Festus Hommius

Festus Hommius (10 February 1576 – 5 July 1642) was a Dutch Calvinist theologian.

Festus Hommius
Festus Hommius
(Collection Leiden University Library)


He was born in Jelsum, into a noted Frisian family. He studied from 1593 at the University of Franeker under Sibrandus Lubbertus, travelled in 1595 to the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle and completed his studies from 1596 at the University of Leiden. Around 1597 Hommius became preacher of Warmond, near Leiden.

In 1599 he became preacher at Dokkum. From 1602 preacher at Leiden, he rapidly became drawn into the conflict around Jacobus Arminius. Hommius became a partisan of Franciscus Gomarus, the opponent of Arminius on the Leiden faculty. He published polemical books and attended conferences with Remonstrant leaders such as Johannes Wtenbogaert.

He was a leading publicist of the Contra-Remonstrants, attacking the Five Articles of Remonstrance. He used guilt by association in suggesting their connection to free-thinking, Socinianism and atheism.[1]

He tried to have Dutch congregations in England represented at the Synod of Dort; this appeal to the Dutch government resulted in the presence of Carolus Liebaert as observer.[2] He died in Leiden, aged 66.


  1. ^ R. Po-chia Hsia and Henk F. K. van Nierop (editors), Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age (2002), p. 62; Google Books.
  2. ^ Ole Peter Grell, Dutch Calvinists in early Stuart London: the Dutch church in Austin Friars, 1603-1642 (1989), p. 33; Google Books.

External links


Year 1576 (MDLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


1642 (MDCXLII)

was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1642nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 642nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1642 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1642.

Antonius Walaeus

Antonius Walaeus (Antoine de Waele, Anton van Wale) (October 1573, Ghent – 3 July 1639, Leiden) was a Dutch Calvinist minister, theologian, and academic.

Belgic Confession

The Confession of Faith, popularly known as the Belgic Confession, is a doctrinal standard document to which many of the Reformed churches subscribe. The Confession forms part of the Three Forms of Unity of the Reformed Church, which are still the official subordinate standards of the Dutch Reformed Church. The confession's chief author was Guido de Brès, a preacher of the Reformed churches of the Netherlands, who died a martyr to the faith in 1567, during the Dutch Reformation.

Counter Remonstrance of 1611

The Counter-Remonstrance of 1611 was the Dutch Reformed Churches' response to the controversial Remonstrants' Five Articles of Remonstrance, which challenged the Calvinist theology and the Reformed Confessions that the Remonstrants had sworn to uphold. The Counter Remonstrance was written primarily by Festus Hommius and defended the Belgic Confession against theological criticisms from the followers of the late Jacob Arminius, although Arminius himself claimed adherence to the Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism till his death. Prior to the Canons of Dort, the Counter Remonstrance of 1611 was the earliest and clearest representation of what is in modern times commonly referred to as the "five points of Calvinism."

Five Articles of Remonstrance

The Five Articles of Remonstrance were theological propositions advanced in 1610 by followers of Jacobus Arminius who had died in 1609, in disagreement with interpretations of the teaching of John Calvin then current in the Dutch Reformed Church. Those who supported them chose to call themselves "Remonstrants".

Jacobus Arminius

Jacobus Arminius, (October 10, 1560 – October 19, 1609), the Latinized name of Jakob Hermanszoon, was a Dutch theologian from the Protestant Reformation period whose views became the basis of Arminianism and the Dutch Remonstrant movement. He served from 1603 as professor in theology at the University of Leiden and wrote many books and treatises on theology.

Following his death, his challenge to the Reformed standard, the Belgic Confession, provoked ample discussion at the Synod of Dort, which crafted the five points of Calvinism in response to Arminius's teaching.

List of participants in the Synod of Dort

Official participation in the Synod of Dort, held in 1618–9 in Dordrecht in the Netherlands, consisted of different groups: Dutch ministers, church elders, and theologians; representatives of churches outside the Dutch Republic; and Dutch lay politicians. There were 14 Remonstrants who were summoned, in effect as defendants. There were also some observers, who had no voting status.

Listings are usually given according to a traditional ordering for the provinces that begins with Gelderland; for the provincial synods Holland was divided into two, North and South. In the sources both Latinised names and spelling variants occur. Lists of those nominated to participate in some capacity differ from those who signed the final Acts of the Synod. Figures vary a little, but one total given is for 102 official participants. The outcome of the Synod was the most significant single event in the Calvinist-Arminian debate.

The Dutch members of the Synod were divided up by provincial synods (for the clerics and elders as delegates), or by provinces (for the lay members). Allowing for Holland as exception, the delegates were divided into ten "colleges": one for each of seven provinces, plus Drenthe; one for theological faculties; and one for the Walloon churches.

Matthew Slade

Matthew Slade ((in Latin) Mattheus Sladus) (1569–1628) was an English nonconformist minister and royal agent, in the Netherlands by 1600 and active there in the Contra-Remonstrant cause.

Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas

Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas (The Piety of the States of Holland and Westfriesland) is a 1613 book on church polity by Hugo Grotius. It was the first publication of Grotius, a prominent jurist and Remonstrant, concerned with the Calvinist-Arminian debate and its ramifications, a major factor in the politics of the Netherlands in the 1610s. The Ordinum pietas, as it is known for short, gave a commentary on the Five Articles of Remonstrance of 1610 that were the legacy of the theological views of Jacobus Arminius, who died in 1609.

Sibrandus Lubbertus

Sibrandus Lubbertus (c.1555–1625) (also referred to as Sibrand Lubbert or Sybrandus Lubbertus) was a Dutch Calvinist theologian and was a professor of theology at the University of Franeker for forty years from the institute's foundation in 1585. He was a prominent participant in the Synod of Dort (1618–1619). His primary works were to counter Roman Catholic doctrine (especially that championed by Robert Bellarmine) and to oppose Socinianism and Arminianism.

Simon Episcopius

Simon Episcopius (January 8, 1583 – April 4, 1643) was a Dutch theologian and Remonstrant who played a significant role at the Synod of Dort in 1618. His name is the Latinized form of his Dutch name Simon Bisschop.


The Statenvertaling (Dutch: [ˈstaːtən.vərˌtaːlɪŋ], States Translation) or Statenbijbel (States Bible) was the first translation of the Bible from the original Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek languages to Dutch, ordered by the Synod of Dordrecht 1618 and financed by government of the Protestant Dutch Republic and first published in 1637.The first complete Dutch Bible had been printed in Antwerp in 1526 by Jacob van Liesveldt. Like other existing Dutch Bibles, however, it was merely a translation of other translations. Furthermore, the translation from Martin Luther was widely used, but it had a Lutheran interpretation. At the Synod of Dort in 1618/19, it was therefore deemed necessary to have a new translation accurately based on the original languages. The synod requested the States-General of the Netherlands to commission it.

In 1626, the States-General accepted the request from the Synod, and the translation started. It was completed in 1635 and authorized by the States-General in 1637. From then until 1657, when a second edition was published, a half-million copies were printed. It remained authoritative in Protestant churches well into the 20th century.

In 1645, The Westminster Assembly commissioned Theodore Haak to translate the Statenvertaling met Kantekeningen (the Dort Authorized Version with commentary) into English for wider distribution. This massive work was published in London by Henry Hill 1657.

The source material for the Old Testament was the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint. The New Testament was translated from the Textus Receptus with references to the Majority Text.

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