Fidyah and Kaffara

Fidyah (Arabic: الفدية‎) and Kaffara (Arabic: كفارة‎) are religious donations made in Islam when a fast (notably in Ramadan) is broken. The donations can be of food, or money, and it is used to feed those in need. They are mentioned in the Qur'an which distinguishes the two, but unifies them into one idea. Some organizations have online Fidyah and Kaffara options.[1]


Fidyah (also romanized as Fidya) is a religious donation of money or food made to help those in need. Fidyah is made when someone is ill or of extreme age (old or young), cannot fast for the required number of days, and will not be able to make up for the fast.[2] In Ramadan, the Fidyah must be paid for each fast missed.[3] If, however, one misses their fast due to being sick or on a journey, but will be healthy enough to make up for it, they should preferably make up for the fast at a later date, as prescribed in the Qur'an.[4]


Kaffara (also romanized as Kaffarah) like Fidyah, is a religious donation of money or food made to help those in need. Kaffara is made when someone deliberately misses a fast or intentionally breaks their fast, such as by having intercourse, or eating.[2]

In the Qur'an

Fidyah and Kaffara are mentioned in the Qur'an in the selection below:

"[Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know."

— Quran: 2:184[5]

See also


  1. ^ "Ramadan - Islamic Relief USA".
  2. ^ a b "Fidyah & Kaffarah | Islamic Relief UK". Islamic Relief UK. Retrieved 2017-08-22.
  3. ^ "Ramadan - Islamic Relief USA".
  4. ^ "The Quranic Arabic Corpus - Translation". Retrieved 2017-08-22.
  5. ^ Quran 2:184
Chaand Raat

Chaand Raat (Bengali: চাঁদ রাত, Urdu: چاند رات‬‎, Hindi: चाँद रात; literally Night of the moon) is a Bengali, Urdu and Hindi locution used in Bangladesh, Pakistan and India for the eve of the Muslim festival of Eid ul-Fitr; it can also mean a night with a new moon for the new Islamic month shawwal. Chaand Raat is a time of celebration when families and friends gather in open areas at the end of the last day of Ramadan to spot the new moon, which signals the arrival of the Islamic month of Shawwal and the day of Eid. Once the moon is sighted, people wish each other Chaand Raat Mubarak ("Have a blessed night of the new moon") or Eid Mubarak ("Blessings of the Eid day"). Women and girls decorate their hands with mehndi (henna), and people prepare desserts for the next day of Eid and do last rounds of shopping. City streets have a festive look, and brightly decorated malls and markets remain open late into the night. Chaand Raat is celebrated festively and passionately by Muslims (and occasionally non-Muslims as well) all over South Asia, and in socio-cultural significance, is comparable to Christmas Eve.

Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Fitr ( eed; Arabic: عيد الفطر‎ ʻĪd al-Fiṭr, IPA: [ʕiːd al fitˤr]) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (ṣawm). This religious Eid (Muslim religious festival) is the first and only day in the month of Shawwal during which Muslims are not permitted to fast. The holiday celebrates the conclusion of the 29 or 30 days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The day of Eid, therefore, falls on the first day of the month of Shawwal. The date for the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on when the new moon is sighted by local religious authorities, so the exact day of celebration varies by locality.

Eid al-Fitr has a particular salat (Islamic prayer) consisting of two rakats (units) and generally offered in an open field or large hall. It may be performed only in congregation (jamāʿat) and has an additional extra six Takbirs (raising of the hands to the ears while saying "Allāhu ʾAkbar" which means "God is the greatest"), three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah and three of them just before rukūʿ in the second raka'ah in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam. Other Sunni schools usually have twelve Takbirs, seven in the first, and five at the beginning of the second raka'ah. According to Shia Islam, it has 6 Takbirs in the first Rakat at the end of qira'a, before rukūʿ, and 5 in the second. This Eid al-Fitr salat is, depending on which juristic opinion is followed, farḍ فرض (obligatory), mustaḥabb مستحب (strongly recommended, just short of obligatory) or mandūb مندوب (preferable).

Muslims believe that they are commanded by God, as mentioned in the Quran, to continue their fast until the last day of Ramadan and pay the Zakat al-Fitr before offering the Eid prayers.


Fanous (Arabic: فانوس‎ IPA: [fæˈnuːs], pl. فوانيس [fæwæˈniːs]), meaning lamp or light, is widely associated with Fanous Ramadan or Fanoos Ramdan.(Arabic: فانوس رمضان‎) and is now commonly known as the Ramadan lantern.


Fast-A-Thon is an event held in the month of Ramadan on university campuses all across North America to create awareness about the issue of hunger, and also about the Islamic way of life and Muslims. Muslim student organizations, typically the Muslim Students' Association (MSA) get students of all faith to sign up to fast for a day according to Islamic traditions, and for each person that fasts, arrangements are made for a certain amount to be donated to charity on behalf of the person fasting. They usually are also invited to break their fasts with other Muslims at the end of the fasting day.The University of Tennessee Muslim Student Association held the first Fast-a-Thon in 2001 after the September 11, 2001 attacks and founded a national event that included students at over 230 colleges and universities in 2006. The event also is held to help dispel misconceptions about Islam and Muslims. An event at the University of Michigan has been held annually for over a decade. Other establishments supporting this event are the University of Florida, University of Washington, and the University of Waterloo.Fast-a-Thon is now an annual event held during Ramadan. If the month of Ramadan falls outside of the universities academic calendar, the MSA may choose another time to hold Fast-A-Thon. The initiative is supported by the global humanitarian organization Action Against Hunger, and has been used annually as part of fundraising efforts for various charities.

Fasting during Ramadan

This is a sub-article to Fasting in Islam and RamadanDuring the entire month of Ramadan, Muslims are obligated to fast (Arabic: صوم‎, sawm), every day from dawn to sunset (or from dawn to night according to some scholars). Fasting requires the abstinence from food, drink . Fasting the month of Ramadān was made obligatory (wājib) during the month of Sha‘bān, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Makkah to Madīnah. Fasting the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam.


Gargee'an (Arabic: قرقيعان‎), sometimes spelled as Gerga'oon (Arabic: قرقاعون), is a semiannual celebration, observed primarily in Eastern Arabia (Arab states of the Persian Gulf), Iraq, and the Khuzestan region in Iran. It takes place on the 15th night of the Islamic month of Sha'ban and on the 15th night of Ramadan. Gargee'an is marked with children dressing in traditional attire and going door-to-door to receive sweets and nuts from neighbours, whilst also singing traditional songs. The tradition has existed for hundreds of years and deeply rooted in Gulf culture.Although the celebration of Gargee'an shares superficial similarities with the Halloween custom of trick-or-treating, practiced in some western countries, Gargee'an has no connection with horror and no associated origin with Halloween.


Iftar (or Fatoor) (Arabic: إفطار‎ ʾifṭār 'break fast') is the evening meal with which Muslims end their daily Ramadan fast at sunset. Muslims break their fast at the time of the call to prayer for the evening prayer. This is their second meal of the day; the daily fast during Ramadan begins immediately after the pre-dawn meal of Suhur and continues during the daylight hours, ending with sunset with the evening meal of Iftar.

Index of Islam-related articles

This is an alphabetical list of topics related to Islam, the history of Islam, Islamic culture, and the present-day Muslim world, intended to provide inspiration for the creation of new articles and categories. This list is not complete; please add to it as needed. This list may contain multiple transliterations of the same word: please do not delete the multiple alternative spellings—instead, please make redirects to the appropriate pre-existing Wikipedia article if one is present.

For a list of articles ordered by topic, instead of alphabetically, see Outline of Islamic and Muslim related topics.

For a structured list of existing articles on Islam, please see Category:Islam.


Iʿtikāf (Arabic: اعتكاف‎, also i'tikaaf or e'tikaaf) is an Islamic practice consisting of a period of staying in a mosque for a certain number of days, devoting oneself to ibadah during these days and staying away from worldly affairs. The literal meaning of the word suggests sticking and adhering to, or being regular in something, this 'something' often including performing nafl prayers, reciting the Qur'an, and reading hadith.


Jumu'atul-Widaa' (Arabic: جمعة الوداع‎ meaning Friday of farewell, also called al-Jumu'ah al-Yateemah Arabic: الجمعة اليتيمة‎ or the orphaned Friday Urdu: الوداع جمعہ‬ Al-Widaa Juma) is the last Friday in the month of Ramadan before Eid-ul-Fitr.


Ramadan (; Arabic: رمضان‎ Ramaḍān, IPA: [ramaˈdˤaːn]; also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths.The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means scorching heat or dryness. Fasting is fard (obligatory) for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, travelling, are elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, chronically ill or menstruating. Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory (wājib) during the month of Sha'ban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca, but the more commonly accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should follow the timetable of the closest country to them in which night can be distinguished from day.While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids, smoking, and engaging in sexual relations. Muslims are also instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech (insulting, backbiting, cursing, lying, etc.) and fighting except in self-defense. Pre-fast meals before dawn are referred to as Suhoor, while the post-fast breaking feasts after sunset are called Iftar. Spiritual rewards (thawab) for fasting are also believed to be multiplied within the month of Ramadan. Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan typically includes the increased offering of salat (prayers), recitation of the Quran and an increase of doing good deeds and charity.

Zakat al-Fitr

Zakat al-Fitr is charity given to the poor at the end of the fasting in the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. The Arabic word Fitr means the same as iftar, breaking a fast, and it comes from the same root word as Futoor which means breakfast. Zakat al-Fitr is a smaller levy than Zakat al-Mal.

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