Feud

A feud /fjuːd/, referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, beef, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially families or clans. Feuds begin because one party (correctly or incorrectly) perceives itself to have been attacked, insulted or wronged by another. Intense feelings of resentment trigger the initial retribution, which causes the other party to feel equally aggrieved and vengeful. The dispute is subsequently fuelled by a long-running cycle of retaliatory violence. This continual cycle of provocation and retaliation makes it extremely difficult to end the feud peacefully. Feuds frequently involve the original parties' family members or associates, can last for generations, and may result in extreme acts of violence. They can be interpreted as an extreme outgrowth of social relations based in family honor.

Until the early modern period, feuds were considered legitimate legal instruments[1] and were regulated to some degree. For example, Serb culture calls this krvna osveta, meaning "blood revenge", which had unspoken but highly valued rules.[2] In tribal societies, the blood feud, coupled with the practice of blood wealth, functioned as an effective form of social control for limiting and ending conflicts between individuals and groups who are related by kinship, as described by anthropologist Max Gluckman in his article "The Peace in the Feud"[3] in 1955.

Blood feuds

A blood feud is a feud with a cycle of retaliatory violence, with the relatives of someone who has been killed or otherwise wronged or dishonored seeking vengeance by killing or otherwise physically punishing the culprits or their relatives. In the English-speaking world, the Italian word vendetta is used to mean a blood feud, but in reality it means (personal) "vengeance" or "revenge", originating from the Latin vindicta (vengeance), while the word faida would be more appropriate for a blood feud. In the English-speaking world, "vendetta" is sometimes extended to mean any other long-standing feud, not necessarily involving bloodshed. Sometimes, it is not mutual, but rather refers to a prolonged series of hostile acts waged by one person against another without reciprocation.[4]

History

Blood feuds were common in societies with a weak rule of law (or where the state does not consider itself responsible for mediating this kind of dispute), where family and kinship ties are the main source of authority. An entire family is considered responsible for the actions of any of its members. Sometimes two separate branches of the same family have even come to blows, or worse, over some dispute.

1673 Heintz Wettstreit auf der Ponte dei Pugni in Venedig anagoria
Ponte dei Pugni ("Bridge of Fists") in Venice was used by rival clans to stage fist fights

The practice has mostly disappeared with more centralized societies where law enforcement and criminal law take responsibility for punishing lawbreakers.

In Homeric ancient Greece, the practice of personal vengeance against wrongdoers was considered natural and customary: "Embedded in the Greek morality of retaliation is the right of vengeance... Feud is a war, just as war is an indefinite series of revenges; and such acts of vengeance are sanctioned by the gods".[5]

In the ancient Hebraic context, it was considered the duty of the individual and family to avenge evil on behalf of God. The executor of the law of blood-revenge who personally put the initial killer to death was given a special designation: go'el haddam, the blood-avenger or blood-redeemer (Book of Numbers 35: 19, etc.). Six Cities of Refuge were established to provide protection and due process for any unintentional manslayers. The avenger was forbidden from harming the unintentional killer if the killer took refuge in one of these cities. As the Oxford Companion to the Bible states: "Since life was viewed as sacred (Genesis 9.6), no amount of blood money could be given as recompense for the loss of the life of an innocent person; it had to be 'life for life' (Exodus 21.23; Deuteronomy 19.21)".[6]

According to historian Marc Bloch:

The Middle Ages, from beginning to end, and particularly the feudal era, lived under the sign of private vengeance. The onus, of course, lay above all on the wronged individual; vengeance was imposed on him as the most sacred of duties ... The solitary individual, however, could do but little. Moreover, it was most commonly a death that had to be avenged. In this case the family group went into action and the faide (feud) came into being, to use the old Germanic word which spread little by little through the whole of Europe — 'the vengeance of the kinsmen which we call faida', as a German canonist expressed it. No moral obligation seemed more sacred than this ... The whole kindred, therefore, placed as a rule under the command of a chieftain, took up arms to punish the murder of one of its members or merely a wrong that he had suffered.[7]

Hoher atlas dadestal
A kasbah in the Dades valley, High Atlas. Historically, tribal feuding and banditry were a way of life for the Berbers of Morocco. As a result, hundreds of ancient kasbahs were built.

Rita of Cascia, a popular 15th-century Italian saint, was canonized by the Catholic Church due mainly to her great effort to end a feud in which her family was involved and which claimed the life of her husband.

The blood feud has certain similarities to the ritualized warfare found in many pre-industrial tribes. Thus, for instance, more than a third of Ya̧nomamö males, on average, died from warfare. The accounts of missionaries to the area have recounted constant infighting in the tribes for women or prestige, and evidence of continuous warfare for the enslavement of neighboring tribes such as the Macu before the arrival of European settlers and government.[8]

In Japan's feudal past, the samurai class upheld the honor of their family, clan, and their lord by katakiuchi (敵討ち), or revenge killings. These killings could also involve the relatives of an offender. While some vendettas were punished by the government, such as that of the Forty-seven Ronin, others were given official permission with specific targets.

At the Holy Roman Empire's Reichstag at Worms in 1495 AD, the right of waging feuds was abolished. The Imperial Reform proclaimed an "eternal public peace" (Ewiger Landfriede) to put an end to the abounding feuds and the anarchy of the robber barons, and it defined a new standing imperial army to enforce that peace. However, it took a few more decades until the new regulation was universally accepted. In 1506, for example, knight Jan Kopidlansky killed a family rival in Prague, and the town councillors sentenced him to death and had him executed. His brother, Jiri Kopidlansky, revenged Jan by continuing atrocities. Another case was the Nuremberg-Schott feud, in which Maximilian was forced to step in to halt the damages done by robber knight Schott.

In Greece, the custom of blood feud is found in several parts of the country, for instance in Crete and Mani. Throughout history, the Maniots have been regarded by their neighbors and their enemies as fearless warriors who practice blood feuds, known in the Maniot dialect of Greek as "Γδικιωμός" (Gdikiomos). Many vendettas went on for months, some for years. The families involved would lock themselves in their towers and, when they got the chance, would murder members of the opposing family. The Maniot vendetta is considered the most vicious and ruthless; it has led to entire family lines being wiped out. The last vendetta on record required the Greek Army with artillery support to force it to a stop. Regardless of this, the Maniot Greeks still practice vendettas even today. Maniots in America, Australia, Canada and Corsica still have on-going vendettas which have led to the creation of Mafia families known as "Γδικιωμέοι" (Gdikiomeoi).[9]

Vathia Mani Greece
Vatheia, a typical Maniot village famous for its towers

In Corsica, vendetta was a social code that required Corsicans to kill anyone who wronged the family honor. Between 1821 and 1852, no less than 4,300 murders were perpetrated in Corsica.[10]

In the Late Middle Ages, the Basque Country was ravaged by the War of the Bands, bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. In Navarre, these conflicts became polarised in a violent struggle between the Agramont and Beaumont parties. In Biscay, the two major warring factions were named Oinaz and Gamboa. (Cf. the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy). High defensive structures ("towers") built by local noble families, few of which survive today, were frequently razed by fires, and sometimes by royal decree.

Leontiy Lyulye, an expert on conditions in the Caucasus, wrote in the mid-19th century: "Among the mountain people the blood feud is not an uncontrollable permanent feeling such as the vendetta is among the Corsicans. It is more like an obligation imposed by the public opinion." In the Dagestani aul of Kadar, one such blood feud between two antagonistic clans lasted for nearly 260 years, from the 17th century till the 1860s.[11]

Ushguli1
The defensive towers built by feuding clans of Svaneti, in the Caucasus mountains

The Celtic phenomenon of the blood feud demanded "an eye for an eye," and usually descended into murder. Disagreements between clans might last for generations in Scotland and Ireland.

Due to the Celtic heritage of many people living in Appalachia, a series of prolonged violent engagements in late nineteenth-century Kentucky and West Virginia were referred to commonly as feuds, a tendency that was partly due to the nineteenth-century popularity of William Shakespeare and Sir Walter Scott, both of whom had written semihistorical accounts of blood feuds. These incidents, the most famous of which was the Hatfield–McCoy feud, were regularly featured in the newspapers of the eastern U.S. between the Reconstruction Era and the early twentieth century, and are seen by some as linked to a Southern culture of honor with its roots in the Scots-Irish forebears of the residents of the area.[12] Another prominent example is the Regulator–Moderator War, which took place between rival factions in the Republic of Texas. It is sometimes considered the largest blood feud in American history.[13]

An alternative to feud was blood money (or weregild in the Norse culture), which demanded payment of some kind from those responsible for a wrongful death, even an accidental one. If these payments were not made, or were refused by the offended party, a blood feud would ensue.

Feuds in modern times

Blood feuds are still practised in some areas in:

Blood feuds within Russian communities do exist (mostly related to criminal gangs), but are neither as common nor as pervasive as they are in the Caucasus. In the United States, blood feuds are also not as pervasive or common, but do exist within the African-American and Chicano communities[48] (sometimes gang-related, but not necessarily). Gang warfare also often takes the form of blood feuds. African-American, Cambodian, Cuban Marielito, Dominican, Guatemalan, Haitian, Hmong, Sino-Vietnamese Hoa, Jamaican, Korean, Laotian, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran and Vietnamese gang fights in the United States, as well as Colombian, Mexican and Brazilian gang and paramilitary wars, Cape Coloured turf wars in South Africa, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese and Moluccan gang fights in the Netherlands, and Scottish, White British, Black and Mixed British criminal feuds in the UK, very often have taken the form of blood feuds where a family member in the gang is killed and a relative takes revenge by killing the murderer as well as other members of the rival gang. This has resulted in gun violence and murders in cities like Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Ciudad Juarez, Medellin, Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, Amsterdam, London, Liverpool, and Glasgow, to name just a few.

Blood feuds also have a long history within the White Southern population of the U.S., where it is called the "culture of honor", and still exist to the present day.[49]

LockInTower
A fortified tower used as refuge for men involved in a blood feud who are vulnerable to attack. Thethi, northern Albania.

Albania

In Albania, gjakmarrja (blood feuding) is a tradition. They have returned in rural areas after more than 40 years of being abolished by Albanian communists led by Enver Hoxha, and more than 3000 Albanian families are currently engaged in them. There are now more than 1,600 families who live under an ever-present death sentence because of them, and since 1992, at least 10,000 Albanians have been killed in them.[50] Blood feuds in Albania trace back to the Kanun, this custom is also practiced among the Albanians of Kosovo

A feud may develop into a vicious circle of further killings, retaliation, counterattacks, and all-out warfare that can end in the mutual extinction of both families. Often the original cause is forgotten, and feuds continue simply because it is perceived that there has always been a feud.

Kosovo

Blood feuds have also been part of a centuries-old tradition in Kosovo, tracing back to the Kanun, a 15th-century codification of Albanian customary rules. In the early 1990s, most cases of blood feuds were reconciled in the course of a large-scale reconciliation movement to end blood feuds led by Anton Çetta.[51] The largest reconciliation gathering took place at Verrat e Llukës on 1 May 1990, which had between 100,000 and 500,000 participants. By 1992 the reconciliation campaign ended at least 1,200 deadly blood feuds, and in 1993 not a single homicide occurred in Kosovo.[51]

Republic of Ireland

Criminal gang feuds also exist in Dublin, Ireland and in the Republic's third-largest city, Limerick. Traveller feuds are also common in towns across the country. Feuds can be due to personal issues, money, or disrespect, and grudges can last generations. Since 2001, over 300 people have been killed in feuds between different drugs gangs, dissident republicans, and Traveller families.[52]

Philippines

Family and clan feuds, known locally as rido, are characterized by sporadic outbursts of retaliatory violence between families and kinship groups, as well as between communities. It can occur in areas where the government or a central authority is weak, as well as in areas where there is a perceived lack of justice and security. Rido is a Maranao term commonly used in Mindanao to refer to clan feuds. It is considered one of the major problems in Mindanao because, apart from numerous casualties, rido has caused destruction of property, crippled local economies, and displaced families.

Located in the southern Philippines, Mindanao is home to a majority of the country’s Muslim community, and includes the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. Mindanao "is a region suffering from poor infrastructure, high poverty, and violence that has claimed the lives of more than 120,000 in the last three decades."[53] There is a widely held stereotype that the violence is perpetrated by armed groups that resort to terrorism to further their political goals, but the actual situation is far more complex. While the Muslim-Christian conflict and the state-rebel conflicts dominate popular perceptions and media attention, a survey commissioned by The Asia Foundation in 2002 — and further verified by a recent Social Weather Stations survey — revealed that citizens are more concerned about the prevalence of rido and its negative impact on their communities than the conflict between the state and rebel groups.[54] The unfortunate interaction and subsequent confusion of rido-based violence with secessionism, communist insurgency, banditry, military involvement and other forms of armed violence shows that violence in Mindanao is more complicated than what is commonly believed.

Rido has wider implications for conflict in Mindanao, primarily because it tends to interact in unfortunate ways with separatist conflict and other forms of armed violence. Many armed confrontations in the past involving insurgent groups and the military were triggered by a local rido. The studies cited above investigated the dynamics of rido with the intention of helping design strategic interventions to address such conflicts.

The causes of rido are varied and may be further complicated by a society's concept of honor and shame, an integral aspect of the social rules that determine accepted practices in the affected communities. The triggers for conflicts range from petty offenses, such as theft and jesting, to more serious crimes, like homicide. These are further aggravated by land disputes and political rivalries, the most common causes of rido. Proliferation of firearms, lack of law enforcement and credible mediators in conflict-prone areas, and an inefficient justice system further contribute to instances of rido.

Studies on rido have documented a total of 1,266 rido cases between the 1930s and 2005, which have killed over 5,500 people and displaced thousands. The four provinces with the highest numbers of rido incidences are: Lanao del Sur (377), Maguindanao (218), Lanao del Norte (164), and Sulu (145). Incidences in these four provinces account for 71% of the total documented cases. The findings also show a steady rise in rido conflicts in the eleven provinces surveyed from the 1980s to 2004. According to the studies, during 2002–2004, 50% (637 cases) of total rido incidences occurred, equaling about 127 new rido cases per year. Out of the total number of rido cases documented, 64% remain unresolved.[54]

Rido conflicts are either resolved, unresolved, or reoccurring. Although the majority of these cases remain unresolved, there have been many resolutions through different conflict-resolving bodies and mechanisms. These cases can utilize the formal procedures of the Philippine government or the various indigenous systems. Formal methods may involve official courts, local government officials, police, and the military. Indigenous methods to resolve conflicts usually involve elder leaders who use local knowledge, beliefs, and practices, as well as their own personal influence, to help repair and restore damaged relationships. Some cases using this approach involve the payment of blood money to resolve the conflict. Hybrid mechanisms include the collaboration of government, religious, and traditional leaders in resolving conflicts through the formation of collaborative groups. Furthermore, the institutionalization of traditional conflict resolution processes into laws and ordinances has been successful with the hybrid method approach. Other conflict-resolution methods include the establishment of ceasefires and the intervention of youth organizations.[54]

Famous blood feuds

HatfieldClan
The Hatfield clan in 1897.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Revenue, Lordship, Kinship & Law". Manaraefan.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  2. ^ Boehm, Christopher (1984). Blood Revenge: The Anthropology of Feuding in Montenegro and Other Tribal Societies. Lawrence, Kansas: The University of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-0245-2.
  3. ^ Gluckman, Max. "The Peace in the Feud". Past and Present, 1955, 8(1):1-14
  4. ^ "Definition of vendetta". Merriam-Webster dictionary online. Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  5. ^ Griffiths, John Gwyn (1991), The Divine Verdict: A Study of Divine Judgement in the Ancient Religions, BRILL, p. 90, ISBN 978-90-04-09231-0
  6. ^ Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. (1993), The Oxford Companion to the Bible, Oxford University Press, p. 68, ISBN 978-0-19-504645-8
  7. ^ Marc Bloch, trans. L. A. Manyon, Feudal Society, Vol. I, 1965, p. 125-126
  8. ^ Keeley, Lawrence H. War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage Oxford University Press, 1996
  9. ^ "Vendetta". Mani.org.gr. Archived from the original on 2006-12-30. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  10. ^ Gregorovius, Ferdinand. Wanderings in Corsica: Its History and Its Heroes. (1855). p. 196. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  11. ^ Souleimanov, Emil Aslan (2003-05-25). "Chechen society and mentality". Prague Watchdog. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  12. ^ Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers (2008), Chapter 6, citing, for example, David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America.
  13. ^ Bowman, Bob (2006-10-15). "The Worst Feud". TexasEscapes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  14. ^ "Police search Calabrian village as murders are linked to clan feud", The Independent Archived February 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Murphy, Brian. "Vendetta Victims: People, A Village — Crete's 'Cycle Of Blood' Survives The Centuries" The Seattle Times. Retrieved 1999-01-14.
  16. ^ Tsantiropoulos, Aris (2008). "Collective Memory and Blood Feud; The Case of Mountainous Crete" (PDF). Crimes and Misdemeanours. University of Crete. ISSN 1754-0445. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-31.
  17. ^ "Men jailed for Clydebank murder following family feud". STV News. 2009-11-12. Archived from the original on 2013-04-19. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  18. ^ Warburton, Dan (2013-02-26). "Paddy Conroy on his feud with Sayers family". Evening Chronicle. ChronicleLive.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  19. ^ https://www.irishnews.com/news/2018/05/12/news/father-and-son-jailed-over-traveller-feud-wedding-shooting-1328047/
  20. ^ van Dinther, Mac (1997-07-22). "Afschaffen bepleit van aparte aanpak woonwagenbewoners 'Eigen cultuur van bewoners woonwagenkampen is illusie'". De Volkskrant. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  21. ^ Chivers, C. J. (2003-02-24). "Feud Between Kurdish Clans Creates Its Own War". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  22. ^ Schleifer, Yigal (2008-06-03). "In Turkey, a lone peacemaker ends many blood feuds". The Christian Science Monitor. CSMonitor.com. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  23. ^ "Kurdish Families — Kurdish Marriage Patterns". family.JRank.org. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  24. ^ Sengupta, Kim (2009-12-10). "Independent Appeal: The Afghan peace mission". The Independent. London: Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  25. ^ Veselin Konjević. "Osvetio jedinca posle 14 godina [Revenge Killing after 14 years]". Глас Jавности [Glas Javnosti]. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  26. ^ "Somali feuding 'tit-for-tat'". South Africa: News24.com. 2004-01-19. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  27. ^ Wilkin, Anthony. (1900). Among the Berbers of Algeria. London: T. Fisher Unwin. p. 253.
  28. ^ "Nigeria deploys troops after 14 killed in land feud" Reuters Archived October 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "India's gangster nation". Asia Times Online. ATimes.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  30. ^ "The Voice from the Rural Areas: Muslim-Sikh Relations in the British Punjab, 1940-47". Academy of the Punjab in North America (APNAorg.com). Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  31. ^ Walsh, Declan; Carter, Helen; Lewis, Paul (2010-05-21). "Mother, father and daughter gunned down in cemetery on visit to Pakistan". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  32. ^ Thompson, Tony (2001-01-20). "Asian blood feuds spill into Britain". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  33. ^ Fincher, John H. (1981). Chinese Democracy: The Self-government Movement in Local, Provincial and National Politics, 1905-1914. Croom Helm. ISBN 9780709904632. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  34. ^ WuDunn, Sheryl (1993-01-17). "Clan Feuds, an Old Problem, Are Still Threatening Chinese". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  35. ^ Conde, Carlos H. (2007-10-26). "Clan feuds fuel separatist violence in Philippines, study shows". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  36. ^ http://www.afrim.org.ph/minda-news-page.php?nid=1492
  37. ^ Andersson, René (2000). Burakumin and Shimazaki Tōson's Hakai: Images of Discrimination in Modern Japanese Literature. Lund, Sweden: Lund University. ISBN 978-91-628-4538-4. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  38. ^ a b Raghavan, Sudarsan (2007-08-10). "In the Land of the Blood Feuds". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  39. ^ Hass, Amira (2001-07-29). "Focus / Fierce Gunbattle in Palestinian Blood-feud Claims Nine Lives". Haaretz. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  40. ^ Nassar, Farouk (1990-10-31). "Maronite power crumbles in Lebanon". Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  41. ^ "Libanesische Familienclans: Mord mit Ankündigung". Die Tageszeitung. taz.de. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  42. ^ "The Nyangatom". Tribe. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  43. ^ Blunt, Elizabeth (2007-11-24). "No guns at Ethiopian peace talks". BBC News. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  44. ^ Squires, Nick (2005-08-25). "Deadly twist to PNG's tribal feuds". BBC News. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  45. ^ Toria, Malkhaz (2011-11-25). "Theoretical justification of ethnic cleansing in modern Abkhazian historiography". ExpertClub.ge. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  46. ^ Harding, Luke (2010-06-26). "Uzbeks in desperate plea for aid as full horror of ethnic slaughter emerges". The Guardian. TheGuardian.com. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  47. ^ Vatchagaev, Mairbek (2012-11-15). "Chechen and Ingush Leaders Feud over Burial of Slain Insurgents". http://www.jamestown.org/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=40111&no_cache=1 Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  48. ^ López, Miguel R. (2000). Chicano Timespace: The Poetry and Politics of Ricardo Sánchez. Texas A&M University Press. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  49. ^ Parsons, Chuck (2013). The Sutton-Taylor Feud: The Deadliest Blood Feud in Texas. University of North Texas Press. p. 400. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  50. ^ White, Jeffrey (2008-05-25). "Peacemaker breaks the ancient grip of Albania's blood feuds". The Christian Science Monitor. CSMonitor.com. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  51. ^ a b Marsavelski, Aleksandar; Sheremeti, Furtuna; Braithwaite, John (2018). "Did Nonviolent Resistance Fail in Kosovo?". The British Journal of Criminology. 58: 218–236. doi:10.1093/bjc/azx002.
  52. ^ Lally, Conor (2012-03-09). "Gardaí suspect Dublin drug feud link in double killing". The Irish Times. IrishTimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  53. ^ Wilfredo Magno Torres III. "In the Philippines: Conflict in Mindanao". Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  54. ^ a b c Torres, Wilfredo M. (ed) (2007). Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao. Makati: The Asia Foundation. p. 348. ISBN 978-971-92445-2-3.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

Further reading

  • Grutzpalk, Jonas. "Blood Feud and Modernity. Max Weber's and Émile Durkheim's Theory." Journal of Classical Sociology 2 (2002); p. 115–134.
  • Kreuzer, Peter. 2005. "Political Clans and Violence in the Southern Philippines." Frankfurt: Peace Research Institute Frankfurt. PDF
  • Torres, Wilfredo M. (ed). 2007. Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao. Makati: The Asia Foundation. PDF
  • Torres, Wilfredo M. 2010. "Letting A Thousand Flowers Bloom: Clan Conflicts and their Management." Challenges to Human Security in Complex Situations: The Case of Conflict in the Southern Philippines. Kuala Lumpur: Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN). PDF
  • Boehm, Christopher. 1984. Blood Revenge: The Anthropology of Feuding in Montenegro and Other Tribal Societies. Lawrence: University of Kansas. at Google Books

External links

Big John Studd

John William Minton (February 19, 1948 – March 20, 1995) was an American professional wrestler and actor, better known by his ring name, Big John Studd. Studd is best known for his appearances with the World Wide Wrestling Federation/World Wrestling Federation in the 1970s and 1980s.Studd held a number of championships over his career, including the NWA American Heavyweight Championship, NWA Mid-Atlantic Tag Team Championship, and WWF World Tag Team Championship, and was the winner of the 1989 Royal Rumble. He was posthumously inducted into the WCW Hall of Fame in 1995 and the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2004.

Booker T (wrestler)

Robert Booker Tio Huffman (born March 1, 1965), better known by his ring name Booker T, is an American professional wrestling promoter, color commentator, and professional wrestler, signed with WWE. He is also the owner and founder of the independent promotion Reality of Wrestling (ROW) in Texas City, Texas.

Booker is best known for his time in World Championship Wrestling (WCW), the World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment (WWF/E), and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA), holding 35 championships between those organizations. He is the most decorated wrestler in WCW history, having held 21 titles including a record six WCW World Television Championships (along with being the first African American titleholder), and a record eleven WCW World Tag Team Championships: ten as one half of Harlem Heat with his brother, Lash "Stevie Ray" Huffman in WCW (most reigns within that company), and one in the WWF with Test. Harlem Heat were recognized by WWE as being – along with The Steiner Brothers – WCW's greatest ever tag team. Booker was the final WCW World Heavyweight Champion and WCW United States Heavyweight Champion under the WCW banner; industry veteran John Layfield described him as "the best acquisition that WWE got when they bought WCW".Booker is a six-time world champion, having won the WCW World Heavyweight Championship five times (four times in WCW, and once in the WWF) and WWE's World Heavyweight Championship once. He is the first non-mixed race African American to become a world champion in WWE, and was voted the greatest World Heavyweight Champion in a WWE viewer poll. Booker is a 15-time world tag team champion between WCW (10 times), WWF/E (four times), and TNA (once). Additionally, he was the winner of the King of the Ring tournament in 2006, the sixteenth Triple Crown Champion, and the ninth Grand Slam Champion in WWE history. As the eleventh Triple Crown Champion in WCW history, Booker is one of five men in history to achieve both the WWE and WCW Triple Crowns. Longtime wrestler Kurt Angle said of Booker: "He's done it all... he legitimately is one of the top five best of all time."Booker was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame on April 6, 2013, by his brother, Lash. Booker will also be inducted into the 2019 class on April 6, 2019, as a member of Harlem Heat with his brother Lash "Stevie Ray" Huffman, rendering him a two-time Hall of Famer (alongside Ric Flair and Shawn Michaels).

Celebrity Family Feud

Celebrity Family Feud, which is created by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman, is a spin-off of the American game show Family Feud. Similarly to the primetime All-Star Specials featured during the late 1970s and early 1980s, the episodes feature teams of celebrities playing for charity rather than normal contestants.

The first incarnation of the spin-off was broadcast in 2008 by NBC as part of a block of summer reality series it branded as All-American Summer. Instead of featuring the host of the syndicated version at the time, John O'Hurley (who was hosting Secret Talents of the Stars for another network that summer), the NBC celebrity version was hosted by Al Roker of the Today Show. Five-player teams composed of a celebrity captain and four friends and/or relatives competed against each other with a $50,000 top prize to be donated to the charity of the winning team's choice.

On April 9, 2015, ABC announced that it would air six new episodes of Celebrity Family Feud over the summer, which premiered on June 21, 2015. The 2015 version is hosted by Steve Harvey, the current host of the syndicated version of Family Feud. It marked the first time that any version of Family Feud aired on ABC since the end of the original version hosted by Richard Dawson in June 1985. Unlike the current syndicated version of Feud, which was taped in Atlanta, Georgia from 2011 until 2017, this version has always been produced in Los Angeles, California, and features the return of Burton Richardson, who announced the show from 1999 to 2010, to the series. On August 4, 2016, ABC renewed Celebrity Family Feud for a fourth season. On August 6, 2017, ABC renewed Celebrity Family Feud for a fifth season and premiered on June 10, 2018. On August 7, 2018, ABC renewed Celebrity Family Feud for a sixth season set to premiere in June 2019.

East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry

The East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry was a feud between artists and fans of the East Coast hip hop and West Coast hip hop scenes in the United States, especially from 1994 to 1997. Focal points of the feud were East Coast–based rapper The Notorious B.I.G. (and his New York–based label, Bad Boy Records), and West Coast–based rapper Tupac Shakur (and his Los Angeles–based label, Death Row Records), who were both murdered in drive-by shootings. Orlando Anderson (a.k.a. Baby Lane) is believed to be the person responsible for the murder of Shakur. The person responsible for the murder of The Notorious B.I.G. remains unknown.

Family Feud

Family Feud is an American television game show created by Mark Goodson where two families compete to name the most popular responses to survey questions in order to win cash and prizes. It first aired on July 12, 1976 on ABC, and has also aired on CBS and in syndication.

The show has had three separate runs; the original run from 1976–85 aired on ABC during the daytime, and had a separate nighttime edition that ran in syndication and was hosted by Richard Dawson. In 1988, the series was revived and aired on CBS and also had a nighttime syndication edition. This version was hosted by Ray Combs until 1994, and brought back Richard Dawson for the 1994–95 season. A third run began in 1999 in syndication only, and continues to run through 2019, being hosted by a series of different hosts, including Louie Anderson (1999–2002), Richard Karn (2002–06), John O'Hurley (2006–10), and Steve Harvey (2010–present). Aside from the host, there have been several studio announcers who would introduce the contestants and read credits. These have included Gene Wood (1976–85, 1988–95), Burton Richardson (1999–2010), Joey Fatone (2010–15), and Rubin Ervin (2015–present). Within a year of its debut, the original version became the number one game show in daytime television; however, as viewing habits changed, the ratings declined. Harvey's takeover in 2010 increased Nielsen ratings significantly and eventually placed the program among the top five most popular syndicated television shows in the country. In 2013, TV Guide ranked Family Feud third in its list of the 60 greatest game shows of all time.

The program has spawned multiple regional adaptations in over 50 international markets outside the United States. Reruns of Steve Harvey-hosted episodes also air on the Game Show Network, while reruns of earlier versions air on the Buzzr network. Aside from TV shows, there have been also many home editions produced in the board game, interactive film, and video game formats.

Feud (TV series)

Feud is an American anthology television series for FX created by Ryan Murphy, Jaffe Cohen, and Michael Zam, presented as the dramatization of actual events. It premiered on March 5, 2017.

The first season, which consists of eight episodes, is subtitled Bette and Joan and chronicles the rivalry between Bette Davis and Joan Crawford during and after the production of their 1962 film What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?

In February 2017, FX renewed the series for a 10-episode second season. Originally titled Charles and Diana, referring to Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales, the season was later renamed Buckingham Palace. In August 2018, it was announced that Buckingham Palace had been scrapped.

Feud (professional wrestling)

In professional wrestling, a feud is a staged rivalry between multiple wrestlers or groups of wrestlers. They are integrated into ongoing storylines, particularly in events which are televised. Feuds may last for months or even years or be resolved with implausible speed, perhaps during the course of a single match. WWE's terminology discouraged the use of the term along with the word "war".

Hatfield–McCoy feud

The Hatfield–McCoy feud also known as the Hatfield–McCoy war as some papers at the time called it, involved two rural families of the West Virginia–Kentucky area along the Tug Fork of the Big Sandy River in the years 1863–1891. The Hatfields of West Virginia were led by William Anderson "Devil Anse" Hatfield while the McCoys of Kentucky were under the leadership of Randolph "Ole Ran'l" McCoy. Those involved in the feud were descended from Ephraim Hatfield (born c. 1765) and William McCoy (born c. 1750). The feud has entered the American folklore lexicon as a metonym for any bitterly feuding rival parties. More than a century later, the feud has become synonymous with the perils of family honor, justice, and revenge, recently brought to light again from the documentary, "Hatfields vs. McCoys."

William McCoy, the patriarch of the McCoys, was born in Ireland around 1750 and many of his ancestors hailed from Scotland. The family, led by grandson Randolph McCoy, lived mostly on the Kentucky side of Tug Fork (a tributary of the Big Sandy River). The Hatfields, led by William Anderson "Devil Anse" Hatfield, son of Ephraim and Nancy (Vance) Hatfield, lived mostly on the West Virginia side. The majority of the Hatfields, although living in Mingo County (then part of Logan County), West Virginia, fought on the Confederate side in the American Civil War; most McCoys, living in Pike County, Kentucky, also fought for the Confederates; with the exception of Asa Harmon McCoy, who fought for the Union. The first real violence in the feud was the death of Asa Harmon McCoy as he returned from the war, murdered by a group of Confederate Home Guards called the Logan Wildcats. Devil Anse Hatfield was a suspect at first, but was later confirmed to have been sick at home at the time of the murder. It was widely believed that his uncle, Jim Vance, a member of the Wildcats, committed the murder.

The Hatfields were more affluent than the McCoys and were well-connected politically. Devil Anse Hatfield's timbering operation was a source of wealth for his family, while the McCoys were more of a lower-middle-class family. Ole Ran'l owned a 300-acre (120 ha) farm. Both families had also been involved in the manufacturing and selling of illegal moonshine, a popular commodity at the time.

Jake Roberts

Aurelian Jake Smith Jr. (born May 30, 1955), better known by the ring name Jake "The Snake" Roberts, is an American actor and professional wrestler.

Roberts is best known for his two stints in the World Wrestling Federation (later called WWE); the first between 1986 and 1992, and the second between 1995 and 1997. He wrestled in the National Wrestling Alliance in 1983, World Championship Wrestling in 1992, and the Mexico-based Asistencia Asesoría y Administración between 1993 and 1994 and again in 1997. He appeared in Extreme Championship Wrestling during the summer of 1997 and made appearances for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling from 2006 through 2008.

Throughout his career, Roberts was known for his intense and cerebral promos, dark charisma, extensive use of psychology in his matches, and innovative use of the DDT finishing move (which was later named the "coolest" maneuver of all time by WWE). He often brought snakes into the ring, most famously a python. He was one of the subjects of the 1999 documentary film Beyond the Mat. In 2012, Roberts moved in with fellow wrestler Diamond Dallas Page to seek help in getting his life back on track following years of alcohol and drug abuse. He was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame on April 5, 2014.

John Cena

John Felix Anthony Cena Jr. (; born April 23, 1977) is an American professional wrestler, actor, and rapper. He is signed to WWE, where he appears for both the Raw and SmackDown brands.

Considered to be one of the greatest professional wrestlers of all-time by his peers, Cena was born and raised in West Newbury, Massachusetts, but moved to California in 1998, where he pursued a career as a bodybuilder, before transitioning into professional wrestling after debuting for Ultimate Pro Wrestling (UPW) in 1999. Cena soon signed with the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) in 2001.

In WWE, Cena gained industry fame after adopting a persona of a villainous trash-talking rapper, and won his first singles title, the United States Championship, in 2004. After winning the WWE Championship a year later, Cena's character transitioned into a heroic "goody-two shoes Superman", and subsequently led the company as its franchise player and public face for the next decade, gaining mainstream fame in the process. Cena has headlined several major WWE pay-per-view events, closing the company's flagship annual event, WrestleMania, five times. He has also won several championships in his career, being a five-time U.S. champion, a four-time world tag team champion, and a sixteen-time world champion, a WWE record. He is also a two-time Royal Rumble match winner, and a Money in the Bank ladder match winner. Despite his success, Cena is regularly met with mixed critical reception, with perceived criticisms against his in-ring move set and character limitations, thus making him one of the most polarizing professional wrestlers ever.Outside of wrestling, Cena has attained success as a musician, actor, and philanthropist. He released the rap album You Can't See Me in 2005, which gained platinum certification in the United States. He has had leading film roles in The Marine (2006), 12 Rounds (2009), Trainwreck (2015), Ferdinand (2017), Blockers (2018), and Bumblebee (2018). He is also known for his involvement in numerous charitable causes, namely the Make-A-Wish Foundation, where he has granted more than 500 wishes, the most in company history.

Kane (wrestler)

Glenn Thomas Jacobs (born April 26, 1967) is an American professional wrestler, actor, businessman, and politician. A Republican, he is the Mayor of Knox County, Tennessee.In professional wrestling, Jacobs is signed to WWE, where he is known by his ring name Kane. He began his professional wrestling career on the independent circuit in 1992, wrestling in promotions such as Smoky Mountain Wrestling (SMW) and the United States Wrestling Association (USWA) before joining the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) in 1995. Jacobs played various characters until 1997, when he was repackaged as Kane, the mentally disturbed, pyromaniacal, monstrous/demonic younger half-brother of The Undertaker, with whom Jacobs would alternatively feud or team as The Brothers of Destruction.

Following his debut, Kane remained a pivotal component of the WWF's "Attitude Era" of the late 1990s and early 2000s, defeating the era's "poster boy" Stone Cold Steve Austin for the WWF Championship in his first pay-per-view (PPV) main event at King of the Ring in June 1998. He has continued to headline PPV cards through 2018, and has appeared in more of such events than any other performer in WWF/WWE history.Within WWE, Kane is a three-time world champion (having held the WWF Championship, ECW Championship and World Heavyweight Championship once each) and a 12-time world tag team champion (having held the World Tag Team Championship, WCW Tag Team Championship and WWE Tag Team Championships with various partners). He is also a two-time Intercontinental Champion and a Money in the Bank winner, as well as the third man to complete WWE's Grand Slam. Kane holds the record for cumulative Royal Rumble match eliminations at 44. In a 2015 interview, veteran wrestler Ric Flair described Kane as "the best in the world".Outside of professional wrestling, Jacobs has made numerous guest appearances in film and on television, including the lead role in the 2006 WWE Studios production See No Evil and its 2014 sequel. He is also a longtime supporter of libertarian political causes. In March 2017, Jacobs announced that he was running for the mayoral seat of Knox County, Tennessee as a Republican. On May 1, 2018, he won the Republican primary election for the mayoral seat of Knox County, and on August 2, went on to win the general election.

Nas

Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones (; born September 14, 1973), known professionally as Nas (), is an American rapper, songwriter and entrepreneur. The son of jazz musician Olu Dara, Nas has released eight consecutive platinum and multi-platinum albums and has sold over 30 million records worldwide. He is also an entrepreneur through his own record label; he serves as associate publisher of Mass Appeal magazine and the co-founder of Mass Appeal Records.

His musical career began in 1991, as a featured artist on Main Source's "Live at the Barbeque". His debut album Illmatic (1994) received universal acclaim from both critics and the hip-hop community and is frequently ranked as one of the greatest hip-hop albums of all time. Nas's follow-up It Was Written debuted at #1 on the Billboard 200, stayed on top for four consecutive weeks, went Double Platinum in two months, and made Nas internationally known. From 2001 to 2005, Nas was involved in a highly publicized feud with Jay-Z, popularized by the diss track "Ether". Nas signed to Def Jam in 2006. In 2010, he released Distant Relatives, a collaboration album with Damian Marley, donating all royalties to charities active in Africa. His 11th studio album, Life Is Good (2012) was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 55th Annual Grammy Awards.

MTV ranked him at #5 on their list of "The Greatest MCs of All Time". In 2012, The Source ranked him #2 on their list of the "Top 50 Lyricists of All Time". In 2013, Nas was ranked 4th on MTV's "Hottest MCs in the Game" list. About.com ranked him first on their list of the "50 Greatest MCs of All Time" in 2014, and a year later, Nas was featured on "The 10 Best Rappers of All Time" list by Billboard.

Richard Dawson

Richard Dawson (born Colin Lionel Emm; 20 November 1932 – 2 June 2012) was a British-American actor, comedian, game show host and panelist in the United States. Dawson was well known for playing Corporal Peter Newkirk on Hogan's Heroes, as a regular panelist on Match Game (1973–1978) and as the original host of Family Feud (1976–1985 and 1994–1995).

Shane McMahon

Shane Brandon McMahon (born January 15, 1970) is an American businessman and professional wrestler who is a minority owner of WWE and the vice-chairman of Seven Stars Cloud Group, Inc, formerly Wecast Holdings Inc. He is currently an on-screen authority figure and wrestler appearing on both the Raw and SmackDown brands.

McMahon is a fourth generation wrestling promoter as a member of the McMahon family. He began working in WWE at age 15, starting in their warehouse, where he filled merchandise orders. McMahon was also a referee, producer, announcer, and eventually a wrestler on-screen, while also becoming WWE's Executive Vice President of Global Media behind the scenes. He is the great-grandson of Jess McMahon, grandson of Vincent J. McMahon, son of WWE Majority Owner/Chairman/CEO Vince McMahon and former WWE CEO/current Administrator of the Small Business Administration Linda McMahon, elder brother of WWE executive/personality Stephanie McMahon, and brother-in-law of WWE executive/wrestler Paul "Triple H" Levesque. As a wrestler - besides his tag team title - he has won the European Championship once, the Hardcore Championship once, and the first ever WWE World Cup in Saudi Arabia. He has wrestled in the main event of multiple WWE pay per views and is known for his high-risk moves.

In 2009, McMahon announced his resignation from WWE which went into effect January 1, 2010. He later became CEO of entertainment service company YOU On Demand in late 2010. On July 12, 2013, McMahon voluntarily stepped down as CEO of YOU On Demand and appointed Weicheng Liu as his successor, while remaining the company's principal executive officer and Vice Chairman of the Board. On February 22, 2016, he returned to the WWE as an on-screen character.

Shaq–Kobe feud

The "Kobe-Shaq feud" (or "Shaq-Kobe feud") was the conflict between National Basketball Association (NBA) players Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant, who played together on the Los Angeles Lakers team from 1996 to 2004.

The two were able to win three consecutive NBA Championships (2000, 2001, 2002) and make an NBA Finals appearance in 2004. O'Neal was the NBA Finals MVP in each of their victories. Personal differences and arguments over their respective roles on the Lakers were followed by a trade that sent O'Neal to the Miami Heat while Bryant was re-signed as a free agent by the Lakers. Lakers head coach Phil Jackson would later write a book entitled The Last Season: A Team in Search of Its Soul, reflecting on the troubles Bryant and O'Neal had during their last season together.

Steve Harvey

Broderick Stephen Harvey (born January 17, 1957) is an American comedian, television host, producer, radio personality, actor, and author. He hosts The Steve Harvey Morning Show, the Steve talk show, Family Feud, Celebrity Family Feud, Little Big Shots and its spinoff Little Big Shots: Forever Young, Steve Harvey's Funderdome, Showtime at the Apollo, and since 2015, the Miss Universe pageant.

Harvey is the author of Act Like a Lady, Think Like a Man, which was published in March 2009, and the book Straight Talk, No Chaser: How to Find and Keep a Man. He starred in The Steve Harvey Show and was featured in The Original Kings of Comedy. He is a six-time Daytime Emmy Award winner, two-time Marconi Award winner, and a 14-time NAACP Image Award winner in various categories.

Stevie Ray

Lash Huffman (born August 22, 1958) is an American semi-retired professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Stevie Ray. Stevie Ray is best known for his seven-year tenure with World Championship Wrestling (WCW) from 1993 to 2000, where he was one-half of the tag team Harlem Heat, with his younger brother Booker T. Huffman, better known as Booker T. They won the WCW World Tag Team Championship a record ten times.

Huffman is also a one-time WCW World Television Champion. Among other events, he headlined Fall Brawl 1993 and 1998 pay-per-view events.

Huffman, as part of Harlem Heat, will be inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame as part of the 2019 class.

Sutton–Taylor feud

The Sutton–Taylor feud began as a county law enforcement issue between relatives of Texas state law agent, Creed Taylor, and a local law enforcement officer, William Sutton, in DeWitt County, Texas. The feud cost at least 35 lives and eventually included the outlaw John Wesley Hardin as one of its participants. It started in March 1868, not reaching its conclusion until the Texas Rangers put a stop to the fighting in December 1876.

Torrie Wilson

Torrie Anne Wilson (born July 24, 1975) is an American model, fitness competitor, actress, and professional wrestler. She is best known for her time in World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE).

As a fitness competitor, Wilson won the Miss Galaxy competition in 1999. Shortly after, she was signed by World Championship Wrestling (WCW), where she stayed from 1999 until 2000. In 2001, she began appearing on World Wrestling Federation (WWF) television as part of The Invasion (by WCW, of the [then-] WWF) storyline. Her most high-profile storyline took place in 2003 when she feuded with Dawn Marie. Wilson has also been a part of the all-female stable (i.e., a group of storyline-associated characters), known as Vince's Devils, which ended its run in 2006.

Aside from pro wrestling, Wilson has been on the cover of several magazines, including FHM and Playboy (which Wilson posed for twice, one featuring both Wilson and Sable).

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