's treatment of former Confederate soldiers. He was replaced by Charles Griffin, then by Joseph J. Reynolds.

Several incidents were committed against black federal soldiers at Ft. Brown in Brownsville, Texas, and elsewhere by Jayhawkers, wild Indians, desperados, etc. Most incident reports fail to identify the perpetrators.

Reconstruction military districts
Map of the five Reconstruction military districts
  Fifth Military District


Among the United States Army forces stationed in Texas were the following units:


  • August:
    • 30-Brownsville-Pvt Henry Jefferson Co E 19th USCT-accidentally wounded by a comrade-wounded Femeur-On November 17, 1865 patient died during an administration of Chloroform prior to operation to exciding ends of bone {See Surgical Reports.p. 272 for report of case}

Summary of reports 1866–1870

The Following are a summary of U.S. Cavalry/Infantry activities in the 5th Military District of Texas from January 1866 to April 1870 – such as in pursuit of Native Americans and outlaws based on Official Reports and the 6th US Cavalry Regimental History and deaths/injuries to soldiers in the Fifth Military District.

Note: except where noted the following are based on Quarterly Report of November 4, 1868 from Brevet Major General J.J. Reynolds to Secretary of War {pp. 711–716} from "Executive Documents printed by the House of Representatives 1868–1869.


  • January:
    • 3—Corpus Christi—Pvt Archy David Co C 28th USCT—buried in Corpus Christi {US Army Roll of Honor VI Template:Corpus Christi.p. 35
    • 28—Brownsville Pvt. Gustavas Chase Co I 9th USCT—wounded—died February 4, 1866 {VA records for year of death-Surgical report wrongly gives year as "1867"} (Surgical reports.pp. 22 &  38)
  • March
    • 8—Yorktown-Captain Henry J. Nolan Co K 18th New York Cavalry—wounded {also listed as "Nowlan"} {Annual Report of the Adjutant—general for the State of New York for the year 1895.p. 1267}[1]
  • April:
    • 23—Sgt John O'Brien Co H 18th New York Cavalry-"..killed by Jayhawkers, April 23, 1866, near Kelly's Station, Texas."[2][3] and Sgt Josiah Ripley Co H 18th New York Cavalry-"..murdered by Jayhawkers, while enroute from San Antonio to Yorktown, Texas, veteran"[4] It was thought that both soldiers were killed by a gang headed by "Buck" Taylor [5] of the Sutton–Taylor feud
  • May:
    • 27-Brownsville-Surgeon Joel Morse of the 117th USCT murdered.[6]
  • June:
    • 27-Fort Concho-Pvt Theodore E. Turner-Troop D 4th US Cavalry bitten by a rattlesnake on left thumb; admitted to Post hospital at Austin Texas January 23, 1869-part of thumb amputated-returned to duty January 30, 1869
    • Victoria Texas-Benjamin F. Hill killed a discharged soldier at the Smile Saloon; reported to have been lynched by members of the 3rd Michigan Infantry{?} a black regiment and 18th New York Cavalry[7]
  • July:
    • 10—Brazos Santiago Pvt S. Wilmares Co G 116th USCT—age 26 years-wound in trunk between ninth and tenth ribs; missile lodged in the intercostal muscles, but was extracted from the wound—Duty September 26, 186{6?} {Surgical report}
  • General Philip Sheridan report of 1866 murders/assaults of US soldiers: See[8]
    • August 29, 1866 Killings Of 2 soldiers of the 80th USCT at Jefferson, Texas {Sheridan report}[9]
    • September 7, 1866 Shootings at 2 soldiers of the US 17th Infantry at Brenham Texas {Sheridan report}
    • October 15, 1866 Sherman-Pvt Jean Shields, Troop D 6th Cavalry-injury-admitted to Post Hospital, Jacksboro-December 13, 1866-amputation of left arm performed at the middle third; returned to duty January 17, 1867 {Surgical Report .p. 188}
    • December 11, 1866 San Antonio—Pvt William L. Jones, Co F 35th US Infantry—gunshot wound of the abdomen—returned to duty December 22, 1866 {Surgical Report .p. 47}
    • December 17, 1866 Brazos Santiago—Corporal W. Gibbons, Co A 117th USCT—wounded—duty January 27, 1867 {Surgical report}
    • December 18, 1866 Victoria Texas Policeman Silas Newcomb killed by Union Soldier[10]
    • Unknown date, 1866 Spivey's Ferry [Red River]; confrontation between white men and negro crowd; five white men wounded; twelve negroes are then killed by Capt. Jim Miller and six compaions; Miller is tried before General Joseph J. Reynolds in Austin Texas [released]. {Miller is reported to have been involved in 25 killings prior 1848-US Civil War; Miller is shot and killed November 12, 1888 age 72 by one of his tenants in Jimtown, Idaho[11]


  • January:
    • 16th. a colored soldier patrol in Brownsville Texas was fired upon by Brownsville Citizens; patrol returned fire and 2 Brownsville Citizens were killed; patrol had no casualties {Sheridan report}
  • February:
    • 7th. Austin—Corporal Thomas Casey—Co M 6th US Cavalry—gunshot wound of the abdomen; admitted from camp to regimental field hospital; died February 8, 1867 {Surgical Report.p. 46}
    • 9th. Austin—Pvt Michael O'Callaghan—Co D 6th US Cavalry—shot by a citizen—admitted to hospital February 10; died February 11, 1867 {Surgical Report. According to House of Representatives documents Callaghan was shot by Charles Denny and William Sherwood}
    • 26th. Brenham—Corporal H. Reinhold—Co H US 17th Infantry—gunshot wound; duty May 16, 1867 {Surgical report.p. 69}
  • March:
    • 1st. Fayette County—1st Lt Howe and command on parade—Jesse Pullen shot at Howe and command with a pistol {House of Representative document}
    • 16th. Galveston County—Joseph Huson and 2 other soldiers of the US 17th Infantry murdered a colored man named Daniel Parker {House of representatives Document}
  • April:
    • 3rd. Brazos Santiago—Pvt A. Newell Co A 114th USCT—age 42 years-pistol wound over the ensiform appendix. Missile passed upward and loged upward one ich to the left of the right nipple. Removeal of ball through incision. Returned to duty April 14, 1867 {Surgical report}
    • 15th.Travis County—Soldier of the US 9th Cavalry found murdered—his arms {weapons} had been taken away {house of representatives document}
  • June:
    • 2nd. Travis County—Henry Frazer of the US 6th Cavalry killed by Ozweir Wilcox because Frazier "...was a United States Soldier." {House of Representatives document}
    • 5th Lavaca County—James Hanlan {soldier} shot at by a man named Hicks {Hanlan escaped} {House of Representatives document}
    • 11th Fort Belknap—Pvt F.Schwindig—Co I 6th US Cavalry—wounded by bullet—died June 12, 1867 {Surgical Report.p. 20}
  • July:
    • 19th Young County—Johnson and 2 others {names unknown} killed by Indians {HOuse of Representative documents}
    • 21st {US 6th Cavalry} "Parts of the regiment were engaged with Indians at Buffalo Springs". See 6th Cavalry Regimental History at The United States Army Center of Military History
    • 23rd Polk County—James McGowan {soldier} assault with intent to kill H.H. Goddin {white} "Soldier Drunk" {House of representatives documents}
    • 25th Bowis County-Private Albert Titus of Co C 20th US Infantry killed at New Boston Texas by outlaw Cullen Baker
    • 28th Young County—William Henzelwood killed by Indians {House of Representative documents}
    • 31st Anderson County—John Boises {Soldier} killed a desperato named william Miliam who had drawn a pistol and knife on Freeman Bureau Agent and then on Boises {House of Representatives documents}
  • August:
    • 3rd. Private George Coleman. Co G 117th USCI, accidentally wounded—admitted to Brazos Santiago from Brownsville August 11, 1867; discharged from service August 14, 1867 {Surgical Report .p. 74}
    • 6th Private David White—Co G 41st Infantry—accidentally wounded in arm by a rifle—Ringgold Barracks Texas; arm amputated September 6, 1867; patient died September 9, 1867 {Surgucal Report}
    • 15th. Smith County—Thomas Hawley —assaulted by J.H. Murray with deadly weapon with intent to kill {House of Representative document}
    • 26th. Private Franklin Grey, Co F 41st USCI, accidentally wounded—Brownsville. Transferred to Fort Concho March 20 and discharged for disability October 18, 1869. {Surgical Report .pp. 18–19}
    • 29th. Ft Belknap. Corporal Thomas O'Brien-Troop F 6th Cavalry-slight arrow wound of chest-treated at Fort Wilson-returned to duty-Sept 5, 1867 {Surgical Report .p. 158}
    • 29th. Ft Belknap. Private William Rosback-Troop F 6th Cavalry-arrow wounds of scalp and leg-treated at Fort Wilson-returned to duty-Nov 24, 1867 {Surgical Report .p. 149}
    • 30th. Lt. Gustavus Schreyer with Troop F 6th US Cavalry encountered a band of Indians near Fort Belknap; 2 men killed. {From 6th US Cavalry History "From Yorktown to Santiago" .p. 138}
    • 31st to October 2. 2nd Lt. G. A. Thurston 4th Cavalry from Fort Chadbourne, Texas with Co D 4th Cavalry. 1 Officer/42 men. Passed through Rio Concho & Pecos. Traveled 354 miles to operate against Comanche. "No Indians seen."
  • September:
    • {No day} Bowie County—Davis {soldier} US 6th Cavalry—assaulted with intent to kill by John M. Sullivan {HOuse of representative documents}
    • 1st—Pvt Jerry Hewes—Co A 9th Colored Troops—wounded in right hand—admitted to Ft Sockton Hospital—died September 15, 1867 {Surgical Reports}
    • 6th-Pvt David White-Co D 41st Infantry-accidentally wounded by a rifle-compound complicated fracture of radius, ulma and humerus of one arm-admitted to Ringgold Barracks Hospital-arm amputated September 6, 1867-died September 9, 1867 {See report of Surgical Report .p. 188}
    • 20th—Sgt John Cappings—Co H 26th Infantry—wound in right hip from Musket ball—moved from Waco hosp to Austin Hosp. March 20, 1868. Returned to duty May 1, 1868 {Surgical report}; Lt. Gustavus Schreyer-Troop F 6th US Cavalry-accidental wound-slight arrow wound in left thigh-treated at Camp Wilson and returned to duty October 22, 1867 {Surgical Report .p. 158}
    • 25th to October 6. Sgt John De Lacy 4th Cavalry from Fort Chadbourne, Texas with Co D 4th Cavalry. 14 men. Passed through Rio Condo & Pecos. Traveled 258 miles to operate against Comanche. "No Indians seen."
    • 30th to October 28. 1st Lt. James Callehan 4th Cavalry from Ft. Chadbourne, Tx. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Co H} 1 Officer/45 men. Passed through country through Rio Concho and Pecos. Traveled a distance of 632 miles to operate against the Comanche. Some signs seen.
  • October:
    • 8th to 12th. 1st Lt. E. Manck 6th Cavalry from Buffalo Springs, Texas. Troops of 6th Cavalry 1 Officer/25 men & 1 citizen. Passed through Montague and Clay Counties. Traveled 120 miles to operate against Comanche."No Indians seen."
    • 10th to 20th. Sgt John Sugden 4th Cavalry from Fort Clark Texas with Co C 4th Cavalry. 18 men. Passed though country along Nueces River. Traveled 200 miles to operate against Comanche. "No Indians seen."
    • 13th to 19th. Sgt W. A. F. Ahrberg of Troop L from Camp Wilson Texas with troops of 6th Cavalry 45 men and 22 Indians. Encounter with Comanche; 3 Indians killed, 1 captured. 19 horses/1 mule/2 revolvers recovered. Remains of 5 citizens killed by Indians buried. {According to 6th Cavalry History, Ahrberg and his detachment were commended in General Orders # 40 of November 21, 1867 by Major General J.J. Reynolds {.p. 138} {Possibly mentioned in 6th Cavalry History as Parts of the regiment were engaged with Indians the field, October 17, 1867;...".}
    • 17th. Private Joseph Shaw of Co D, 3rd US Cavalry wounded in a fight with Indians in right tibia. Admitted to Fort Bliss and Camp Concorida, Texas October 25, 1867; bone excised Feb 2, 1868. Shaw returned to duty March 9, 1868. {"A report of Surgical Cases in the Army".p. 82}
    • 18th. Sierra Diabola. Troop D/3rd Cavalry[12] Fight with Miscallaro Apaches.Private Frank Burr wounded by arrow in right forearm-returned to duty: Pvt James Daily-flesh wound in right thigh-treated at Fort Bliss-returned to duty October 26, 1867; Pvt Clarence G. Morrell-arrows wounds to right side;groin and back-treated at Ft Bliss-returned to duty November 19, 1867; Private Francis Stall-arrow wound to the right breast-returned to duty{Surgical report .pp. 157–159}
  • November:
    • 8th to 12th. 1st Lt. E. Manck 6th Cavalry from Buffalo Springs, Texas. Troops from the 6th Cavalry 1 officer/25 men and 1 citizen. Passed through Montague and Clay Counties; traveled 120 miles to operate against Comanche."No Indians seen."
    • 14th. Mason County Texas—1 officer {Major John A Thompson} and 1 NCO {Sgt John McDougall} of 4th Cavalry killed by Taylor gang {Surgical report}{HOuse of Representative document names killers as Hays Taylor ; P.G. Taylor and "Spencer"}.[13]
  • December:
    • 3rd—Jefferson. Pvt Fontanice Singleton—Co D 20th Infantry—cut his foot with an axe—returned to duty—December 11, 1867 {Surgical Report.p. 99}
    • 5th—affray at Franklin Texas—Pvt J. Kimball—Co A 35th US Infantry—died from pistol shot wound {surgical Report}
    • 19th to 23rd. 2nd Lt. G.A. Thurston 4th Cavalry from Rio Concho, Tex. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Cos. D, G, H, M}. 1 officer/22 men. Passed through country through main Concho River. Traveled 130 miles against Kickapoo Indians. Some signs seen.
    • 22nd Mason County—Thomas Darnell; William Truman; John Ketchum; James Ketchum; Robert Cromwell/Company—killed while returning from New Mexico. Killed either by Indians or Mexicans in San Saba County {House of Representative Documents}.Remains found by a patrol of the 10th U.S. Cavalry[14]
    • 27th Brownsville—Corporal J. Pilot—Co L 9th US cavalry—wounded by a Sgt—returned to duty February 1868 {Surgical report}



  • ?—date not given—Titis County—Mount Pleasant—US Quartermaster robbed—safe and money stolen.
  • 2nd—Indianola—Pvt C. Lehmann Co B 35th US Infantry—gunshot wound—died January 3, 1868 {Surgical Report}
  • 3rd to 5th 1st Lt. G. Schreyer 6th Cavalry from Ft Griffin Tex. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos F, I, L, K} 1 officer/20 men. Passed through Shackelford County; traveled 50 miles to operate against Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 4th to 7th. Sgt W. Stewart 4th Cavalry from Camp Verde, Texas. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Cos B & L}. 13 men. Passed through country through Medina river. Traveled 80 miles to operate against the Kickapoo."No Indians seen."
  • 4th to 5th. 2nd Lt. D.C. McIntyre 6th Cavalry from Ft Griffin Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos. F, I, K, L}. Passed through Shackelford County; traveled a distance of 36 miles against the Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 6th to 9th. Sgt. G. E. Mansfield from Ft Clark Texas. Troops from 4th Cavalry Co C. 12 men. Passed through Sycamore & Los Moras Creek. Traveled a distance of 120 miles to operate against the Comanche. "No Indians seen."
  • 9th—Bronsville Texas—Pvt John Gray—Co D—26th US Infantry—shot in heart with a small pistol ball—survived but a short time {Surgical Report}
  • 31st—Fort Davis—Pvt Jeremiah Daniels—Co I 9th US Cavalry—accidentally wounded—died {Surgical report}
  • In an appendix to 1869 Report of General of the Army (p. 55) is reported: January 1869 Northern Texas—Killed 25; scalped 9 {white people}


  • 1st Bexas County—US Soldier assaulted with intent to kill by a Mr Aldretto {House of Representatives document}
  • 4th Fort Concho—Pvt W. Leech—Co H 4th US Cavalry—accidental wound—died February 6, 1868 {Surgical report}
  • 4th to 6th. 2nd Lt. O. Grosvenor 4th Cavalry from Camp Verde, Texas, Troops from 4th Cavalry {Cos B & L} 1 officer/18 men. Passed through country along Rio Guadalupe. Traveled a distance of 90 miles against the Kickapoo Indians."No Indians seen."
  • 6th to 10th. 2nd Lt J. M. Walton 4th Cavalry from Camp Verde, Texas. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Cos B & L} 1 officer/26 men. Passed through Medina river. Traveled a distance of 120 miles to operate against Kickapoo Indians."No Indians seen."
  • 7th to 9th. Corporal J. Mauley 4th Cavalry from Camp Verde, Texas. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Cos. B & L} 6 men. Passed through Guadalupe and Ferdinales rivers; traveled a distance of 80 miles to operate against the Kickapoo Indians."No Indians seen."
  • 22nd—75 miles northwest of Fort Concho—unknown Mexican killed in Indian fight by an arrow wound {Surgical report p. 148}
  • In an appendix to 1869 Report of General of the Army (p. 55) is reported: February 1869 Northern Texas—Killed 7; 5 children captured of whom 2 were given up and 3 taken to Kansas {white People}; 50 horses taken and 3 houses burned


  • 1st to 4th. 1st Lt. William J. Maberly 4th Cavalry from Camp Verde Texas. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Cos B & L} 1 officer/17 men. passed through country Rio Pecos and Rio Hondu; traveled a distance of 125 miles to operate against Kickapoo Indians. Abundant signs seen.
  • 2nd to 4th. 2nd Lt. H.F. Winchester from Ft Griffin Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos F, I.L.K} 2 officer/19 men. Passed through Shackelford County, traveled 48 miles to operate against Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 5th to 9th. Captain A.R. Chaffee 6th Cavalry from Fort Griffin, Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos F, I} 4 Officers/62 men and 7 Indians. Against Comanche Indians 130 miles through Haskel and Jones Counties. "Indians killed, 7; property captured, 2 horses, 2 ponies, 1 mule, with shields, bows and arrows, and all saddle equipments of the party; enlisted men wounded, 3. Privates Ryan, company F, Hoffman, company I, and Butler, company I, 6th Cavalry, were wounded." 5 Indians, 1 Mexican and 1 mulatto were killed[15] Mentioned in US 6th Cavalry History as "Parts of the regiment were engaged with Indians Paint Creek, Texas, March 5, 1868." US Casualties- 6th Cavalry-Troop F: Pvt James Ryan-arrow wound of lip-treated at Fort Griffin Texas and returned to duty March 11, 1868; Troop I:Pvt John Butler-arrow wound of Upper left arm; returned to duty March 11, 1868. {Surgical Report pp. 157–158}
  • 7th to 10th. Corporal C. Henhold 6th Cavalry from Sherman Tx. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Co D} 13 men and 7 citizens. Passed through Collins, Hunt, and Grayson Counties. Traveled against Lee's band of thieves & outlaws in Read Creek Swamp, Collins County. "Indians killed,2; prisoners, 5,(men)". {Note for account of 2nd involvement on March 29, 1869 involvement of the US 6th Cavalry in the Lee-Peacock feud. See Below}
  • 7th to 14th. 1st Lt. J.F. Hill 6th Cavalry from Ft Richardson Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos A, C, D, E} 1 officer/20 men & 3 Indians. Passed through Jack and Clay Counties against Comanche for 150 miles."No Indians seen."
  • 10th to 11th. Sgt C. Gale 4th Cavalry from Ft Concho Texas. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Co D} 6 men. Passed through Rio Colorado; traveled 120 miles to operate against the Comanche. "Indians killed, 1; property captured, 10 horses."
  • 14th Austin Texas—Pvt J. MacDonough—Co B 6th US Cavalry—shot by a Corporal—{killed} {Surgical Report}
  • 15th to 24th. 2nd Lt. A. W. Bothwick 6th Cavalry from Ft Richardson Tex. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos A, C, D, E} 1 officer/20 men & 3 Indians. Passed through Jack & Clay Counties against Comanche. Distance not stated. "No Indians seen."
  • 20th to 21st. 2nd Lt. G. E. Overton 6th Cavalry from Buffalo Springs, Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos A, C, D, E} 1 officer/20 men & 1 citizen. Passed through Clay County 50 miles against the Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 30th to 31st. Corp. T. Williams 6th cavalry from Buffalo Springs. Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry (Co D) 5 men. Passed through Clay County. Distance not stated.


  • 1st. Austin. Pvt. William Burke. Co B 6th Cavalry. Wound in the abdomen—died {Surgical Report p. 46}
  • 8th to 20th. 1st Lt. J.B. Cole 4th Cavalry from Laredo Texas. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Co C} 1 officer/25 men. Passed through country between Laredo and Eagle Pass. Traveled 250 miles. {Report apparently gives wrong date of departure as 1867}.


  • 2nd. San Antonio. Sgt Washington Coler. Co C, 26th US Cavalry, wounded. Returned to duty May 25, 1868. {Surgical report p. 18}
  • 3rd to 14th. Capt F.S. Hodge of 9th Cavalry from Fort Stockton. Troops from 9th Cavalry {Cos A, B, D, E} 1 officer/29 men Passed through Texas 350 miles.
  • 3rd to 14th. 1st Lt. E. Eauck 6th Cavalry from Ft Richardson Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos A, C, D, E, F, H, M} 2 offices/66 men & 2 citizens. Passed through Texas, traveled 212 miles to operate against Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 3rd to 17th. Captain D. Madden 6th Cavalry from Ft Richardson Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos A, D, E, H} 2 officers/44 men and 2 citizens. Traveled a distance of 267 miles to operate against the Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 5th. Private Charles Wicks, Co C 26th US Inf. Wounded by a Mexican Brownsville Texas. Returned to duty June 12, 1868. {Surgical report pp. 17–18}
  • 15th to 15th. 1st Lt. T. J. Wint 4th Cavalry from Fort Concho Texas. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Cos. D, H, M} 1 officer/33 men & 1 citizen. Passed through country along South Concho. Traveled 14 miles to operate against Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 19th to 24th. Captain H. Carroll 9th Cavalry from Fort Quitman Texas. Troops from 9th Cavalry Cos F/H/I. 1 Officer/30 men. Passed through Texas. Traveled 170 miles.
  • In an appendix to 1869 Report of General of the Army (p. 55) is reported: May 1869 Northern Texas—Killed 0 {white people}


  • 2nd to July 2. 1st Lt. T. M. Tolman 6th Cavalry from Fort Richardson Tex. Troops from 6th Cavalry 4 officers/92 men. Passed through Texas {distance not stated} to operate against Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 3rd to 4th. Corporal J. Conover 4th Cavalry from Laredo Tex. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Co C}. 7 men. Passed through Laredo to San Ignacio. Traveled 245 miles.
  • 6th. Fort Concho. Pvt. John Gourjan. Co G 4th US Cavalry—accidentally wounded while on picket—admitted to hospital June 7, 1868; died June 8, 1868 {Surgical Report p. 46}
  • 7th to 8th. Sgt. C. Rodamore 4th Cavalry from Ft Concho Tex. Troops from 4th Cavalry {Cos. D, H, M}. 13 men & 1 citizen. Passed through headwaters of the Concho 50 miles to operate against the Comanche. "No Indians seen."
  • 15th to July 6. 2nd Lt. H. P. Eakin 6th Cavalry from Fort Richardson Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry 1 officer/21 men. Passed through Texas {distance not stated} to operate against murderers. {Murderers not found}.
  • 17th to July 17. 1st Lt. J. F. Hill 6th Cavalry from Fort Richardson Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry 1 officer/20 men. Passed through Texas {distance not stated} to operate against murderers. {Murderers not found}.
  • 18th to 30th. 1st Lt. A Krammer 6th Cavalry from Ft Griffin Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry {Cos. I, K, L} 3 officers/15 men and 15 Indians & 1 citizen. Traveled a distance of 240 miles to operate against the Tonkawas & Comanche."No Indians seen."
  • 19th to 22nd. Captain G. H. Gamble 9th Cavalry from Fort Stockton Tex. from 9th Cavalry Cos A/B/D/E. 1 Officer/22 men. Passed through Texas. Traveled 100 miles.
  • 29th. Fort Clark. Pvt George Grey, Troop M 9th Cavalry—accidentally wounded by a sponge—staff while firing National Salute; both forearms amputated; suffered tetanus July 11 and died July 15, 1868 {Surgical report pp. 176–177}
  • In an appendix to 1869 Report of General of the Army (p. 55) is reported: June 1869 Northern Texas—Killed 1; {white people}


  • 4th. Fort Stockton. Pvt Isam Davis Co D 9th US Cavalry -mortally wounded {quarrel}—died July 21, 1868 {Surgical report p. 53}
  • 10th to August 11. 2nd Lt G. E. Overton 6th Cavalry from Fort Richardson Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry 1 officer/15 men. Passed through Texas {distance not stated} to operate against murderers. {Murderers not found}.
  • In an appendix to 1869 Report of General of the Army (p. 55) is reported: July 1869 Brazos River Texas—Killed 4; scalped 9 {white people}


  • 12th. Brenham—Pvt J.W. McClinchey Co E 17th Infantry—head and side wounds with a knife; admitted to post hospital August 12; returned to duty September 26, 1868 {Surgical report p. 90}
  • 14th. Fort Richardson-"Sergt Edward Gregory with a detail of seven enlisted men accompanied by a Freedman as guide was sent about four miles from the Post on the evening of 14th August and while returning about dark the same evening were ambushed by a party of desperadoes and fired upon within a mile of the Post. Sergt Edward Gregory (may be Greevy), Private John Miller and three Freedman were killed, one horse was killed and four wounded." {From Muster Roll Co H 6th Regt of US Cavalry 30 Jun 1868—31 Aug 1868 {US National Archives}
  • 17th to 21st. Captain D. Madden 6th Cavalry from Fort Richardson Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry. 1 officer/10 men. Passed through Texas to operate against desperadoes {distance not stated}. No desperadoes found
  • 20th. Fort Stockton—Pvt Taliaferro Hall—Co E 9th Cavalry—accidentally wounded in left foot—returned to duty October 4, 1868 {Surgical Report p. 84}
  • 23rd. "Northern Texas" 8 Murdered {white people} and 300 livestock stolen {P.53 1869 Report of General of the Army}
  • 23rd. Austin—Pvt Bernard Curry and Pvt D. O'Conner—Co B 6th United States Cavalry—gunshot wound of the abdomen—died in Post Hospital Austin Texas {Surgical Report p. 44 & p. 52}
  • 24th to 28th. 2nd Lt. J.M. Burns 17th Infantry from Fort Richardson Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry 1 officer/5 men. Passed through Texas {distance not stated] to operate against desperadoes. No desperadoes found.
  • 28th to September 3. Capt. D. Madden 6th Cavalry from Fort Richardson Tex. Troops from 6th Cavalry. 2 officers/50 men. Passed through Texas {distance not stated] to operate against Comanche."No Indians seen."


  • 1st. "Spanish Fort Texas" 4 Murdered; 8 Scalped; 3 women outraged {of whom one was killed along with her 4 children} {White People} 15 horses taken {P.53 1869 Report of General of the Army}
  • 2nd. "H Company, 6th US Cavalry have been for sometime engaged in breaking up and riddling the surrounding counties of these bands of desperadoes by which they have been infected and also for the protection of Union men and Freedmen. On the 2nd of Sept Lts. Schreyer and Gordon 'C'W/Cavi? with a detail consisting of 1 Sgt, 1 Bugler and 15 Pvts of Co H, 6th US Cavalry were engaged with a party of these men capturing their horses and arms. Bugler Connelly was shot sided during the engagement." {Muster Roll Co H 6th Regiment Cavalry 31st day of Aug 1866 to 31st Day of October 1868. Michail Connelly Bryler entered 5 Apr 1866 at New York for 3 years wounded in action by desperadoes 2 September 1868. {US National Archives}
  • 5th to 9th. 1st Lt. H. E. Scott 6th Cavalry from Fort Richardson Tex. Troops from 6th Cavalry (Cos I, K, L) 2 Officers/50 men & 2 Indians. Passed through Texas. Traveled 136 miles to operate against Comanches. {*}
  • 8th—Pvt Frank Castle—Co C 41st Infantry—Fort Clark Texas—wounded in the left hand while in a brawl with other enlisted men—November 3, 1868—patient returned to duty {Surgical duty}
  • 8th to 23rd. 1st Lt. P. Cusak 9th Cavalry from Fort Davis, Texas. Troops from 9th Cavalry 1 officer/60 men and 10 citizens. Passed through country east of Ft. Davis—traveled 180 miles. Operated against Meskaleros and Inlanos. 3 enlisted men wounded: Privates G. Collyer {Co F}; Lewis White {Co C}; John Foster {Co K}. 25 Indians killed and 25 wounded. 1 Mexican boy captured. 198 animals captured. {Horse head Hills-Private Louis White-Troop C-9th Cavalry-arrow wound of 6th rib left side; treated at Ft Davis and returned to duty September 26, 1868 {Surgical Report.p. 159} Pvt. John Foster-Troop F-9th Cavalry-wounded by a lance-returned to duty-September 18, 1868 {Surgical Report p. 102} Pvt. Gilbert Colyer-Troop F-9th Cavalry-wounded by a lance-returned to duty-Oct 1868 {Surgical Report p. 102}
  • "Sept 16th Lt. Schreyer with 1 Sgt, 4 corporals and 15 privates were sent in pursuit of another band capturing 1 prisoner and their horse and arms." {Muster Roll Co H 6th US Cavalry 31st day of August 1866 to 31st day of October 1868. {US National Archives.}
  • 22nd to 23rd. 1st Lt. H. S. Howe 17th Infantry from Austin Texas. Troops from 6th Cavalry 1 officer/7 men. Passed through Travis County Texas. Traveled 14 miles. Operated against citizens. Two enlisted men killed: Privates D. O'Conner and B. Curry {Co B}. killed by John McGuire {Citizen} arrested. {A report of Curry and O'Conner wounds and deaths in Austin are in Surgical Report p. 44 and p. 52 in which it is reported that Curry and O'Conner died of wounds August 23, 1868 at Post Hospital at Austin Texas}


  • 4 October—Murder of Honorable G.W. Smith {delegate to Constitutional Convention} and two freemen and reported wounding of a freeman by Ku Klux Klan-report of Captain James Curtis of US 15th Infantry forwarded by General Reynolds who also reports arrest of 35 men who participated in murder; General Don Carlos Buell in Jefferson Texas reported May 5, 1869 of C.L. Pitcher Confined since February 9, 1869 as being involved in Smith murder {Senate Document Report of Alleged outrages .p. LII}
  • 7 October--New Boston, Texas Freeman Bureau Agent William C. Kirkham killed[16]
  • "Oct 18th Lt Schreyer with 3 corporals and 15 privates were sent in pursuit of Ben Bickerstaff?/the desperado/and succeeded in capturing prisoners and also a lot of horses and arms." {Muster Roll Co H 6th US Cavalry 31st day of August 1866 to 31st day of October 1868. {US National Archives}


  • {US 6th Cavalry} "One troop marched more than a thousand miles in pursuit of outlaws during the last three months of 1868". {See [5] at the United States Army Center of Military History}
  • 24 October "1864"{? 1868}—Fort Stockton—Pvt Peter Alfonze—Co A 9th US Cavalry—flesh wound from bullet—duty November 1, 1868 {Surgical Report}
  • 29 October—Belton—Pvt John Eberhardt—Co A 17th US Infantry—shot while a party of eight men were attempting to arrest a desperado, "..a ball from a Colt's Navy revolver entered the right thigh... patient died in about two hours from hemorrhage." {Surgical report p. 86}
  • ?? October—Fort Quitman—Pvt George W. Young—Co H 9th US Cavalry—flesh wound from bullet—duty November 10, 1868 {Surgical report}
  • 6 November—Fort Quitman—Pvt Henry Hight—Troop H 9th US Cavalry—gunshot flesh wound of right foot—duty January 1869 {Surgical report p. 85}
  • 19 November {Farmersville, Texas—20 miles from Pilot Grove} Pvt J. Hoffman—Co A 6th US Cavalry—wounded in a skirmish—died November 20, 1868 {Surgical Report}
  • 20 November—Galveston—Corporal Frank Sachse—Co F 17th US infantry—lacerated wound—returned to duty—November 29, 1868 {Surgical Report p. 235}
  • 9 December-, Lt Charles Schmidt, the Freeman's Bureau agent based in Sumpter, Texas reported killing of a slave named Maje's by John Wesley Hardin to the Assistant Adj. General of the Freeman's Bureau in a report the titled "Criminal offenses" : "John Hardin (white) – Major Holshousen (fr[eeman]), Murder." Quote: "Hardin, a mere lad shot him without cause as the latter did not like the abuse of Hardin. He shot him five times every wound dangerous. No action taken by civil authorities. Hardin left the county. He lived at Sumpter, Trinity Co, Texas." Additional: In the margin under the date December 9, 1868 is written the following postscript: "Murder was committed in Polk Co, Texas about ten 10 miles from Moscow" [17][18]
  • 18 December-Pvt William Neff—Co B 9th Cavalry—admitted to Fort Stockton hospital with a gunshot wound of both thighs—died {Surgical Report p. 85.-not dated but date of death is from VA records}
  • 24 December Sulper Springs—Pvt T Quigley—Co G 17th US Infantry—incised wound of shoulder—returned to duty February 1869 {Surgical report}
  • 25 December {Junction of Salt Fork and Elm Creek Texas} Col A. W. Evans commanded 446 {Strength} against 300 Comanches and Kiowas; 3 enlisted men wounded; 25 Indians killed/35 Indians wounded. {1869 Report to the Secretary of War p. 52}
  • 25 December Fort Brenham—Corporal Allan Davis—Co B 17th US Infantry—wounded by a round ball—admitted to Fort Brenham Hospital December 26, 1868; died December 28, 1868 {Surgical report p. 52}


  • In a table of organization in 1869 Report to Secretary of War J.J. Reynolds commanded 3 cavalry {4th; 6th;9th} and 3 Infantry {10th;11;24th} {P. 35} In his Official report of October 21, 1869 Reynolds reported that Indian raids resulted in heavy damage to citizens and livestock but that the loss of life has been small, amounting during the year to about "twenty—six". {p. 144}; likewise in enforcing indictments for murder there were several persons who resisted arrest with force of arms and were killed {.p. 144} and that Military commissions—under authority of Congress March 2, 1867—had from October 1, 1868 to September 30, 1869 tried 59 cases, of which 21 were convicted and 38 acquitted. {Ibid.p. 145}
  • March:
    • 4th Jefferson Texas—Pvt W.R. Stone—Co F 4th US Cavalry—accidental gunshot wounded—died {Surgical Report}
    • 14th Fort Griffin—John J. Baron {citizen} wounded—died March 18, 1869 Fort Griffin Hospital {Surgical report}
    • 18th Fort Richardson—Pvt G. Lorenzo—Co F 6th US Cavalry—age 21-pistol wound of back—duty May 12, 1869 {Surgical report}
    • 25th Galveston—Pvt Daniel McCarthy—Co D 24th US Infantry—gunshot wound; returned to duty April 1869 {Surgical Report.p. 47}
    • 29th Involvement of both the U.S. 4th Cavalry Regiment & of U.S. 6th Cavalry Regiment in the "Lee-Peacock feud"-see reference at Archived October 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine in which a soldier was injured and a Texas Deputy Sheriff William C. Hall was killed {for reference only}; for fallen lawman see [6]. {The same day in Austin a citizen prisoner John Glascock accidentally shot himself in the knee while arrest; discharged from post hospital October 17, 1869 {Report of Surgical Cases in the Army .p. 80}
  • May:
    • 7th Jefferson Texas—Pvt W. Christian—Co D 11th US Infantry—accidental gunshot wounded—duty May 10, 1869 {Surgical report}
    • 7th Livingston Texas—Sgt J.F. Leonard—Co B 6th US Cavalry—age 29-gunshot wound of thoracic parities—duty June 16, 1869 {Surgical report} {Possibly shot by either John Wesley Hardin or his cousin "Simp" Dixon?}
    • 9th San Antonio—Pvt Richard Elliott—Co H 9th US Cavalry—knife wound in left breast; discharged from service March 24, 1870 {Surgical report.p. 249}
  • June:
    • 28th—Fort Stockton—Pvt Henry Johnson—Co E 9th Colored Cavalry—gunshot wound left hip—into Fort Concho post hospital—returned to duty—August 18, 1869 {Surgical Report .p. 76}
    • 28th—Fort Concho—Pvt James Fester—Co F, 41st infantry—gunshot wound left thigh {Scuffle with comrade—Fort Concho Post hospital—died July 16, 1869 {Surgical Report .p. 76}
    • 29th—Fort Jefferson—Pvt George Scott—Co M, 3rd Artillery—compound fracture of the right leg; discharged from service March 5, 1870 {Surgical Report.p. 138}
  • September:
    • 6th—Fort Quitman—Pvt O. Larssen—Co A 35th US Infantry—wounded in a disturbance with Mexicans—returned to duty Nov 20, 1869 {Surgical Report}
    • 17th—Fort Richardson—Pvt J Osborne—Co I 24th US Infantry—wounded in a fracus outside garrison—died September 18, 1869 {Surgical Report}
    • 19th-San Antonio-Artificer Thomas Dardis-Co F 10th Infantry-stabbed by a comrade with a jack-knife-died of wound {Surgichal Report.p. 91}
  • October:
    • 15th Fort Richardson—Sgt Frank Tocker—Co D 6th US Cavalry—found dead of gunshot wound in head on road to Govt saw—mill at Hogs Eye Texas {Surgical Report}
    • 19th Fort Quitman—Pvt W. Herron—Co F 38th US Infantry—gunshot wound in breast—duty November 30, 1869 (Surgical report)
    • 28th-Brazos River-1st Lt. George E. Albee of the 41st US Infantry and 2 men attacked and drove off 11 Indians and reconnoitered county beyond-Albee received Medal of Honor
  • November:
    • 26th Helena Texas-Pvt. john Carey-Co G 10th US Infantry-wounded in a quarrel by a pocket knife-dressing applied at Post Hospital at Helena-returned to duty January 16, 1870 {Surgical report.p. 102}
  • December:
    • 22nd Fort MacKavitt—Captain F.W. Smith—9th US Cavalry killed by accidental discharge of pistol {Surgical Report}
    • 24th Ringgold Battacks—1st Sgt Daniel Isaacs—Co I 10th Infantry—contusion on head—admitted to base hospital—died same day {Surgical Report .p. 121}
    • 29th Fort Duncan,-Pvt Horance Williams-age 20 years-Troop L 9th US Cavalry-accidentally wounded while ramming a blank charge in artillery for a salute-forearm amputated-discharged from service April 30, 1870 {Surgical report}
    • 31st Jefferson—Lt E.P.Kolby—11th US Infantry—suicide {Surgical report}


  • January:
    • 16th—Fort Quitman—Pvt W. Weaver—Co H 9th US Cavalry—wounded by pistol balls—recovered {Surgical Report}
    • 23rd—Fort Griffin—Pvt Jackson Tolliver—Co E 24th USCI—two gunshot wounds—died of wound {Surgical Report.p. 41}
  • February:
    • 2nd—Five miles from Menardville—thirtyfive miles below Fort McKavett—Corporal Albert Marshall—Co F 9th US Cavalry—murdered by desperadoes while guarding a prisoner {Surgical Report .p. 35}
    • 3rd—Fort McKavett—Private Charles Murray—Co F 9th US Cavalry—murdered by ruffians while guarding a prisoner {Jackson} accused of murder. {Surgical Report .p. 46}
    • 7th—Fort McIntosh—Pvt George C. Hubbell—Troop C 4th Cavalry—accidentally wounded by shot from his carbine; left forearms amputated. Discharged May 12, 1870 {Surgical Report .p. 177}
    • 20th—Fort Duncan—Pvt Thomas Baker—Co K 24th Infantry—accidentally wounded—died February 21, 1870 {Surgical Report.p. 46}
    • {?}-Limestone County- Outlaw "Simp" Dixon killed by Soldiers under command of Sgt Adam Desch[19]
  • March:
    • 5th—Waco—Pvt John Harkey—Co E 6th US Cavalry—fell from second story building used as barracks—died March 7, 1870 {Surgical Report}
    • 16th—Fort Davis—Pvt D. Boyd—Co K 9th US Cavalry—accidentally killed {Surgical Report}
    • 19th—Fort Bliss—Pvt T.H.Whipper—Co A 24th Infantry—accidentally wounded—returned to duty May 16, 1870 {Surgical report}
    • 21st—Fort Clark—Pvt N Pochet—Co G 9th US Cavalry—wounded in a brawl {carbine ball}—died {Surgical report}
    • 25th—North Ilano—Pvt. Williams—Co D 24th Infantry—accidentally wounded—taken to McKavitt hospital next day—died April 2, 1870 {Surgical Report .pp. 78–79}
  • May:
  • June:
    • 19th—Fort Concho—Pvt Edward Staven—Co G 4th US Cavalry—accidentally wounded in a drunken scuffle—died {Surgical Report.p. 43}
  • July:
    • 4th-Fort Bliss-Pvt Doctor Johnson-Co A 24th US Infantry-accidentally suffered amputation of left hand due to a discharge of a cannon-discharged April 30, 1871 {Surgical Report.p. 177}
    • 4th-San Antonio-Pvt George Deems-Troop A 4th US Cavalry- admitted to hospital-contused wound of scalp {accident}-discharged August 9, 1870 {Surgical Report.p.  272}
    • 12th—Little Wichita River-53 men of the 6th US Cavalry and 2 officers and an assistant Surgeon under Captain C.B. McClelland in battle with 250 Kiowas under Chief Kicking Bird; US casualties were two killed and 9 wounded; Kiowa losses were reported to be 15 killed and many wounded.[20] Corporal John Conner of Company H wounded-returned to duty September 12, 1870; Private Samuel Wagner of Company A wounded-returned to duty August 3, 1870; Private William Gallagher of Company D-wounded-duty August 1870; Private Benjamin Amey of Company H-wounded-duty July 18, 1870; Private Albert Ford of Company H-wounded-duty August 19, 1870; Private Gustavus Smith of Company H-wounded-duty August 9, 1870; Private Robert Stuart of Company H-wounded-duty August 6, 1870; Acting Assistant Surgeon G.W. Hatch—gunshot flesh wound of left foot—furloughed August 20, 1870 {Surgical report.pp;6; 59; 60; 69; 84; 85}; Claron A. Windus awarded Medal of Honor.
  • August:
    • 25th-Fort Concho-Haller-a citizen-accident wounded by a pistol while hunting with a Soldier-Haller died 41 days after accident {Surgical report. pp. 71–72}
  • September:
    • 1st-Pecos River-three men attacked by Indians-1 killed, 1 escaped/1 wounded by 3 gunshot flesh wounds and an arrow wound in head-died Sept 19, 1870 {Surgical report.p. 149. Report does not tell if these were military or civilians}
    • 19th—Jefferson—1st Sgt Daniel Murphy—Co I 11th US Infantry—committed suicide with a derringer pistol {Surgical Report.p. 33}
  • October:
    • 5th/6th- Little Wichita River aka "Skirmish at Bluff Creek"-Indian guide James B. Doshier and five soldiers of Company M of the 6th US Cavalry {Sgt. Michael Welch, Cpl. Samuel Bowden, Cpl. Daniel Keating, Pvt. James Anderson; Pvt. Benjamin Wilson} receive Medal of Honor for gallantry
    • 14th—Fort Davis—Pvt Anderson Merryweather—band of the 9th US Cavalry—shot by persons unknown—died October 16, 1870 {Surgical Report .p. 45}
  • November:
    • 11th—Fort Brown—Pvt Thomas Logan—Co K 10th US Inf—killed after having attempted to escape after being arrested for being without permission in Brownsville {Surgical Report .p. 36. date of death from VA Records}
    • 12th-2 days camp from Fort Richardson- Indian engagement with 6th US Cavalry-12 Comanche scattered after charge by Captain Chaffee-7 ponies and 2 saddles found.[21]
    • 26th—Fort Richardson—Pvt John Murphy—Co M, 6th US Cavalry—received in an affray a gunshot wound of the abdomen—admitted to Post hospital November 27, 1870—discharged from the service December 27, 1870 {Surgical Report .p. 50}
  • December:
    • 20th-Fort Richardson-1st Lt Henry B. Mellon, 6th Cavalry age 43-while traveling from Camp Wichita to Fort Richardson was caught in a "norther"; found on the 22nd; taken to the Hospital December 23, 1870-loss of both feet By July 1871 stump of the right foot had healed and the condition of left was favorable. {See Surgical Report .pp. 194–196}

See also


  1. ^ [See also Freeman Bureau report Sept 1866]
  2. ^ [Annual Report of the Adjutant—General for the State of New York for the year 1895 .p. 1270]
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [Annual Report of the Adjutant—General for the State of New York for the year 1895 .p. 1295 (Note:These two deaths are also reported in link "Freeman's Bureau online" regarding Texas and Dewitt County on article "Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands" Reference only—copyrighted).}
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ Pinterest
  7. ^ Handbook of Texas online
  8. ^ Supplemental report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War Sheridan's Report May 29, 1865 – Nov 4, 1866 .pp.72–77.{Note:The Handbook of Texas online alleges killings of 2 black soldiers to have occurred in Dewitt County Texas in 1866 by the Taylor Brothers. See [3]. However see link "Freeman's Bureau online" regarding 1866 killings of 2 black ex-soldiers in Texas and Dewitt County on article "Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands" Reference only—copyrighted}.}
  9. ^ The two soldiers killed were Privates Nath. Eglan and John Bull by Jefferson Depty Marshal Jack Phillips. See Lynching in America .p.96 {reference only}
  10. ^ ODMP memorial
  11. ^ The Sun November 19,1888 p.2 accessed Library of Congress July 16, 2016
  12. ^ .p.157
  13. ^ House of Representatives Record .p.22
  14. ^ James R. Ketchum 1822-1867 biography
  15. ^ Life Of Lt General Chafee pp.64–65
  16. ^ The Montana Post November 13, 1868
  17. ^ See Account from US Freeman Bureau Records at [ Criminal Offenses Texas, Freedmen's Bureau ...Office Records, 1865-1870, Sumpter, Roll 26, Letters sent, vol (158), June-Dec 1867, Apr-Dec 1868 .p.112 Image 60
  18. ^ After Maje's killing, Hardin claimed he ambushed 3 US Cavalry Soldiers of the US 4th cavalry Regiment who were pursuing him for Maje murder; although the scattered Military reports for this period do not agree that any soldiers were killed by Hardin, there is circumstantial evidence that Hardin did commit a murder after killing Maje-although Number of victims and their identity is unknown.
  19. ^ [4]
  20. ^ 6th US Cavalry History, p. 242. Sgt William Winterbottom of Company A; Sgt George H. Eldridge of Company C; Sgt Thomas Kerrigan and 1st Sgt Alonzo Stokes of Company H; Sgt John May and 1st Sgt John Kirk of Company L; Corporal John Connor (Medal of Honor) of Company H; Corporal John J. Given of Company K {Posthumously}; Pvt Solon D. Neal and Bugler Claron A. Windus of Company L; Farrier Samuel Porter and Corporals James C. Watson and Charles E. Smith received Medal of Honor for Bravery/gallantry in action}
  21. ^ Life of Lt General Chaffee .p.66. See also 6th US Cavalry History .p.242
Charles Griffin

Charles Griffin (December 18, 1825 – September 15, 1867) was a career officer in the United States Army and a Union general in the American Civil War. He rose to command a corps in the Army of the Potomac and fought in many of the key campaigns in the Eastern Theater.

After the war, he commanded the Department of Texas during Reconstruction. He was an ardent supporter of the Congressional policies of the Radical Republicans and of freedmen's rights, and controversially disqualified a number of antebellum state officeholders in Texas, replacing them with loyal Unionists.

Colin Harper (conductor)

Colin Harper AM MBE (~1933 - 2004) is a Scottish Australian conductor and the founder of the Queensland Pops Orchestra.Harper was born in Fort George in Scotland. He joined the Army when he was 14 and later became the bandmaster of Gordon Highlander regiment. He moved to Australia in 1972 and became the music director of the Fifth Military District band in Perth. 1981 saw him move to Brisbane where in 1984 he founded the Queensland Pops Orchestra who put on series of The Best of British and Scotland the Brave concerts. Harper died in January 2004 after a battle with cancer.The 2000 ABC Classics album release of highlights of one of his Scotland the Brave concerts was nominated for the 2001 ARIA Award for Best Cast or Show Album.

Department (United States Army)

Department is an organizational term used by the U.S. Army, mostly prior to World War I, to describe named geographical districts created for control and administration of installations and units. In 1920, most of the named departments were redesignated as numbered Corps Areas. However, the Hawaiian, Panama Canal, and Philippine Departments retained their old names. In 1939, the Puerto Rican Department was created and in May 1941 the Panama Canal and Puerto Rican Departments were combined as the Caribbean Defense Command, although each was still referred to as a department.

Fenian raids

Between 1866 and 1871, the Fenian raids of the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish Republican organization based in the United States, on British army forts, customs posts and other targets in Canada, were fought to bring pressure on the UK to withdraw from Ireland. They divided Catholic Irish-Canadians, many of whom were torn between loyalty to their new home and sympathy for the aims of the Fenians. The Protestant Irish were generally loyal to the UK and fought with the Orange Order against the Fenians. While US authorities arrested the men and confiscated their arms, there is speculation that some in the US government had turned a blind eye to the preparations for the invasion, angered at actions that could have been construed as British assistance to the Confederate States during the American Civil War. There were five Fenian raids of note and all of them ended in failure.

First Military District

The First Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South. The district was stipulated by the Reconstruction Acts during the Reconstruction period following the American Civil War. It only included Virginia, and was the smallest of the five military districts in terms of size. The district was successively commanded by Brigadier General John Schofield (1867–1868), Colonel George Stoneman (1868–1869) and Brigadier General Edward Canby (1869–1870).

Fourth Military District

The Fourth Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South. The district was stipulated by the Reconstruction Acts during the Reconstruction period following the American Civil War. It included the occupation troops in the states of Arkansas and Mississippi. At various times, the district was commanded by generals Edward Ord, Alvan Cullem Gillem, and Adelbert Ames.

Following the completion of the Civil War, the Federal government under President of the United States Andrew Johnson sought to restore order within the states that had composed the defeated Confederate States of America. Johnson, a loyal Tennesseean, advocated a lenient strategy to remove all commercial and social restrictions between the states, with the intention for the South to return to its former position in the Union. He believed that former Confederates should receive amnesty for their actions during the war and regain full rights of citizenship. However, the Radical Republicans in Congress vehemently disagreed, and passed the 1866 Reconstruction Acts, which divided the former Confederacy into military districts, in which a military commander controlled all social, economic, and political activity in the region. The Fourth Military District comprised the states of Mississippi and Arkansas, with its headquarters in Vicksburg.

Edward Ord served as the district's first commander, with Alvan C. Gillem, like Johnson a loyal Tennessean, in charge of the sub-district of Mississippi. Gillem was later appointed as the district's commander. He favored the policy of leniency towards the former Confederates, invoking the displeasure of the Radicals in Congress. When Ulysses S. Grant became president, he removed Gillem from command and reassigned him to Texas, replacing him again with Ord, a personal friend who had served under Grant during the Civil War. When Ord was later assigned command of the District of California, another former Civil War general, Adelbert Ames, assumed command in 1868, and was also named as Governor of Mississippi, replacing former Confederate general Benjamin G. Humphreys.

When Mississippi was readmitted to the Union in 1870, the Fourth Military District was abolished and control of the state reverted to the newly elected state government.

History of Louisiana

The history of the area that is now the US state of Louisiana began roughly 10,000 years ago. The first traces of permanent settlement, ushering in the Archaic period, appear about 5,500 years ago (Mound Builders).

The area formed part of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. The Marksville culture emerged about 2,000 years ago out of the earlier Tchefuncte culture. It is considered ancestral to the Natchez and Taensa peoples. About 1,000 years ago, the Mississippian culture emerged from the Woodland period. The emergence of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex coincides with the adoption of maize agriculture and chiefdom-level complex social organization beginning in c. 1200 AD. The Mississippian culture mostly disappeared around the 16th century, with the exception of some Natchez communities that maintained Mississippian cultural practices into the 18th century.

European influence began in the 16th century, and La Louisiane (named after Louis XIV of France) became a colony of the Kingdom of France in 1682, before passing to Spain in 1763. It became part of the United States following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Antebellum Louisiana was a leading slave state; in 1860, 47% of the population was enslaved. Louisiana seceded from the Union (American Civil War) on 26 January 1861. New Orleans, the largest city in the entire South and strategically important as a port city, was taken by Union troops on 25 April 1862.

During the Reconstruction Era, Louisiana was subject to U.S. Army occupation as part of the Fifth Military District. In 1898, the white Democratic, planter-dominated legislature passed a new disfranchising constitution, whose effects were immediate and long-lasting. The disfranchisement of African Americans did not end until the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.

John Wesley Hardin

John Wesley Hardin (May 26, 1853 – August 19, 1895) was an American Old West outlaw, gunfighter, and controversial folk icon. The son of a Methodist preacher, Hardin got into trouble with the law from an early age. He killed his first man at age 14, he claimed in self-defense.

Pursued by lawmen for most of his life, he was sentenced in 1877 at age 24 to 25 years in prison for murder. When he was sentenced, Hardin claimed to have killed 42 men but contemporary newspapers accounts attributed only 27 deaths to him. While in prison, Hardin studied law and wrote an autobiography. He was well known for wildly exaggerating or completely making up stories about his life. He claimed credit for many murders that cannot be corroborated.Within a year of his release in 1894, Hardin was killed by John Selman in an El Paso saloon.

List of lieutenant governors of Texas

Lieutenant Governor of Texas is the second-highest executive office in state government.

For more information about the office and powers of the Lieutenant Governor see Lieutenant Governor of Texas.

Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa

Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa (Spanish: Misión San Luís Obispo de Tolosa) is a Spanish mission founded in 1772 by Father Junípero Serra in San Luis Obispo, California. Named after Saint Louis of Anjou, the bishop of Toulouse, the mission is the namesake of San Luis Obispo. Today, it offers tours of the beautiful church, gardens, school and small museum that holds a collection of its artifacts. Unlike other California missions, the San Luis Obispo Mission is open to the public every day of the year and is still a very popular parish for the town's Catholic community.

The Mission of San Luis Obispo is unusual in its design, in that its combination of belfry and vestibule are found nowhere else among the California missions. Like other churches, the main nave is short and narrow, but at the San Luis Obispo Mission, there is a secondary nave of almost equal size situated to the right of the altar, making it the only L-shaped mission church in California.

New Orleans

New Orleans (, locally ; French: La Nouvelle-Orléans [la nuvɛlɔʁleɑ̃] (listen)) is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States.

New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, and its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras. The historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, and it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II. The city's location and flat elevation have historically made it very vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city.New Orleans was severely affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, and so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in formerly closely knit communities, and displacement of longtime residents have been expressed.The city and Orleans Parish (French: paroisse d'Orléans) are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish. The city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, and Jefferson Parish to the south and west.

The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States.

New Orleans massacre of 1866

The New Orleans Massacre of 1866 occurred on July 30, during a violent conflict as white Democrats, including police and firemen, attacked Republicans, most of them black, parading outside the Mechanics Institute in New Orleans. It was the site of a reconvened Louisiana Constitutional Convention. The Republicans in Louisiana had called for the Convention, as they were angered by the legislature's enactment of the Black Codes and its refusal to give black men the vote. Democrats considered the reconvened convention to be illegal and were suspicious of Republican attempts to increase their political power in the state. The massacre "stemmed from deeply rooted political, social, and economic causes," and took place in part because of the battle "between two opposing factions for power and office." There were a total of 150 black casualties, including 44 killed. In addition, three white Republicans were killed, as was one white protester.During much of the American Civil War, New Orleans had been occupied and under martial law imposed by the Union. On May 12, 1866, Mayor John T. Monroe was reinstated as acting mayor, the position he held before the war. Judge R. K. Howell was elected as chairman of the convention, with the goal of increasing participation by voters likely to vote Republican.The massacre expressed conflicts deeply rooted within the social structure of Louisiana. It was a continuation of the war: more than half of the whites were Confederate veterans, and nearly half of the blacks were veterans of the Union army. The national reaction of outrage at the Memphis riots of 1866 and this riot nearly three months later led to Republicans gaining a majority in the United States House of Representatives and the Senate in the 1866 election. The riots catalyzed support for the Fourteenth Amendment, extending suffrage and full citizenship to freedmen, and the Reconstruction Act, to establish military districts for the national government to oversee areas of the South and work to change their social arrangements.

Reconstruction Acts

The Reconstruction Acts, or Military Reconstruction Acts, (March 2, 1867, 14 Stat. 428-430, c.153; March 23, 1867, 15 Stat. 2-5, c.6; July 19, 1867, 15 Stat. 14-16, c.30; and March 11, 1868, 15 Stat. 41, c.25) were four statutes passed during the Reconstruction Era by the 40th United States Congress addressing requirement for Southern States to be readmitted to the Union. The actual title of the initial legislation was "An act to provide for the more efficient government of the Rebel States" and it was passed on March 2, 1867. Fulfillment of the requirements of the Acts was necessary for the former Confederate States to be readmitted to the Union from military and Federal control imposed during and after the American Civil War. The Acts excluded Tennessee, which had already ratified the 14th Amendment and had been readmitted to the Union.

Reconstruction era

The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights.

The term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War; the second, to the attempted transformation of the 11 ex-Confederate states from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and ended slavery, making the newly-free slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought; the white supremacist vision, which included segregation and the preservation of the traditional cultural standards of the South; and the emancipationist vision, which sought full freedom, citizenship, and Constitutional equality for African Americans.Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as quickly as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill. Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator, former slave owner, and the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this.Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866. Those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, and enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U.S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them. Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers, businessmen and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature. The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetos, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto. The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate. The new national Reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage (the right to vote) for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan. During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the South, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds.

Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to effectively combat the Ku Klux Klan, which was essentially wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan eventually would again come to national prominence in the 1920s. Nevertheless, President Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between the Northerners on the one hand, and those Republicans originally hailing from the South on the other (this latter group would be labelled "scalawags" by those opposing Reconstruction). Meanwhile, "redeemers", self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party, strongly opposed Reconstruction. They alleged widespread corruption by the "carpetbaggers", excessive state spending, and ruinous taxes. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North after the Democrats, who strongly opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874. In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president following the disputed 1876 presidential election, U.S. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states (South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida) where they still remained. This marked the end of Reconstruction.

Historian Eric Foner argues:

What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure.

Russian Naval Aviation

The Russian Naval Aviation (Russian: Авиация Военно-морского флота России, tr. Aviatsiya Voenno-morskovo Flota Rossii) is the air arm of the Russian Navy, having superseded Soviet Naval Aviation. The Russian Navy is divided into four fleets and one flotilla: Northern Fleet, Pacific Ocean Fleet, Baltic Fleet, Black Sea Fleet, and Caspian Flotilla.

The air forces of the most important fleets, the Northern and Pacific fleets, operate long range Tu-142 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft and Il-38 medium-range ASW aircraft. Formations operating supersonic Tu-22M3 bombers were transferred to the Russian Air Force's Long Range Aviation in 2011. The relatively small fleets, the Baltic and Black Sea, currently have only tactical Su-24 bombers and ASW helicopters in service. The small Caspian Flotilla operates An-26 and Mi-8 transports, Ka-27PS rescue helicopters, as well as some Ka-29 and Mi-24 armed helicopters. In 2011, the Russian Navy Deputy Commander-in-Chief for Naval Aviation and Air Defense/Commander, Naval Air and Air Defense Forces is Major General Igor Kozhin.

Second Military District

The Second Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South. The district was stipulated by the Reconstruction Acts during the Reconstruction period following the American Civil War. It included the territories of North and South Carolina, and acted as the de facto military government of those states while a new civilian government was being re-established. Originally commanded by Major General Daniel Sickles, after his removal by President Andrew Johnson on August 26, 1867, Brigadier General Edward Canby took over command until both states were readmitted in July 1868.

Its successor was the Department of the South.

Third Military District

The Third Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South. The district was stipulated by the Reconstruction Acts during the Reconstruction period following the American Civil War. It comprised Georgia, Florida and Alabama and was headquartered in Atlanta. Its creation was specified in the Reconstruction Acts.

Originally commanded by General John Pope, after his removal by President Andrew Johnson on December 28, 1867, General George Gordon Meade took his place. He served at the current location of Fort McPherson until August 1868 after Alabama and Florida were re-admitted into the United States.

Because of the expulsion of Blacks from the Georgia legislature, a new military leader was appointed on December 22, 1869, General Alfred Terry. In January, he returned the legislators and ousted 29 Democrats. In February, the Fifteenth amendment was ratified by Georgia and by July it was re-admitted into the Union.

Twelfth Texas Legislature

The Twelfth Texas Legislature met from February 8, 1870 to December 2, 1871 in four sessions — provisional, called, regular, and adjourned.

United States Department of War

The United States Department of War, also called the War Department (and occasionally War Office in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army, also bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, and for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947.

The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence.

The War Department existed from August 7, 1789 until September 18, 1947, when it split into Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force and joined the Department of the Navy as part of the new joint National Military Establishment (NME), renamed the United States Department of Defense in 1949.

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