Field lacrosse

Field lacrosse is a full contact outdoor sport played with ten players on each team. The sport originated among Native Americans, and the modern rules of field lacrosse were initially codified by Canadian William George Beers in 1867. Field lacrosse is one of three major versions of lacrosse played internationally. The other versions, women's lacrosse (established in the 1890s) and box lacrosse (originated in the 1930s), are played under significantly different rules.

The object of the game is to use a lacrosse stick, or crosse, to catch, carry, and pass a solid rubber ball in an effort to score by shooting the ball into the opponent's goal. The triangular head of the lacrosse stick has a loose net strung into it that allows the player to hold the lacrosse ball. In addition to the lacrosse stick, players are required to wear a certain amount of protective equipment. Defensively the object is to keep the opposing team from scoring and to dispossess them of the ball through the use of stick checking and body contact. The rules limit the number of players in each part of the field. It is sometimes referred to as the "fastest sport on two feet".

Lacrosse is governed internationally by the 59-member Federation of International Lacrosse, which sponsors the World Lacrosse Championships once every four years. A former Olympic sport, attempts to reinstate it to the Olympics have been hampered by insufficient international participation. Field lacrosse is played professionally in North America by Major League Lacrosse. It is also played on a high amateur level by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States, the Australian Senior Lacrosse Championship series, and the Canadian University Field Lacrosse Association.

Field lacrosse
Hopkins lax
Kyle Harrison advancing, pursued by an opponent
Highest governing bodyFederation of International Lacrosse
NicknamesLax
First playedAs early as the 12th century C.E., North America
Codified in 1867
Characteristics
ContactFull contact
Team members10 per team, including goaltender
EquipmentBall, stick, helmet, gloves, shoulder pads, arm pads
Presence
OlympicSummer Olympics in 1904 and 1908.
Demonstrated in 1928, 1932, and 1948
World GamesWomen's in 2017

History

Ball players
"Ball players" painted by George Catlin, illustrates various Native Americans playing lacrosse.

Lacrosse is a traditional Native American game.[1][2] According to Native American beliefs, playing lacrosse is a spiritual act used for healing and giving thanks to the "Creator". They would also play the game to resolve minor conflicts between tribes that were not worth going to war for, thus the name "little brother of war".[3] These games could last several days and as many as 100 to 1,000 men from opposing villages or tribes played on open plains, between goals ranging from 500 yards (460 m) to several miles apart.[4][5]

The first Europeans to observe it were French Jesuit missionaries in the St. Lawrence Valley, in the 1630s.[1][2] The name "lacrosse" comes from their reports, which described the players' sticks as like a bishop's crosierla crosse in French.[4][6] The Native American tribes used various names: in the Onondaga language it was called dehuntshigwa'es ("they bump hips" or "men hit a rounded object"); da-nah-wah'uwsdi ("little war") to the Eastern Cherokee; in Mohawk, tewaarathon ("little brother of war"); and baggataway in Ojibwe.[7][8][9] Variations in the game were not limited to the name. In the Great Lakes region, players used an entirely wooden stick, while the Iroquois stick was longer and was laced with string, and the Southeastern tribes played with two shorter sticks, one in each hand.[6][10]

In 1867, Montreal Lacrosse Club member William George Beers codified the modern game. He established the Canadian Lacrosse Association and created the first written rules for the game, Lacrosse: The National Game of Canada. The book specified field layout, lacrosse ball dimensions, lacrosse stick length, number of players, and number of goals required to determine the match winner.[6]

Rules

Field lacrosse involves two teams, each competing to shoot a lacrosse ball into the opposing team's goal. A lacrosse ball is made out of solid rubber, measuring 7.75 to 8 inches (19.7–20 cm) in circumference and weighing 5 to 5.25 ounces (140–149 g). Each team plays with ten players on the field: a goalkeeper; three defenders in the defensive end; three midfielders free to roam the whole field; and three attackers attempting to score goals in the offensive end. Players are required to wear some protective equipment, and must carry a lacrosse stick (or crosse) that meets specifications. Rules dictate the length of the game, boundaries, and allowable activity. Penalties are assessed by officials for any transgression of the rules.[11]

The game has undergone significant changes since Beers' original codification. In the 1930s, the number of players on the field per team was reduced from twelve to ten, rules about protective equipment were established, and the field was shortened.[12][13]

Playing area

Mens lacrosse diagram
Diagram of a men's college lacrosse field.

A standard lacrosse field is 110 yards (100 m) in length from each endline, and 60 yards (55 m) in width from the sidelines.[14][15]

Field lacrosse goals are centered between each sideline, positioned 15 yards (14 m) from each endline and 80 yards (73 m) apart from one another. Positioning the goals well within the endlines allows play to occur behind them. The goal is 6 feet (1.8 m) wide by 6 feet (1.8 m) tall, with nets attached in a pyramid shape. Surrounding each goal is a circular area known as the "crease," measuring 18 feet (5.5 m) in diameter.[15]

If a player enters the "crease" while shooting toward the goal, the referee will call a foul and the ball gets turned over to the other team.

A pair of lines, 20 yards (18 m) from both the midfield line and each goal line, divides the field into three sections. From each team's point of view, the one nearest its own goal is its defensive area, then the midfield area, followed by the attack or offensive area. These trisecting lines are called "restraining lines." A right angle line is marked 10 yards (9.1 m) from each sideline connecting each endline to the nearer restraining line, creating the "restraining box."[15][16] If an official deems that a team is "stalling," that is not moving with offensive purpose while controlling the ball, the possessing team must keep the ball within the offensive restraining box to avoid a loss-of-possession penalty.[17]

Field markings dictate player positioning during a face-off. A face-off is how play is started at the beginning of each quarter and after each goal. During a face-off, there are six players (without considering goalkeepers) in each of the areas defined by the restraining lines. Three midfielders from each team occupy the midfield area, while three attackmen and three of the opposing team's defensemen occupy each offensive area. These players must stay in these areas until possession is earned by a midfielder or the ball crosses either restraining line. Wing areas are marked on the field on the midfield line 10 yards (9.1 m) from each sideline. This line indicates where the two nonface-off midfielders per team lineup during a face-off situation. These players may position themselves on either side of the midfield line.[15] During a face-off, two players lay their sticks horizontally next to the ball, head of the stick inches from the ball and the butt-end pointing down the midfield line. Once the official blows the whistle to start play, the face-off midfielders scrap for the ball to earn possession and the other midfielders advance to play the ball. If possession is won by the face-off player, he may move the ball himself or pass to a teammate.[11]

The rules also require that substitution areas, a penalty box, coaches area, and team bench areas be designated on the field.[15]

Equipment

A field lacrosse player's equipment includes a lacrosse stick, and protective equipment, including a lacrosse helmet with face mask, lacrosse gloves, and arm and shoulder pads. Players are also required to wear mouthguards and athletic supporter with cup pocket and protective cup.[11]

Lacrosseplayer
A typically equipped field player, carrying a "short crosse"

Each player carries a lacrosse stick measuring 40 to 42 inches (1.0–1.1 m) long (a "short crosse"), or 52 to 72 inches (1.3–1.8 m) long (a "long crosse"). In most modern circles the word crosse has been replaced by "stick" and the terms "short stick" and "long stick" or "pole" are used. On each team up to four players at a time may use a long crosse: the three defensemen and one midfielder. The crosse is made up of the head and the shaft (or handle). The head is roughly triangular in shape and is loosely strung with mesh or leathers and nylon strings to form a "pocket" that allows the ball to be caught, carried, and thrown. In field lacrosse, the pocket of the crosse is illegal if the top of the ball, when placed in the head of the stick, is below the bottom of the stick's sidewall.

Lacrosse head diagram
Head of a men's lacrosse stick

The maximum width of the head at its widest point must be between 6 and 10 inches (15–25 cm).[14][15] From 1.25-inches up from the bottom of the head, the distance between the sidewalls of the crosse must be at least 3 inches. Most modern sticks have a tubular metal shaft, usually made of aluminum, titanium, or alloys, while the head is made of hard plastic. Metal shafts must have a plastic or rubber cap at the end.

The sport's growth has been hindered by the cost of a player's equipment: a uniform, helmet, shoulder pads, hand protection, and lacrosse sticks. Many players have at least two lacrosse sticks prepared for use in any contest.[18] Traditionally players used sticks made by Native American craftsman. These were expensive and, at times, difficult to find.[19][20] The introduction of the plastic heads in the 1970s gave players an alternative to the wooden stick,[4] and their mass production has led to greater accessibility and expansion of the sport.[21]

Players

Goalkeeper

LacrosseGoalie (cropped)
A goalkeeper making a save

The goalkeeper's responsibility is to prevent the opposition from scoring by directly defending the 6-foot-wide (1.8 m) by 6-foot-tall (1.8 m) goal.[15] A goalkeeper needs to stop shots that are capable of reaching over 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), and is responsible for directing the team's defense.[22][23]

Goalkeepers have special privileges when they are in the crease, a circular area surrounding each goal with a radius of 9 feet (2.7 m). Offensive players may not play the ball or make contact with the goalkeeper while he is in the crease. Once a goalkeeper leaves the crease, he loses these privileges.[24]

A goalkeeper's equipment differs from other players'. Instead of shoulder pads and elbow pads, the goalkeeper wears a chest protector. He also wears special "goalie gloves" that have extra padding on the thumb to protect from shots. The head of a goalkeeper's crosse may measure up to 15 inches (38 cm) wide, significantly larger than field players'.[15]

Defensemen

A defenseman is a player position whose responsibility is to assist the goalkeeper in preventing the opposing team from scoring. Each team fields three defensemen. These players generally remain on the defensive half of the field.[25] Unless a defenseman gets the ball and chooses to run up the field and try to score or pass, by doing this they will need to cross the midfield line and signal one midfielder to stay back. A defensemen carries a long crosse which provides an advantage in reach for intercepting passes and checking.[26][27]

Tactics used by a defensemen include body positioning and checking. Checking is attempting to dispossess the opposition of the ball through body or stick contact. A check may include a "poke check", where a defensemen thrusts his crosse at the top hand or crosse of the opponent in possession of the ball (similar to a billiards shot), or a "slap check", where a player applies a short, two-handed slap to the hand or crosse of the opponent in possession of the ball.[28] A "body check" is allowed as long as the ball is in possession or a loose ball is within five yards of the opposing player and the contact is made to the front or side of the torso of the opposing player.[29] Defensemen preferably remain in a position relative to their offensive counterpart known as "topside", which generally means a stick and body position that forces a ball carrier to go another direction, usually away from the goal.[30]

Midfielders

Mens Lax 1
A lacrosse player shooting during a game.

Midfielders contribute offensively and defensively and may roam the entire playing area. Each team fields three midfielders at a time. One midfielder per team may use a long crosse,[25] and in this case is referred to as a "long-stick midfielder."[31] Long-stick midfielders are normally used for defensive possessions and face-offs but can participate in offense as long as he is not subbed off.

Over time, the midfield position has developed into a position of specialties. During play, teams may substitute players in and out freely, a practice known as "on the fly" substitution. The rules state that substitution must occur within the designated exchange area in front of the players' bench.[11] Teams frequently rotate the midfielder specialists off and on the field depending on the ball possession. Some teams have a designated face-off midfielder, referred to as a "fogo" midfielder (an acronym for "face-off and get-off"), who takes the majority of face-offs and is quickly substituted after the face-off.[32] Some teams also designate midfielders as "offensive midfielders" or "defensive midfielders" depending on their strengths and weaknesses.

Attackmen

Each team fields three attackmen at a time, and these players generally remain on the offensive half of the field.[25] An attackman uses a short crosse. These are the players who score most of the goals.[11]

Duration and tie-breaking methods

Duration of games depends upon the level of play. In international competition, college lacrosse, and Major League Lacrosse, the total playing time is 60 minutes, composed of four 15-minute quarters.[14][33] High school games typically consist of four 12-minute quarters but can be played in 30-minute halves, while youth leagues may have shorter games.[11] The clock typically stops during all dead ball situations such as between goals or if the ball goes out of bounds. The method of breaking a tie generally consists of multiple overtime periods of 5 minutes (4 in NCAA play) in which whoever scores a goal is awarded a sudden victory. A quicker variant of the sudden victory is the Braveheart method in which each team sends out one player and one goalie; it is then sudden victory.[33][34] International lacrosse plays two straight 5-minute overtime periods, and then applies the sudden victory rule if the score is still tied.[14]

Ball movement and out of play

Face-off
A face-off

Teams must advance the ball or be subjected to loss of possession. Once a team gains possession of the ball in their defensive area, they must move the ball over the midfield line within 20 seconds. If the goalkeeper has possession of the ball in the crease he must pass the ball or vacate the area within four seconds. Failure by the goalkeeper to leave the crease will result in the opposite team being given possession just outside the restraining box.[11] Once the ball crosses the midfield line, a team has 10 seconds to move the ball into the offensive area designated by the restraining box or forfeit possession to their opponents.[24] The term used to define moving the ball from the defensive to offensive area is to "clear" the ball. Offensive players are responsible for "riding" opponents, in other words attempting to deny the opposition a free "clear" of the ball over the midfield line.[11]

If a ball travels outside of the playing area, play is restarted by possession being awarded to the opponents of the team which last touched the ball, unless the ball goes out of bounds due to a shot or a deflected shot. In that case, possession is awarded to the player that is closest to the ball when it leaves the playing area.[11][14]

Penalties

For most fouls, the offending player is sent to the penalty box and his team has to play without him and with one fewer player for a short amount of time. Penalties are classified as either personal fouls or technical fouls.[17][29] Personal fouls are of a more serious nature and are generally penalised with a 1-minute suspension. Technical fouls are violations of the rules that are not as serious as personal fouls, and are penalised for 30 seconds or a loss of possession. Occasionally a longer penalty may be assessed for more severe infractions. Players penalised for 6 personal fouls must sit out the game.[11] The penalised team is said to be playing man down defense while the other team is on the man up, or playing "extra man offence." During a typical game, each team will have three to five extra man offence opportunities.[35]

Personal fouls

Personal fouls (PF) include slashing, tripping, illegal body checking, cross checking, unsportsmanlike conduct, unnecessary roughness, and equipment violations. While a stick-check (where a player makes contact with the opposition player's stick in order to knock the ball loose) is legal, a slashing violation is called when a player viciously makes contact with an opposing player or his stick. An illegal body check penalty is called for any contact where the ball is further than 5 yards (4.6 m) from the contact, the check is from behind, above the shoulders or below the knees, or was avoidable after the player has released the ball. Cross checking, where a player uses the shaft of his stick to push the opposition player off balance, is illegal in field lacrosse. Both unsportsmanlike conduct and unnecessary roughness are subject to the officiating crew's discretion, while equipment violations are governed strictly by regulations.[29]

Technical fouls

Technical fouls include holding, interference, pushing, illegal offensive screening (usually referred to as a "moving pick"), "warding off", stalling, and off-sides. A screen, as employed in basketball strategy, is a blocking move by an offensive player, by standing beside or behind a defender, to free a teammate to shoot, or receive a pass; as in basketball players must remain stationary when screening. Warding off occurs when an offensive player uses his free hand to control the stick of an opposing player.

Offside has a unique implementation in field lacrosse.[36] Instituted with rule changes in 1921, it limits the number of players that are allowed on either side of the midfield line.[13] Offside occurs when there are fewer than three players on the offensive side of the midfield line or when there are fewer than four players on the defensive half of the midfield line (note: if players are exiting through the special-substitution area, it is not to be determined an offside violation).[24]

A technical foul requires that the defenceman who fouled a player on the opposing team be placed in the penalty box for 30 seconds. As with a personal foul, until the penalty time expires, no replacement for the player is allowed and the team must play one man short. The player (or a replacement) is allowed to reenter the game once the time in the penalty box is over and the team is thus once again at full strength.

Domestic competition

College lacrosse, a spring sport in the United States, saw its earliest program established by New York University in 1877.[37] The first intercollegiate tournament was held in 1881 featuring four teams: New York University, Princeton University, Columbia University, and Harvard University. This tournament was won by Harvard.[6][38] The United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA) was created in 1885, and awarded the inaugural Wingate Memorial Trophy to the University of Maryland as national champions in 1936. The award was presented to the team (or teams) with the best record until the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) instituted a playoff system in 1971.[39][40] The NCAA sponsored its premier Men's Lacrosse Championship with the 1971 tournament where Cornell University defeated University of Maryland in the final.[41] In addition to the three divisions in the NCAA, college lacrosse in the United States is played by non-varsity Men's Collegiate Lacrosse Association and National College Lacrosse League club teams.[42][43][44]

06177h
Lacrosse in Australia, about 1930

Lacrosse was first witnessed in England, Scotland, Ireland and France in 1867 when a team of Native Americans and Canadians traveled to Europe to showcase the sport. The year after, the English Lacrosse Association was established.[6] In 1876, Queen Victoria attended an exhibition game and was impressed, saying, "The game is very pretty to watch."[45] Throughout Europe, lacrosse is played by numerous club teams and is overseen by the European Lacrosse Federation.[46] Lacrosse was brought to Australia in 1876.[47] The country sponsors various competitions among its states and territories that culminate in the annual Senior Lacrosse Championship tournament.[47]

In 1985, the Canadian University Field Lacrosse Association (CUFLA) was established, with twelve universities in the Ontario and Quebec provinces competing in the intercollegiate league. The league plays its season during the autumn. Unlike the NCAA, the CUFLA allows players that are professional box lacrosse players in the National Lacrosse League to participate, stating that "although stick skills are identical, the game play and rules are different".[48]

Professional field lacrosse made its first appearance in 1988 with the formation of the American Lacrosse League, which folded after five weeks of play.[49] In 2001, professional field lacrosse resurfaced with the inception of Major League Lacrosse (MLL),[50] whose teams, based in the United States and Canada, play during the summer.[51] The MLL modified its rules from the established field lacrosse rules of international, college, and high school programs. To increase scoring, the league employed a sixty-second shot clock, a two-point goal for shots taken outside a designated perimeter, and reduced the number of long sticks to three rather than the traditional four. Prior to the 2009 MLL season, after eight seasons, the league conformed to traditional field lacrosse rules and allowed a fourth long crosse.[31][52] The MLL has been bolstered by a ten-year television contract with ESPN in 2007.[53]

International competition

The Federation of International Lacrosse (FIL) is the international governing body of lacrosse and it oversees field, women's and box lacrosse competitions. In 2008, the International Lacrosse Federation and the International Federation of Women's Lacrosse Associations merged to form the FIL.[54] The former International Lacrosse Federation was founded in 1974 to promote and develop the game of men's lacrosse throughout the world. The FIL now sponsors the World Lacrosse Championship and Under-19 World Lacrosse Championships which are played under field lacrosse rules. It also oversees the World Indoor Lacrosse Championship played under box lacrosse rules, and the Women's Lacrosse World Cup and an under-19 championship under women's lacrosse rules.[54]

Olympic Games

Lacrosse at the Olympics was a medal-earning sport in the 1904 Summer Olympics and the 1908 Summer Olympics.[55] In 1904, three teams competed in the games held in Saint Louis, Missouri. Two Canadian teams, the Winnipeg Shamrocks and a team of Mohawk people from the Iroquois Confederacy, and an American team represented by the local St. Louis A.A.A. lacrosse club participated, and the Winnipeg Shamrocks captured the gold medal.[56][57] The 1908 games held in London, England, featured only two teams, representing Canada and Great Britain. The Canadians again won the gold medal in a single championship match by a score of 14–10.[58]

Lacrosse at the Olympics, London, 1948. (7649951098)
1948 Summer Olympics in London

In the 1928 Summer Olympics, 1932 Summer Olympics, and the 1948 Summer Olympics, lacrosse was a demonstration sport.[59] The 1928 Olympics featured three teams: the United States, Canada, and Great Britain.[60] The 1932 games featured a three-game exhibition between a Canadian All-star team and the United States.[61] The United States was represented by Johns Hopkins Blue Jays lacrosse in both the 1928 and 1932 Olympics. In order to qualify, the Blue Jays won tournaments in the Olympic years to represent the United States.[62][63] The 1948 games featured an exhibition by an "All-England" team organized by the English Lacrosse Union and the collegiate lacrosse team from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute representing the United States. This exhibition ended in a 5–5 tie.[64]

There are obstacles to reestablishing lacrosse as an Olympic sport. One hurdle was resolved in 2008, when the international governing bodies for men's and women's lacrosse merged to form Federation of International Lacrosse.[65] Another obstacle is insufficient international participation. In order to be considered as an Olympic sport the game must be played on four continents, and with at least a total of 75 countries participating. According to one US Lacrosse representative in 2004, "it’ll take 15-20 years for us to get there."[66] For the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia and 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, efforts were made to include lacrosse as an exhibition sport, but these failed.[63][66]

World Lacrosse Championships

Coquitlam Percy Perry Stadium ILFU19
The 2008 Men's U-19 World Lacrosse Championship final featured USA versus Canada

The World Lacrosse Championship began as a four-team invitational tournament in 1967 sanctioned by the International Lacrosse Federation.[66] The 2006 World Lacrosse Championship featured a record twenty-one competing nations. The 2010 World Lacrosse Championship took place in Manchester, England. Only United States, Canada, and Australia have finished in the top two places of this tournament.[47] Since 1990, the Iroquois Nationals, a team consisting of the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy members, have competed in international competition. This team is the only Native American team sanctioned to compete in any men's sport internationally.[67] The Federation of International Lacrosse also sanctions the Under-19 World Lacrosse Championships. The 2008 Under-19 World Lacrosse Championships included twelve countries, with three first-time participants: Bermuda, Finland, and Scotland.[68][69]

Other regional international competitions are played including the European Lacrosse Championships, sponsored by the twenty-one member European Lacrosse Federation, and the eight team Asian Pacific Lacrosse Tournament.[47][70]

Attendance records

Lacrosse attendance has grown with the sport's popularity.[71] The 2008 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship was won by Syracuse University, beating Johns Hopkins University 13–10, in front of a title game record crowd of 48,970 fans at Gillette Stadium.[72] The 2007 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship weekend held at M&T Bank Stadium in Baltimore, Maryland, was played in front of a total crowd of 123,225 fans for the three-day event.[73] The current attendance record for a regular season lacrosse-only event was set by the 2009 Big City Classic, a triple-header at Giants Stadium which drew 22,308 spectators.[74] The Denver Outlaws hold the professional field lacrosse single-game attendance record by playing July 4, 2010 in front of 23,443 fans.[75]

At the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles, California, over 145,000 spectators watched the three-game series between the United States and Canada, including 75,000 people who witnessed the first game of the series while in attendance to watch the final of the marathon.[61][62][63]

References

Footnotes

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  2. ^ a b Liss, p. 13.
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  15. ^ a b c d e f g h NCAA Rulebook, Rule 1
  16. ^ Morris, p. 29
  17. ^ a b NCAA Rulebook, Rule 6
  18. ^ Fisher, p. 163
  19. ^ Fisher, p. 258
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  21. ^ Fisher, p. 262
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  24. ^ a b c NCAA Rulebook, Rule 4
  25. ^ a b c NCAA Rulebook, Rule 2
  26. ^ Morris, p. 39
  27. ^ Pietramala, p. 154
  28. ^ Pietramala, p. 113
  29. ^ a b c NCAA Rulebook, Rule 5
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Bibliography

External links

Works related to Lacrosse: The National Game of Canada at Wikisource

Boston Storm (UWLX)

The Boston Storm are a United Women's Lacrosse League (UWLX) professional women's field lacrosse team based in Boston, Massachusetts. They have played in the UWLX since the 2016 season. In the 2017 season, the four teams in the UWLX will play on a barnstorming format, with all four teams playing at a single venue.

Box lacrosse

Box lacrosse, also known as boxla, box, or indoor lacrosse, is an indoor version of lacrosse played mostly in North America. The game originated in Canada in the 1930s, where it is more popular than field lacrosse and is the national summer sport. Box lacrosse is played between two teams of five players and one goalie each, and is traditionally played on an ice hockey rink once the ice has been removed or covered. The playing area is called a box, in contrast to the open playing field of field lacrosse. The object of the game is to use a lacrosse stick to catch, carry, and pass the ball in an effort to score by shooting a solid rubber lacrosse ball into the opponent's goal.

The highest levels of box lacrosse are the National Lacrosse League, Arena Lacrosse League, and Senior A divisions of the Canadian Lacrosse Association - Western Lacrosse Association and Major Series Lacrosse. There are also several Senior B leagues sanctioned by both the CLA and First Nations Lacrosse Association.

While there are 62 total members of World Lacrosse, only fifteen have competed in international box lacrosse competition. Only Canada, the Iroquois Nationals and the United States have finished in the top three places at the World Indoor Lacrosse Championships.

Canadian University Field Lacrosse Association

The Canadian University Field Lacrosse Association (CUFLA) is an association of men's field lacrosse teams connected with several universities in Ontario and Quebec. Teams compete in the fall with league playoffs typically in early November.

College lacrosse

College lacrosse is played by student-athletes at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. In both countries, men's field lacrosse and women's lacrosse are played at both the varsity and club levels. College lacrosse in Canada is sponsored by the Canadian University Field Lacrosse Association (CUFLA) and Maritime University Field Lacrosse League (MUFLL), while in the United States, varsity men's and women's lacrosse is governed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) and National Association of Intercolliegiate Athletics (NAIA). There are also university lacrosse programs in the United Kingdom sponsored by British Universities and Colleges Sport (BUCS) and programs in Japan.

In the U.S., as of the 2016–17 academic year, there were 71 NCAA-sanctioned Division I men's lacrosse teams, 61 Division II men's lacrosse teams and 236 Division III men's lacrosse teams. There are 112 Division I women's lacrosse teams, 105 Division II women's lacrosse teams, and 282 Division III women's lacrosse teams. There were also 27 men's programs and 16 women's programs at two-year community colleges organized by the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) and a growing number of National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) four-year small college programs.

As of 2016–17, there were 184 collegiate men's club teams competing through the Men's Collegiate Lacrosse Association (MCLA), including most major universities in the United States without NCAA men's programs, organized into two divisions and ten conferences. Schools that feature an NCAA Division I FBS football team must play in Division 1, while most other teams compete in Division 2. There are 225 collegiate club teams for women organized by the Women's Collegiate Lacrosse Associates (WCLA).

Czech Lacrosse Union

The Czech Lacrosse Union (Czech: Česká lakrosová unie), is the governing body of lacrosse in Czech Republic. It conducts national junior and senior championship tournaments for men and women in field lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse. It also participates in the World Indoor Lacrosse Championship, World Lacrosse Championship and Women's Lacrosse World Cup.

Goaltender (box lacrosse)

The goaltender or goalie is a playing position in indoor or box lacrosse. More heavily armoured than a field lacrosse goaltender, since the invent of indoor lacrosse in 1931, the box lacrosse goalie has evolved into a much different position than its field lacrosse cousin.

Goaltender (field lacrosse)

In field lacrosse, the goaltender (goalie, goalkeeper, or the keeper) is the last line of defense between the opposing offense and the goal. The goaltender's primary roles are to defend the opposing team's shots on goal and to direct the defense.

Lacrosse

Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. Players use the head of the lacrosse stick to carry, pass, catch, and shoot the ball into the goal.

The sport has four versions that have different sticks, fields, rules and equipment: field lacrosse, women's lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse. The men's games, field lacrosse (outdoor) and box lacrosse (indoor), are contact sports and all players wear protective gear: helmet, gloves, shoulder pads, and elbow pads. The women's game is played outdoors and does not allow body contact but does allow stick to stick contact. The only protective gear required for women players is eyegear, while goalies wear helmets and protective pads. Intercrosse is a mixed-gender non-contact sport played indoors that uses an all-plastic stick and a softer ball.

The sport is governed by the Federation of International Lacrosse.

Lacrosse in Canada

Modern lacrosse in Canada has been a popular sport since the mid 1800s. Only field lacrosse was played until the 1930s, when box lacrosse was invented. Lacrosse was declared Canada's national game in 1859. However, in 1994, Canadian Parliament passed Canada's National Sport Act, which made lacrosse the national summer sport, and hockey the national winter sport.

Long Island Sound (UWLX)

The Long Island Sound are a United Women's Lacrosse League (UWLX) professional women's field lacrosse team based in Long Island, New York. They have played in the UWLX since the 2016 season. In the 2016 season, the four teams in the UWLX will play on a barnstorming format, with all four teams playing at a single venue.

NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship

The NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship tournament determines the annual top men's field lacrosse team in the NCAA Division I. This tournament has determined the national champion since the inaugural 1971 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship. From 1936 through 1970, the United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA) awarded the Wingate Memorial Trophy to the NCAA Division I annual champion based on regular season records.

NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship

The NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship refers to one of three championships in men's field lacrosse contested by the NCAA since 1971 to determine the top team in the NCAA Division I, Division II, and Division III.

NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship

NCAA Division II Men's Lacrosse Championship

NCAA Division III Men's Lacrosse ChampionshipThis tournament has determined the national champion since the inaugural 1971 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship. Prior to this, from 1936 through 1970, the executive board of the United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA) selected the annual winners of the Wingate Memorial Trophy as national champions based on season records.

The NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship, with the semi-finals and finals played in National Football League stadiums, is among the most attended NCAA Championships

New Jersey Pride

The New Jersey Pride were a men's professional field lacrosse team in the Major League Lacrosse formerly based in Piscataway, New Jersey, United States from 2001-2008.

New York Fight

The New York Fight are a Women's Professional Lacrosse League (WPLL) professional women's field lacrosse team based in Long Island, New York. They have played in the WPLL since the 2018 season. In the 2018 season, the five teams in the WPLL will play on a barnstorming format, with all five teams playing at a single venue.

Philadelphia Fire

The Philadelphia Fire are a Women's Professional Lacrosse League (WPLL) professional women's field lacrosse team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They have played in the WPLL since the 2018 season. In the 2018 season, the five teams in the WPLL will play on a barnstorming format, with all five teams playing at a single venue.

Philadelphia Force (UWLX)

The Philadelphia Force are a United Women's Lacrosse League (UWLX) professional women's field lacrosse team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They have played in the UWLX since the 2016 season. In the 2016 season, the four teams in the UWLX will play on a barnstorming format, with all four teams playing at a single venue.

Premier Lacrosse League

Premier Lacrosse League (PLL) is a proposed American professional field lacrosse league. The league's inaugural season is set to debut June 1, 2019, and includes a 14-week tour-based schedule taking place in 12 "major-market cities." The league is founded by the American professional lacrosse player Paul Rabil and his brother Mike Rabil. Investors include The Chernin Group, The Raine Group and Joe Tsai.

Upstate Pride

The Upstate Pride are a Women's Professional Lacrosse League (WPLL) professional women's field lacrosse team based in Albany, New York. They have played in the WPLL since the 2018 season. In the 2018 season, the five teams in the WPLL will play on a barnstorming format, with all five teams playing at a single venue.

World Lacrosse Championship

The World Lacrosse Championship (WLC) is the international men's field lacrosse championship organized by the Federation of International Lacrosse (FIL) that occurs every four years.

The WLC began before any international lacrosse organization had been formed. It started as a four-team invitational tournament which coincided with Canada's centennial lacrosse celebration in 1967. Canada, the United States, Australia, and England participated. Seven years later, Australia celebrated its lacrosse centenary and another four-team invitational tournament was held between the same countries. After that tournament in 1974, the first international governing body for men's lacrosse was formed, the International Lacrosse Federation (ILF). The ILF merged with the women's governing body in 2008 to form the FIL.The USA has won the championship ten times and Canada the other three. The 2014 tournament in Denver featured a record thirty-eight competing nations. The 2018 WLC in Israel will be the first championship held outside of Australia, Canada, England and the United States.

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