Fifth Court

The Fifth Court (Icelandic: Fimmtardómur) was a supreme court established in Iceland approximately in the year 1015 during the period of the Icelandic Commonwealth. It was an institution of Althing, the nation's legislative and judicial authority. There was no executive power in the country at the time.

The jurisdiction of the court was the entire country, as opposed the contemporary Quarter Courts, whose jurisdiction extended only their relevant quarter of the country. The goal in establishing the court was probably unifying the judging of court cases throughout the whole country. The Fifth Court accepted appeals in cases already judged in one of the Quarter Court. The Fifth Court consisted of 48 men. 36 of them judged in cases, while both plaintiff and defender could bump up to 6 judges. Verdicts were decided by majority votes. This arrangement lasted throughout the period of the Icelandic Commonwealth.

Fifth Court
Establishedc. 1015
Dissolvedc. 1262
TypeSupreme court
Number of positions48
1992 Texas general election

The 1992 Texas General Election was held on November 3, 1992, in the U.S. state of Texas. Voters statewide elected the U.S. President, Railroad Commissioner. Statewide judicial offices up for election were three justices of the Texas Supreme Court and three judges of the Texas Court of Criminal


The United States House of Representatives elections in Texas, 1992 were conducted as part of the Texas General Election.

Augusta County Courthouse

The Augusta County Courthouse is a two-story, red brick, public building in Staunton, Virginia. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 1982. It was designed by T.J. Collins, and construction ended in the Autumn of 1901. It is located in the Beverley Historic District. It is the fifth court house constructed on the site, the first having been a log building constructed in 1755.

The building has a two-story, four-bay central portico, with one-bay hyphens connecting to one-bay wings on either side, a domed cupola, with extensive ornamentation on the pediments and the capitals of the yellow, pressed brick columns. The entrances are on the hyphens, rather than the central pavilion, with a stone belt course around the entire structure. Design follows the Beaux Arts architectural style.Its historical significance is in its unique architecture, as well as its history and records, some dating back to the Colonial era.

Beto O'Rourke

Robert Francis "Beto" O'Rourke (; born September 26, 1972) is an American businessman and politician who represented Texas's 16th congressional district for three terms in the United States House of Representatives.

A native of El Paso, Texas, O'Rourke served on the El Paso City Council from 2005 to 2011. O'Rourke was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012 after defeating incumbent Silvestre Reyes in a Democratic primary. O'Rourke declined to seek re-election to the House in 2018 and instead ran for U.S. Senate. As the 2018 Democratic U.S. Senate nominee, O'Rourke was narrowly defeated by Republican incumbent Senator Ted Cruz.

Carolyn Wright (Chief Justice)

Carolyn Wright (born September 27, 1946) is an American lawyer, jurist and the Chief Justice of the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas, serving in that position since November 17, 2009.

Court of Legislature (Iceland)

The Court of Legislature (Icelandic: Lögrétta) was a legislature and high court established in Iceland in the year 930 during the period of the Icelandic Commonwealth.

Court of appeals (disambiguation)

A court of appeals is an appellate court generally.

Court of Appeals may refer to:

Military Court of Appeals (Israel)

Corte d'Assise d'Appello (Italy)

Philippine Court of Appeals

High Court of Appeals of Turkey

United States courts of appeals

United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims

United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit

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United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

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United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit

Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals (defunct)

Alabama Court of Appeals (which existed until 1969)

Alaska Court of Appeals

Arizona Court of Appeals

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Colorado Court of Appeals

District of Columbia Court of Appeals

Georgia Court of Appeals

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Texas Courts of Appeals

First Court of Appeals of Texas

Second Court of Appeals of Texas

Third Court of Appeals of Texas

Fourth Court of Appeals of Texas

Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas

Sixth Court of Appeals of Texas

Seventh Court of Appeals of Texas

Eighth Court of Appeals of Texas

Ninth Court of Appeals of Texas

Tenth Court of Appeals of Texas

Eleventh Court of Appeals of Texas

Twelfth Court of Appeals of Texas

Thirteenth Court of Appeals of Texas

Fourteenth Court of Appeals of Texas

Utah Court of Appeals

Court of Appeals of Virginia

Washington Court of Appeals

Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia

Wisconsin Court of Appeals


Dallas () is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U.S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. Dallas is the seat of Dallas County. Sections of the city extend into Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties.

Dallas and nearby Fort Worth initially developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton, cattle, and later oil in North and East Texas. The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas then developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways, and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world.Dallas is rated a "beta(+)" global city. The economy of Dallas is considered diverse, with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, and transportation. It serves as the headquarters for 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits. The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines (Fort Worth), ExxonMobil (Irving), and J.C. Penney (Plano). The city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States.

Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas

The Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas is one of the 14 Texas Courts of Appeals. It currently sits in Dallas, Texas. It has simultaneously both the smallest Court of Appeals' jurisdictional geographic size (only six counties, one of which is shared with another Court), and the largest composition (13 Justices).

In re Marriage of J.B. and H.B.

In the Matter of the Marriage of J.B. and H.B. is a case arising from a divorce petition filed by a same-sex couple in Texas. They had been married in Massachusetts. A Texas Family Court granted the petition, holding that Texas's Proposition 2, which prohibited the court from recognizing a same-sex marriage, violated the due process and equal protection guarantees of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On appeal, the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas reversed the family court's judgment, holding that it was consistent with the due process and equal protection clauses. The case was before the Texas Supreme Court, but the case was dismissed due to the death of one of the parties.

Jade Record

The Jade Record or Yuli (玉曆) is an illustrated religious tract that circulated in various versions and editions in the 19th century in China. It has some folk-Buddhist and Daoist features and describes the horrors of Diyu (hell in Chinese mythology) that await bad people.The prologue states that the tract was submitted to the Jade Emperor or Highest God by the king of hell Yan Luo and the Bodhisattva of Compassion, then passed down to a Buddhist priest and on to a Taoist, during the Song Dynasty.

The tract describes how the dead pass through the ten courts of hell and are punished with terrible torture according to their misdeeds during life. In the first hall, the "Mirror of Reflection" lets the dead see their own sins. Sins specifically mentioned include: mocking or disbelieving the tract itself, taking one's life without good reason, having weak faith in the Buddha, being careless as Buddhist or Taoist priest, killing live creatures, stealing, cheating, gambling, drinking, drowning baby girls, killing slaves etc. Yan Luo himself rules over the fifth court of hell; the Highest God demoted him from the first court because he proved too compassionate towards murder victims, allowing them to return to the world for another life. Yan Luo also built a "Tower to View the World", from which the dead can observe how their relatives curse their memory and fight over their possessions. At the end of their passage through hell, the souls are made to forget their previous lives in the goddess Meng's "Tower of Forgetting" and are sent back to the world, reincarnated as animals, poor, ill or ugly humans, or as rich men, depending on their prior behavior.The Jade Record also contains a calendar, devoting the first day of the first lunar month to Maitreya Buddha, the eighth day to Yan Luo, the ninth to the Jade Emperor. The Sakyamuni Buddha, the Boddhisattva of Compassion, and the Kitchen God receive two days each. Numerous other gods also receive their special day.

The Qing emperors tried to suppress the tracts, as the state religion Confucianism discouraged any speculation about the afterlife. Hong Xiuquan, the quasi-Christian leader of the Taiping Rebellion, forbade the tracts once he had risen to power.

Lana Myers

Lana Myers is a Justice of the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas Place 4. She was appointed to this position in December 2009 by Governor Rick Perry. Prior to her appointment, Myers had served as an elected Judge presiding over the Dallas County 203rd criminal court. Prior to that position, she was the Dallas County Assistant District Attorney, a position which she held for 12 years before resigning to run for election to the criminal court.

National Court (Iceland)

The National Court (Icelandic: Landsdómur) is a special high court in Iceland established in 1905 to handle cases where members of the Cabinet are suspected of criminal behavior.

Skapti Þóroddsson

Skapti Þóroddsson (died 1030) was an Icelandic lawspeaker and skald. He became lawspeaker in 1004, succeeding his uncle Grímr when the latter's voice failed him. He held office till his death in 1030, longer than anyone else. According to Íslendingabók he instituted judicial reform by establishing the "fifth court", a national court of appeals.

According to Skáldatal, Skapti was a court poet of Hákon Sigurðarson but no details on that career are known. According to Heimskringla, he composed a poem on king Óláfr Haraldsson and sent his son Steinn to perform it for the king.

The only piece of poetry by Skapti which has come down to us is decidedly Christian and can not have been composed at Hákon's court. Snorri Sturluson cites the following half-stanza by Skapti in a discussion of Christian kennings in Skáldskaparmál.

Skapti is mentioned in some of the Icelanders' sagas, for example Njáls saga where he is insulted by Skarphéðinn Njálsson.

Supreme Court of Iceland

The Supreme Court of Iceland (Icelandic: Hæstiréttur Íslands, lit. Highest Court of Iceland) is the final court of appeal in the judiciary of Iceland. It is also the oldest of the current courts of law in Iceland and the highest of the three Icelandic court branches, the others being the District Courts of Iceland and the Court of Appeal (Landsréttur).

Notwithstanding the fact that the Court is not mentioned by name in the Constitution of Iceland but only its justices, it is validated in the Courts Act No. 50/2016. The Supreme Court of Iceland is located at the Dómhúsið (Courthouse) at Arnarhóll in Reykjavík, a building that was specially built for that purpose and that came into use in 1996.

The current President of the court is Þorgeir Örlygsson.

Supreme Court of Iowa

The Supreme Court of Iowa is the highest court in the U.S. state of Iowa. As constitutional head of the Iowa Judicial Branch, the Court is composed of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices.

The Court holds its regular sessions in Des Moines in the Iowa Judicial Branch Building located at 1111 East Court Avenue on the state Capitol grounds just south of the Iowa State Capitol.

Texas Courts of Appeals

The Texas Courts of Appeals are part of the Texas judicial system. In Texas, all cases appealed from district and county courts, criminal and civil, go to one of the fourteen Texas Courts of Appeals, with one exception: death penalty cases. The latter are taken directly to the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, the highest Texas court for criminal matters. The court of last resort for civil cases is the Texas Supreme Court. The number of justices on each intermediate court of appeals is set by statute.

The total number of appellate court seats currently stands at 80, ranging from three to thirteen per court. To equalize case loads, the Texas Supreme Court regularly transfers batches of cases from one court to another. The transferee court must then apply the case law of the court from which the case was sent, rather than its own, unless there is no controlling precedent from the sending court. Appellate courts consisting of more than three justices hear and decide cases in panels of three. Occasionally, the entire court sits en banc to reconsider a prior panel decision and to assure consistency in the court's jurisprudence. The en banc process is also used to overrule prior precedent of the same court that its panels are bound by. The precedents established by a court of appeals are binding on the lower courts in its district.

The First and Fourteenth Court of Appeals, sitting in Houston, have overlapping appellate districts, and occasionally hand down conflicting ruling on the same legal issue. Such conflicts may ultimately be resolved by the Texas Supreme Court (in civil cases) or Court of Criminal Appeals (in criminal cases), whose decisions on questions of law are binding on all state courts.

The federal courts sitting in Texas apply state law when the case is not controlled by federal law or by the law of another jurisdiction based contractual choice of law or other basis for application of a different jurisdiction's law. Not infrequently the federal district courts sitting in Texas and the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals make guesses as to how the Texas Supreme Court would rule on an issue of state law that is still unsettled due to a conflict among the intermediate courts of appeals. Such an issue may also be referred to the Texas Supreme Court by certified question, but this procedure is rarely employed.

Like the Justices of the Texas Supreme Court and the Judges of the Court of Criminal Appeals, the Justices of the intermediate Texas Courts of Appeals are elected in partisan elections to six-year terms. Many, however, are initially appointed by the Texas Governor to fill vacancies and then run as incumbents in the next election.

In the November 2018 general election, many Republican incumbents lost to Democrats, which entailed a switch from Republican control to majority control by Democrats in the Houston, Dallas and Austin courts of appeals. Because not all members where up for reelection in 2018, however, these previously all-Republican courts now have a mixed partisan makeup. Unlike the now more diverse intermediate courts of appeals, the Texas Supreme Court remains under solid Republican control with no minority party representation at all, and is also less diverse demographically than the appellate judiciary as a whole.

University Medical Center (El Paso, Texas)

University Medical Center is a non-profit public hospital in El Paso, Texas. University Medical Center is licensed by the State of Texas and accredited by the Joint Commission. Since the early 1990s, the White House has designated Thomason as the hospital where the President, Vice President and former Presidents of the United States will be treated should they require medical care while traveling in the region. University Medical Center also provides financial assistance to people in need. Free or discounted healthcare services are available to El Paso County residents who meet certain eligibility guidelines.

University Medical Center first opened as El Paso General Hospital in 1915, in a two-story, adobe building located west of downtown El Paso. One year later, the hospital was moved to 4815 Alameda Avenue in El Paso. In the 1950s, voters created the El Paso County Hospital District, which would govern the General Hospital, agreeing to be taxed to support the District which would also provide indigent care. Voters also authorized the construction of the current facility and the hospital was renamed R.E. Thomason General Hospital after former El Paso Mayor, U.S. Congressman and Federal Judge, R. Ewing Thomason.

Thomason Hospital officially changed its name to University Medical Center of El Paso on Monday, July 13, 2009. One hospital building will retain the Thomason name as "Thomason Tower".University Medical Center is overseen by a seven-member panel called the Board of Managers. They are appointed to their posts by El Paso's County Judge and Commissioners to be policy setters for Thomason and its outpatient facilities. They are also responsible for hiring the hospital's Chief Executive Officer. Board members serve two-year terms and are not paid for the work they do on behalf of the county hospital.

This is the main teaching hospital of the Paul L. Foster School of Medicine at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso.


Yama (listen ) or Yamarāja is a god of death, the south direction, and the underworld, belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic Hindu deities. In Sanskrit, his name can be interpreted to mean "twin". In the Zend-Avesta of Zoroastrianism, he is called "Yima".According to the Vishnu Purana, Yama is the son of sun-god Surya and Sandhya, the daughter of Vishvakarma. Yama is the brother of Sraddhadeva Manu and of his older sister Yami, which Horace Hayman Wilson indicates to mean the Yamuna. According to the Vedas, Yama is said to have been the first mortal who died. By virtue of precedence, he became the ruler of the departed, and is called "Lord of the Pitrs".Mentioned in the Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhism, Yama subsequently entered Buddhist mythology in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka as a Dharmapala under various transliterations. He is otherwise also called as "Dharmaraja".

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