Fieldata

FIELDATA (also written as Fieldata) was a pioneering computer project run by the US Army Signal Corps in the late 1950s that intended to create a single standard (as defined in MIL-STD-188A/B/C[1][2][3][4]) for collecting and distributing battlefield information. In this respect it could be thought of as a generalization of the US Air Force's SAGE system that was being created at about the same time.

Unlike SAGE, FIELDATA was intended to be much larger in scope, allowing information to be gathered from any number of sources and forms. Much of the FIELDATA system was the specifications for the format the data would take, leading to a character set that would be a huge influence on ASCII a few years later.[1][5] FIELDATA also specified the message formats and even the electrical standards for connecting FIELDATA-standard machines together.

Another part of the FIELDATA project was the design and construction of computers at several different scales, from data-input terminals at one end, to theatre-wide data processing centers at the other. Several FIELDATA-standard computers were built during the lifetime of the project, including the transportable MOBIDIC from Sylvania, and the BASICPAC and LOGICPAC from Philco. Another system, ARTOC, was intended to provide graphical output (in the form of photographic slides),[6][7][8] but was never completed.

Because FIELDATA did not specify codes for interconnection and data transmission control, different systems (like "STANDARD FORM", "COMLOGNET Common language code", "SACCOMNET (465L) Control Code"[9][5]) used different control functions. Intercommunication between them was difficult.[1]

FIELDATA is the original character set used internally in UNIVAC computers of the 1100 series, represented by the sixth of the 36-bit word of that computer. The direct successor to the UNIVAC 1100 is the Unisys 2200 series computers, which use FIELDATA to this day (although ASCII is now also common with each character encoded in 1/4 of a word, or 9 bits). Because some of the FIELDATA characters are not represented in ASCII, the Unisys 2200 uses '^', '"' and '_' characters for codes 004oct, 076oct and 077oct respectively.

The FIELDATA project ran from 1956 until it was stopped during a reorganization in 1962.

FIELDATA character encoding
Fieldata
Military primary (1xxxxxx) code, a representative military supervisory (0xxxxxx) code, UNIVAC graphical code.
Classification7-bit or 6-bit basic Latin encoding
Preceded byITA 2
Succeeded byUS-ASCII

FIELDATA characters

Military

Tag Bit (1) Indicator Bits (2) Detail Bits (4) Binary Bits (1+6) Decimal Octal Glyph Name Comment
Supervisory code (tag bit 0)
0 00 0000 0:000000 0 000 Blank / Idle (IDL)
0 00 0001 0:000001 1 001 Control Upper Case (CUC)
0 00 0010 0:000010 2 002 Control Lower Case (CLC)
0 00 0011 0:000011 3 003 Control Tab (CHT)
0 00 0100 0:000100 4 004 Control Carriage Return (CCR)
0 00 0101 0:000101 5 005 Control Space (CSP)
0 00 0110 0:000110 6 006 a The first two rows of the supervisory code are not used in all applications, only where "alphabetic supervisory information" is required.[10] COMLOGNET omits them, while SACCOMNET includes additional control characters in place of the supervisory letters.[5]
0 00 0111 0:000111 7 007 b
0 00 1000 0:001000 8 010 c
0 00 1001 0:001001 9 011 d
0 00 1010 0:001010 10 012 e
0 00 1011 0:001011 11 013 f
0 00 1100 0:001100 12 014 g
0 00 1101 0:001101 13 015 h
0 00 1110 0:001110 14 016 i
0 00 1111 0:001111 15 017 j
0 01 0000 0:010000 16 020 k
0 01 0001 0:010001 17 021 l
0 01 0010 0:010010 18 022 m
0 01 0011 0:010011 19 023 n
0 01 0100 0:010100 20 024 o
0 01 0101 0:010101 21 025 p
0 01 0110 0:010110 22 026 q
0 01 0111 0:010111 23 027 r
0 01 1000 0:011000 24 030 s
0 01 1001 0:011001 25 031 t
0 01 1010 0:011010 26 032 u
0 01 1011 0:011011 27 033 v
0 01 1100 0:011100 28 034 w
0 01 1101 0:011101 29 035 x
0 01 1110 0:011110 30 036 y
0 01 1111 0:011111 31 037 z
0 10 0000 0:100000 32 040 β Dial 0 (D0) Graphical in COMLOGNET variant.[5]
0 10 0001 0:100001 33 041 # Dial 1 (D1)
0 10 0010 0:100010 34 042 t Dial 2 (D2)
0 10 0011 0:100011 35 043 Dial 3 (D3)
0 10 0100 0:100100 36 044 Dial 4 (D4)
0 10 0101 0:100101 37 045 @ Dial 5 (D5) Graphical in COMLOGNET variant.
0 10 0110 0:100110 38 046 % Dial 6 (D6)
0 10 0111 0:100111 39 047 ¢ Dial 7 (D7)
0 10 1000 0:101000 40 050 Dial 8 (D8) BEL in COMLOGNET.
0 10 1001 0:101001 41 051 & Dial 9 (D9) Graphical in COMLOGNET variant.
0 10 1010 0:101010 42 052 Start of Control Block (SCB, SOC)
0 10 1011 0:101011 43 053 Start of Block (SBK, SOB)
0 10 1100 0:101100 44 054 Spare, SOD
0 10 1101 0:101101 45 055 ° Spare
0 10 1110 0:101110 46 056 Spare
0 10 1111 0:101111 47 057 Spare, Stop
0 11 0000 0:110000 48 060 Ready to Transmit (RTT)
0 11 0001 0:110001 49 061 Ready to Receive (RTR)
0 11 0010 0:110010 50 062 Not Ready to Receive (NRR)
0 11 0011 0:110011 51 063 End of Blockette (EBE, EOBK)
0 11 0100 0:110100 52 064 End of Block (EBK, EOB)
0 11 0101 0:110101 53 065 End of File (EOF)
0 11 0110 0:110110 54 066 End of Control Block (ECB, EOC)
0 11 0111 0:110111 55 067 Acknowledge Receipt (ACK, ACR)
0 11 1000 0:111000 56 070 Repeat Block (RPT, RBK)
0 11 1001 0:111001 57 071 Spare Ordered ISN, NISN, CWF, Spare in some variants.[5]
0 11 1010 0:111010 58 072 Interpret Sign (INS, ISN)
0 11 1011 0:111011 59 073 Non-Interpret Sign (NIS, NISN)
0 11 1100 0:111100 60 074 Control Word Follows (CWF)
0 11 1101 0:111101 61 075 S.A.C. (SAC)
0 11 1110 0:111110 62 076 Special Character (SPC) ASCII ESC.[5]
0 11 1111 0:111111 63 077 Delete (DEL)
Primary code (tag bit 1)
1 00 0000 1:000000 64 100 Master Space (MS)
1 00 0001 1:000001 65 101 Upper Case (UC)
1 00 0010 1:000010 66 102 Lower Case (LC)
1 00 0011 1:000011 67 103 Tab (HT)
1 00 0100 1:000100 68 104 Carriage Return (CR)
1 00 0101 1:000101 69 105 Blank / Space (SP)
1 00 0110 1:000110 70 106 A
1 00 0111 1:000111 71 107 B
1 00 1000 1:001000 72 110 C
1 00 1001 1:001001 73 111 D
1 00 1010 1:001010 74 112 E
1 00 1011 1:001011 75 113 F
1 00 1100 1:001100 76 114 G
1 00 1101 1:001101 77 115 H
1 00 1110 1:001110 78 116 I
1 00 1111 1:001111 79 117 J
1 01 0000 1:010000 80 120 K
1 01 0001 1:010001 81 121 L
1 01 0010 1:010010 82 122 M
1 01 0011 1:010011 83 123 N
1 01 0100 1:010100 84 124 O
1 01 0101 1:010101 85 125 P
1 01 0110 1:010110 86 126 Q
1 01 0111 1:010111 87 127 R
1 01 1000 1:011000 88 130 S
1 01 1001 1:011001 89 131 T
1 01 1010 1:011010 90 132 U
1 01 1011 1:011011 91 133 V
1 01 1100 1:011100 92 134 W
1 01 1101 1:011101 93 135 X
1 01 1110 1:011110 94 136 Y
1 01 1111 1:011111 95 137 Z
1 10 0000 1:100000 96 140 )
1 10 0001 1:100001 97 141 -
1 10 0010 1:100010 98 142 +
1 10 0011 1:100011 99 143 <
1 10 0100 1:100100 100 144 =
1 10 0101 1:100101 101 145 >
1 10 0110 1:100110 102 146 _ & in UNIVAC.
1 10 0111 1:100111 103 147 $
1 10 1000 1:101000 104 150 *
1 10 1001 1:101001 105 151 (
1 10 1010 1:101010 106 152 " % in UNIVAC.
1 10 1011 1:101011 107 153 :
1 10 1100 1:101100 108 154 ?
1 10 1101 1:101101 109 155 !
1 10 1110 1:101110 110 156 ,
1 10 1111 1:101111 111 157 Stop (ST)
1 11 0000 1:110000 112 160 0
1 11 0001 1:110001 113 161 1
1 11 0010 1:110010 114 162 2
1 11 0011 1:110011 115 163 3
1 11 0100 1:110100 116 164 4
1 11 0101 1:110101 117 165 5
1 11 0110 1:110110 118 166 6
1 11 0111 1:110111 119 167 7
1 11 1000 1:111000 120 170 8
1 11 1001 1:111001 121 171 9
1 11 1010 1:111010 122 172 '
1 11 1011 1:111011 123 173 ;
1 11 1100 1:111100 124 174 /
1 11 1101 1:111101 125 175 .
1 11 1110 1:111110 126 176 Special Character (SPEC)
1 11 1111 1:111111 127 177 Backspace (BS)

UNIVAC

The code version used on the UNIVAC was based on the second half (primary code) of the military version with some changes.[11]

Indicator Bits (2) Detail Bits (4) Binary Bits (6) Decimal Octal Glyph Name Comments
00 0000 000000 0 00 @ Sometimes switched with Δ[11]
00 0001 000001 1 01 [
00 0010 000010 2 02 ]
00 0011 000011 3 03 # Line Feed (LF) on 1107 and 1108[11]
00 0100 000100 4 04 Δ Delta Carriage Return (CR) on 1107 and 1108[11]
00 0101 000101 5 05 Blank / Space (SP)
00 0110 000110 6 06 A
00 0111 000111 7 07 B
00 1000 001000 8 10 C
00 1001 001001 9 11 D
00 1010 001010 10 12 E
00 1011 001011 11 13 F
00 1100 001100 12 14 G
00 1101 001101 13 15 H
00 1110 001110 14 16 I
00 1111 001111 15 17 J
01 0000 010000 16 20 K
01 0001 010001 17 21 L
01 0010 010010 18 22 M
01 0011 010011 19 23 N
01 0100 010100 20 24 O
01 0101 010101 21 25 P
01 0110 010110 22 26 Q
01 0111 010111 23 27 R
01 1000 011000 24 30 S
01 1001 011001 25 31 T
01 1010 011010 26 32 U
01 1011 011011 27 33 V
01 1100 011100 28 34 W
01 1101 011101 29 35 X
01 1110 011110 30 36 Y
01 1111 011111 31 37 Z
10 0000 100000 32 40 )
10 0001 100001 33 41 -
10 0010 100010 34 42 +
10 0011 100011 35 43 <
10 0100 100100 36 44 =
10 0101 100101 37 45 >
10 0110 100110 38 46 & Changed from _ in military version.
10 0111 100111 39 47 $
10 1000 101000 40 50 *
10 1001 101001 41 51 (
10 1010 101010 42 52 % Changed from " in military version.
10 1011 101011 43 53 :
10 1100 101100 44 54 ?
10 1101 101101 45 55 !
10 1110 101110 46 56 ,
10 1111 101111 47 57 \ Stop sign (🛑) on 1107 and 1108[11]
11 0000 110000 48 60 0
11 0001 110001 49 61 1
11 0010 110010 50 62 2
11 0011 110011 51 63 3
11 0100 110100 52 64 4
11 0101 110101 53 65 5
11 0110 110110 54 66 6
11 0111 110111 55 67 7
11 1000 111000 56 70 8
11 1001 111001 57 71 9
11 1010 111010 58 72 '
11 1011 111011 59 73 ;
11 1100 111100 60 74 /
11 1101 111101 61 75 .
11 1110 111110 62 76 Lozenge
11 1111 111111 63 77 Not Equal Idle character (IDLE) on some models[11]

Character map

Military version

The following table is representative of a reference version of the military set, as described in Leubbert (1960). Various other variants exist, with in some cases dramatic differences in the supervisory code (the first four rows 0-3).[5] The letters in the first two rows are intended for use in "alphabetic supervisory information".[10]

FIELDATA (military)[5][12]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
IDL
0000
CUC
 
CLC
 
CHT
0009
CCR
000D
CSP
0020
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
1_
16
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
2_
32
D0
 
D1
 
D2
 
D3
 
D4
 
D5
 
D6
 
D7
 
D8
 
D9
 
SCB
 
SBK
0001
3_
48
RTT
 
RTR
 
NRR
 
EBE
 
EBK
0017
EOF
 
ECB
 
ACK
0006
RPT
0015
INS
 
NIS
 
CWF
 
SAC
 
SPC
001B
DEL
007F
4_
64
MS
 
UC
 
LC
 
HT
0009
CR
000D
SP
00A0
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
5_
80
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
6_
96
)
0029
-
002D
+
002B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
_
005F
$
0024
*
002A
(
0028
"
0022
:
003A
?
003F
!
0021
,
002C
STOP
 
7_
112
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
'
0027
;
003B
/
002F
.
002E
SPEC
 
BS
0008

UNIVAC version

The code version used on the UNIVAC was based on the second half (6-bit primary code) of the military version with some changes.[11]

FIELDATA (UNIVAC)[11]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
@
0040
[
005B
]
005D
#/LF
0023/000A
Δ/CR
0394/000D
SP
0020
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
1_
16
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
2_
32
)
0029
-
002D
+
002B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
&
0026
$
0024
*
002A
(
0028
%
0025
:
003A
?
003F
!
0021
,
002C
\/🛑
005C/1F6D1
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
'
0027
;
003B
/
002F
.
002E

2311
/IDL
2260/0000

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Mackenzie 1980.
  2. ^ Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188A, 1958-04-25
  3. ^ Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188B, 1964-02-24
  4. ^ Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188C, 1969-11-24
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Jennings 2016.
  6. ^ Kent, Allen; Lancour, Harold (1971). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Volume 5 - Circulation to Coordinate Indexing. CRC Press. pp. 395, 398. ISBN 9780824720056.
  7. ^ "Army Tactical Operations Central (ARTOC) information system". sr-ix.com.
  8. ^ "THE ARTOC". Man in Command Information Processing Systems--A Research Program. 1963. pp. 1–4.
  9. ^ International Telephone & Telegraph Corporation (ITT) (1968). Reference Data for Radio Engineers (5 ed.). Howard W. Sams and Co. pp. Appendix. ISBN 978-0-672-20678-8. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
  10. ^ a b Leubbert 1960, p. 196.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Walker 1996.
  12. ^ Leubbert 1960.

References and further reading

36-bit

In computer architecture, 36-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 36 bits (six six-bit characters) wide. Also, 36-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size.

Prior to the introduction of computers, the state of the art in precision scientific and engineering calculation was the ten-digit, electrically powered, mechanical calculator, such as those manufactured by Friden, Marchant and Monroe. These calculators had a column of keys for each digit, and operators were trained to use all their fingers when entering numbers, so while some specialized calculators had more columns, ten was a practical limit. Computers, as the new competitor, had to match that accuracy. Decimal computers sold in that era, such as the IBM 650 and the IBM 7070, had a word length of ten digits, as did ENIAC, one of the earliest computers.

Early binary computers aimed at the same market therefore often used a 36-bit word length. This was long enough to represent positive and negative integers to an accuracy of ten decimal digits (35 bits would have been the minimum). It also allowed the storage of six alphanumeric characters encoded in a six-bit character code. Computers with 36-bit words included the MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2, the IBM 701/704/709/7090/7094, the UNIVAC 1103/1103A/1105 and 1100/2200 series, the General Electric GE-600/Honeywell 6000, the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-6/PDP-10 (as used in the DECsystem-10/DECSYSTEM-20), and the Symbolics 3600 series.

Smaller machines like the PDP-1/PDP-9/PDP-15 used 18-bit words, so a double word was 36 bits.

These computers had addresses 12 to 18 bits in length. The addresses referred to 36-bit words, so the computers were limited to addressing between 4,096 and 262,144 words (24,576 to 1,572,864 six-bit characters). The older 36-bit computers were limited to a similar amount of physical memory as well. Architectures that survived evolved over time to support larger virtual address spaces using memory segmentation or other mechanisms.

The common character packings included:

six 5.32-bit DEC Radix-50 characters, plus four spare bits

six 6-bit Fieldata or IBM BCD characters (ubiquitous in early usage)

six 6-bit ASCII characters, supporting the upper-case unaccented letters, digits, space, and most ASCII punctuation characters. It was used on the PDP-6 and PDP-10 under the name sixbit.

five 7-bit characters and 1 unused bit (the usual PDP-6/10 convention, called five-seven ASCII)

four 8-bit characters (7-bit ASCII plus 1 spare bit, or 8-bit EBCDIC), plus four spare bits

four 9-bit characters (the Multics convention).Characters were extracted from words either using machine code shift and mask operations or with special-purpose hardware supporting 6-bit, 9-bit, or variable-length characters. The Univac 1100/2200 used the partial word designator of the instruction, the "J" field, to access characters. The GE-600 used special indirect words to access 6- and 9-bit characters. the PDP-6/10 had special instructions to access arbitrary-length byte fields.

The standard C programming language requires that the size of the char data type be at least 8 bits, and that all data types other than bitfields have a size that is a multiple of the character size, so standard C implementations on 36-bit machines would typically use 9-bit chars, although 12-bit, 18-bit, or 36-bit would also satisfy the requirements of the standard.By the time IBM introduced System/360 with 32-bit full words, scientific calculations had largely shifted to floating point, where double-precision formats offered more than 10-digit accuracy. The 360s also included instructions for variable-length decimal arithmetic for commercial applications, so the practice of using word lengths that were a power of two quickly became commonplace, though at least one line of 36-bit computer systems are still sold as of 2019, the Unisys ClearPath Dorado series, which is the continuation of the UNIVAC 1100/2200 series of mainframe computers.

CompuServe was launched using 36-bit PDP-10 computers in the late 1960s. It continued using PDP-10 and DECSYSTEM-10-compatible hardware and retired the service in the late 2000s.

ASCII

ASCII ( (listen) ASS-kee), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters.

ASCII is the traditional name for the encoding system; the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the updated name US-ASCII, which clarifies that this system was developed in the US and based on the typographical symbols predominantly in use there.ASCII is one of the IEEE milestones.

BCD (character encoding)

BCD ("Binary-Coded Decimal"), also called alphanumeric BCD, alphameric BCD, BCD Interchange Code, or BCDIC, is a family of representations of numerals, uppercase Latin letters, and some special and control characters as six-bit character codes.

Unlike later encodings such as ASCII, BCD codes were not standardized. Different computer manufacturers, and even different product lines from the same manufacturer, often had their own variants, and sometimes included unique characters. Other six-bit encodings with completely different mappings, such as some FIELDATA variants or Transcode, are sometimes incorrectly termed BCD.

Many variants of BCD encode the characters '0' through '9' as the corresponding binary values.

Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system. Depending on the abstraction level and context, corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as bit patterns, octets, natural numbers, electrical pulses, etc. A character encoding is used in computation, data storage, and transmission of textual data. "Character set", "character map", "codeset" and "code page" are related, but not identical, terms.

Early character codes associated with the optical or electrical telegraph could only represent a subset of the characters used in written languages, sometimes restricted to upper case letters, numerals and some punctuation only. The low cost of digital representation of data in modern computer systems allows more elaborate character codes (such as Unicode) which represent most of the characters used in many written languages. Character encoding using internationally accepted standards permits worldwide interchange of text in electronic form.

Code page 1287

Code page 1287, also known as CP1287, DEC Greek (8-bit) and EL8DEC, is one of the code pages implemented for the VT220 terminals. It supports the Greek language.

ISO/IEC 6937

ISO/IEC 6937:2001, Information technology — Coded graphic character set for text communication — Latin alphabet, is a multibyte extension of ASCII, or rather of ISO/IEC 646-IRV. It was developed in common with ITU-T (then CCITT) for telematic services under the name of T.51, and first became an ISO standard in 1983. Certain byte codes are used as lead bytes for letters with diacritics (accents). The value of the lead byte often indicates which diacritic that the letter has, and the follow byte then has the ASCII-value for the letter that the diacritic is on. Only certain combinations of lead byte and follow byte are allowed, and there are some exceptions to the lead byte interpretation for some follow bytes. However, there are no combining characters at all are encoded in ISO/IEC 6937. But one can represent some free-standing diacritics, often by letting the follow byte have the code for ASCII space.

ISO/IEC 6937's architects were Hugh McGregor Ross, Peter Fenwick, Bernard Marti and Loek Zeckendorf.

ISO6937/2 defines 327 characters found in modern European languages using the Latin alphabet. Non-Latin European characters, such as Cyrillic and Greek, are not included in the standard. Also, some diacritics used with the Latin alphabet like the Romanian comma are not included, using cedilla instead as no distinction between cedilla and comma below was made at the time.

IANA has registered the charset names ISO_6937-2-25 and ISO_6937-2-add for two (older) versions of this standard (plus control codes). But in practice this character encoding is unused on the Internet.

The ISO/IEC 2022 escape sequence to specify the right-hand side of the ISO/IEC 6937 character set is ESC - R (hex 1B 2D 52).

ISO/IEC 8859-12

ISO/IEC 8859-12 would have been part 12 of the ISO/IEC 8859 character encoding standard series.

ISO 8859-12 was originally proposed to support the Celtic languages. ISO 8859-12 was later slated for Latin/Devanagari, but this was abandoned in 1997, during the 12th meeting of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3 in Iraklion-Crete, Greece, 4 to 7 July 1997. The Celtic proposal was changed to ISO 8859-14.

ISO/IEC 8859-16

ISO/IEC 8859-16:2001, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 16: Latin alphabet No. 10, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 2001. It is informally referred to as Latin-10 or South-Eastern European. It was designed to cover Albanian, Croatian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian and Slovenian, but also French, German, Italian and Irish Gaelic (new orthography).

ISO-8859-16 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

Microsoft has assigned code page 28606 a.k.a. Windows-28606 to ISO-8859-16.

ISO/IEC 8859-3

ISO/IEC 8859-3:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 3: Latin alphabet No. 3, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin-3 or South European. It was designed to cover Turkish, Maltese and Esperanto, though the introduction of ISO/IEC 8859-9 superseded it for Turkish. The encoding remains popular with users of Esperanto, though use is waning as application support for Unicode becomes more common.

ISO-8859-3 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. Microsoft has assigned code page 28593 a.k.a. Windows-28593 to ISO-8859-3 in Windows. IBM has assigned code page 913 to ISO 8859-3.

ISO/IEC 8859-8

ISO/IEC 8859-8, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 8: Latin/Hebrew alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings. ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999 from 1999 represents its second and current revision, preceded by the first edition ISO/IEC 8859-8:1988 in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin/Hebrew. ISO/IEC 8859-8 covers all the Hebrew letters, but no Hebrew vowel signs. IBM assigned code page 916 to it. This character set was also adopted by Israeli Standard SI1311:2002.

ISO-8859-8 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The text is (usually) in logical order, so bidi processing is required for display. Nominally ISO-8859-8 (code page 28598) is for “visual order”, and ISO-8859-8-I (code page 38598) is for logical order. But usually in practice, and required for XML documents, ISO-8859-8 also stands for logical order text. The WHATWG Encoding Standard used by HTML5 treats ISO-8859-8 and ISO-8859-8-I as distinct encodings with the same mapping due to influence on the layout direction, but notes that this no longer applies to ISO-8859-6 (Arabic), only to ISO-8859-8.There is also ISO-8859-8-E which supposedly requires directionality to be explicitly specified with special control characters; this latter variant is in practice unused.

The Microsoft Windows code page for Hebrew, Windows-1255, is mostly an extension of ISO/IEC 8859-8 without C1 controls, except for the ommission of the double underscore, and replacement of the generic currency sign (¤) with the sheqel sign (₪). It adds support for vowel points as combining characters, and some additional punctiation.

Over a decade after the publication of that standard, Unicode is preferred, at least for the Internet (meaning UTF-8, the dominant encoding for web pages). ISO-8859-8 is used by less that 0.1% of websites.

ISO/IEC 8859-9

ISO/IEC 8859-9:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 9: Latin alphabet No. 5, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1989. It is informally referred to as Latin-5 or Turkish. It was designed to cover the Turkish language, designed as being of more use than the ISO/IEC 8859-3 encoding. It is identical to ISO/IEC 8859-1 except for these six replacements of Icelandic characters with characters unique to the Turkish alphabet:

ISO-8859-9 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. In modern applications Unicode and UTF-8 are preferred. 0.1% of all web pages use ISO-8859-9 in February 2016.Microsoft has assigned code page 28599 a.k.a. Windows-28599 to ISO-8859-9 in Windows. IBM has assigned Code page 920 to ISO-8859-9.

MIL-STD-188

MIL-STD-188 is a series of U.S. military standards relating to telecommunications.

MOBIDIC

Sylvania's MOBIDIC, short for "MOBIle DIgital Computer", was a transistorized computer intended to store, sort and route information as one part of the United States Army's Fieldata concept. Fieldata aimed to automate the distribution of battlefield data in any form, ensuring the delivery of reports to the proper recipients regardless of the physical form they were sent or received. MOBIDIC was mounted in the trailer of a semi-trailer truck, while a second supplied power, allowing it to be moved about the battlefield. The Army referred to the system as the AN/MYK-1, or AN/MYK-2 for the dual-CPU version, Sylvania later offered a commercial version of the S 9400.

Outline of computing

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to computing:

Computing – activity of using and improving computer hardware and software.

Punched tape

Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. Now effectively obsolete, it was widely used during much of the twentieth century for teleprinter communication, for input to computers of the 1950s and 1960s, and later as a storage medium for minicomputers and CNC machine tools.

Six-bit character code

A six-bit character code is a character encoding designed for use on computers with word lengths a multiple of 6. Six bits can only encode 64 distinct characters, so these codes generally include only the upper-case letters, the numerals, some punctuation characters, and sometimes control characters. Such codes with additional parity bit were a natural way of storing data on 7-track magnetic tape.

UNIVAC 1100/2200 series

The UNIVAC 1100/2200 series is a series of compatible 36-bit computer systems, beginning with the UNIVAC 1107 in 1962, initially made by Sperry Rand. The series continues to be supported today by Unisys Corporation as the ClearPath Dorado Series. The solid-state 1107 model number was in the same sequence as the earlier vacuum-tube computers, but the early computers were not compatible with the solid-state successors.

Early telecommunications
ISO/IEC 8859
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EUC
ISO/IEC 2022
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Unicode / ISO/IEC 10646
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