Ferrol, Spain

Ferrol (In the neighbourhood of Strabo's Cape Nerium,[2] modern day Cape Prior[3][4][5][6]) (Galician pronunciation: [feˈrɔl]), is a city in the Province of A Coruña[7] in Galicia, on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain. According to the 2014 census, the city has a population of 70,389, making it the 5th largest settlement in Galicia. With Eume to the south and Ortegal the north, Ferrol forms the Ferrolterra conurbation, the third largest in Galicia which has a total population of over 203,444.

The harbour, for depth, capacity and safety, is not equalled by many in Europe. The Entrance is very narrow,[8] and commanded by forts, and which may even be shut by a steccado[9][10][11]

The city has been a major naval shipbuilding centre for most of its history, being the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the North since the time of the early Bourbons.[8] Before that, in the 17th century[12][13][14][15], Ferrol was the most important arsenal[7][16] in Europe. Today, the city is also known as the home of the shipbuilding yards of Navantia.

As the birthplace of the dictator Francisco Franco in 1892, the municipality was officially named after him as "El Ferrol del Caudillo" from September 1938 to December 1982.[17] It was also the birthplace of the founder of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Pablo Iglesias, in 1850.

The city is one of the starting points of the English Way[18] path of the Camino de Santiago.[19] Because of the modern requirement that pilgrims must travel 100 km by foot in order to be officially recognized, Ferrol is the preferred starting point for pilgrims traversing the English Way.

Ferrol
Municipality
Ferrol Port
Ferrol Port
Flag of Ferrol

Flag
Coat of arms of Ferrol

Coat of arms
Ferrol is located in Province of A Coruña
Ferrol
Ferrol
Location of Ferrol within Galicia
Ferrol is located in Spain
Ferrol
Ferrol
Ferrol (Spain)
Coordinates: 43°28′N 8°15′W / 43.467°N 8.250°WCoordinates: 43°28′N 8°15′W / 43.467°N 8.250°W
CountrySpain
Autonomous communityGalicia
ProvinceA Coruña
ComarcaFerrol
Fishing Village1st century BC
Christian Outpost8th century
Royal Arsenal16th century
Royal Dockyard18th century
ParishesBrión, A Cabana, Covas, Doniños, Esmelle, Ferrol, A Graña, Leixa, Mandiá, Marmancón, A Mariña, Trasancos, Serantes
Government
 • TypeMayor-council
 • BodyConcello de Ferrol
 • MayorJorge Suárez (Ferrol en Común)
Area
 • Total81.9 km2 (31.6 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total66,799
 • Density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)ferrolan (m), ferrolana (f)
Time zoneCET (GMT +1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (GMT +2)
Postcode
15401–15406
Area code(s)+34 981
Websitehttp://www.ferrol.es/

Toponym and etymology

The first historical mention of this settlement, then called Burum[20][21][22] as well as Arotebrarum Portum[23] in the history of Pomponius Mela,[23] a Roman historian who wrote in the year AD 43 detailing a description of the Portus Magnus Artabrorum[24][25], the "great port of the Artabri". The current toponym Ferrol, though, can only be traced back to the Middle Ages; a document of 1087[26] instances sancto Iuliano de Ferrol, nearby the monastery of San Martín de Jubia (12th century, in Romanesque style), where Ferrol is probably the local evolution of the genitive form of the Latin name Ferreolus; Ferrol was probably, in origin, the estate of one Ferreolus.[27] In 1982 the government of Spain adopted officially Ferrol in consonance with its long history and tradition.[28][29]

Another theory with regards to the etymology of the locative name Ferrol and potential origins is Ferro, Latin for Iron as these parts from Roman times and earlier have been places rich in metals specially Iron and Tin but also Gold and Silver. Possibly, as the bay of Ferrol was such a well guarded port that the old fishing village would have been named after the metal by traders[30] reaching the enclave, in other words: Ferrol.

Alternately. the origin of the name comes from the legend of a Breton saint, Ferreol, who arrived here on a ship, amid a chorus of seven siren. Another tradition says that Ferrol proceeds from farol, alluding to the heraldic figure that appears on the coat of arms of the city.[31] However, according to experts, the origin of the arms of Ferrol goes back only to the eighteenth century, and there are also several variants used over time, without having been set in accordance with the applicable legislation since the 1990s.[32] The combination of two words that can mean either 'port – close', 'landing on pillars' or a Ferreoli Domini, "the lord of Ferreol" veiled allusion to the town, which could have had a temple under the patronage of St. Ferreol.

History

Ferrol-024
The centre of Ferrol

The existence of prehistoric human settlements in this Galician city is backed up by the abundance of burial chambers, megalithic monuments as well as Petroglyphs and other archaeological findings.[33] The Phoenicians[34][30][35] established in this area different dried and salted cod stations and their presence together with the presence of the Ancient Greeks is well documented by historians like Herodotus, Strabo, Pomponius Mela, just to mention a few classic ones including Ptolemy.[36] In Roman times, in the 1st century BC, a fishing port existed which also trade in metals (like Silver,[37] Gold,[38][39] Tin[40] and Iron [41]) as well as wild horses[40] in the bay of Ferrol in the neighbourhood of Nerium[42] there is a place called Narahio[43] famous for its medieval castle which phonetically resembles a bit Strabo's Nerium[33] modern day Cape Prior[42] in these parts of Iberia dominated in ancient times by the Artabri[44] (or Arrotrebae[45][46]) giving name to the Portus Magnus Artabrorum[42] (Form not just by the bay of Ferrol but the three rias of Ferrol, Betanzos and Corunna). Ferrol, was then, just as it is today a first class natural harbour, in the treacherous waters[34] of the Atlantic, very well guarded, not surprisingly, described often in history as the best natural port in Europe.[47]

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire[48] the whole Iberian Peninsula, including Ferrol, was raided by the Vandals and incorporated in 411 to the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia;[49] their kingdom was incorporated in 584 by Leovigild to the Visigothic Kingdom.[50]

After the collapse of the "Suebic-Visigothic state" these Christian parts of Iberia saw very little change, in comparison with other parts of the Iberian peninsula, becoming part of the Kingdom of Asturias [51] as early as 750AD.[52][53][54] A period marked at the beginning with the massive shock and shake, and destruction of one state, followed by the humble-at-first but firm-and-quick rebirth of the "Christian Visigothic State" in the mountains and green pastures of the Atlantic North of the Iberian Peninsula.

Over time, Asturias[55] would split into further Christian kingdoms making these parts to change hands from one monarch to the next: first Galicia, then Leon and finally Castile.

Castelo de San Filipe, Brión, Ferrol, Galiza
The castle of San Felipe at the entrance of the harbour

Ferrol served as a strategic safe port[56] during the Hundred Years' War,[57] sided the House of Trastamara during the Castilian Civil War and as a personal reward to Fernan Perez de Andrade, in 1371, Henry II[58] gave the town to the powerful Andrade family.[59]

In 1568[60][61] a fire reduced to rubble the old medieval town;[62] in the same period some parts of the existing fortifications at the entrance of the estuary were built.[63] As a naval base, at that time the town was considered more important as a Royal Arsenal than as a safe harbour.[64][65]

With the arrival of the Bourbons in the 18th century, Ferrol became a leading naval centre.[66] Ferrol was made Capital of the Maritime Department of the North, formed under Ferdinand VI and Charles III for the defence of the Spanish Colonial Empire in America.[67] Rapid improvements followed, notably under the leadership of the Marquis of Ensenada, and the position of Ferrol was made almost unassailable from the sea, the difficulties of disembarking troops on its precipitous coast being strengthened by a renewed line of fortresses and newly built castles, including that of San Carlos.

Ferrol-Iglesia de San Francisco 02
Neoclassical church Igrexa Castrense de San Francisco

The Royal Dockyards of A Graña and Ferrol (Reales Astilleros de Esteiro), built between 1726–1783,[69][70] produced ships protected with copper sheets from the rolling mills of Xubia. In 1772, The Spanish Royal Academy of Naval Engineers of Ferrol, the first such academy in Spain, was created. For the most laborious works of the harbour six hundred forced-labour galley-convicts were employed in the harbour.[71][72]

Ferrol is famous,[73] in the history of the struggle between the Spanish Empire and the British for being one of the only enclaves in the world, together with Cartagena de Indias, that always resisted occupation successfully: mostly, because Ferrol was virtually impossible to blockade in the age of sail, as strong westerly winds would take any blockading force away along the treacherous north coast of Spain where they had no safe haven. The geography of Ferrol meant that an entire Spanish fleet could slip out on a single tide. By the time the British were able to resume the blockade, the Spanish would be safely away and out to sea. Despite these advantages, a decline set during the reign of Charles IV, and in 1800, during the Ferrol Expedition (1800), after the defences had been reduced, a British fleet of 109 vessels landed troops on the beach of Doniños to take the Castle of San Felipe. Although only equipped with meagre artillery, the castle's small defence force under the command of Count Donadio together with a sizable number of volunteer citizens of Ferrol, successfully resisted the attack and the fleet withdrew. The alliance with the United Kingdom during the Peninsular War of 1808–14 failed to prevent the deterioration in the town’s fortunes. The arsenals and fortresses were abandoned and they were easily occupied by the French in 1809.[74]

When the war with Napoleonic France was over, many of the South American colonies[75] chose to break apart from their mother country and the shipyards of Ferrol went into a serious decline losing most of its civilian, clergy and military population, and henceforth, by 1824, Ferrol had a population of just 10,000 civilian and about 6,000 military personnel (stationed locally if not permanently, at least during most of the year) with its mathematical school for marine artillerists, the pilot school, and Academy for the Guardas Marinas[76] almost completely empty in contrast with the glorious years of abundance[77][78] known before the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.[79]

Ferrol City
Aerial view of the city (2009)

Ferrol only built two vessels between 1794 and 1845.[80] And silent for half a century it lost its title of capital under Ferdinand VII. However, there was a massive renovation during Cardinal Alberoni's leadership and in just a few years fourteen great line-of -battle-ships were launched. New activities sprang up and Ferrol was employing 2,000 workmen[81] constantly on its foundries, now in full operation. A School of Naval Engineers[80] was established where 40 pupils were learning the scientific principles of their profession, under a competent staff of instructors bred in England and France. So successful in bringing the worlds most advanced technologies was the administration of the Marquis de Molina,[82] Spanish Minister for Naval affairs, that by 1858 the Royal Dockyards of Ferrol was launching Spain's first steam propelled ship which it was the first iron-hulled too.

The second half of the 19th century brought to the Royal Dockyards of Ferrol not just plenty of work but social and political tensions[83][84] which ended up in the failed republican uprising of 1872.[85][86] Steamers between Ferrol and the port of Havana in Spanish Cuba were operating frequently, back then, so, shipyard workers who got themselves into trouble with the local authorities in Ferrol, for one reason or another always thought of the Spanish Main as a possibility.[87][88]

Casa Pereira II
Art Nouveau building in Ferrol, designed by Rodolfo Ucha

During this period, same as it is nowadays, and just like it was in the days of the Armada, the Bay of Ferrol always attracted and still attracts numerous ships seeking repairs or refuge after meeting with disaster[89][90] or rough waters trying to cross the Bay of Biscay on bad weather. Such was the case of the Cleopatra, carrying one of the two Cleopatra Needles,[91][92] the one standing today on the Thames Embankment in London, UK. It arrived in Ferrol on 19 October 1877 after tragedy and almost sinking off the West coast of France five days earlier. There is a plaque commemorating the event and those who died to be seen at the base of the Needle in London.

Ten years after the Spanish–American War of 1898,[93][94][95] in which Spain lost Cuba[96] and the Philippines, the Antonio Maura Government, in an attempt to restore the Spanish Navy and Spanish shipbuilding industry, hired the Spanish Society for Naval Construction,[97] whose major investors were a British-Spanish-Association[62] taking contracts In the following proportions: 40% Vickers Sons and Maxim,[98] 30% the Marquis of Comillas of the Spanish Transatlantic Company, 30% the Biscay Furnace Company,[99] all the previously state owned shipbuilding yards, workshops, foundries and dry docks at Ferrol were handed over to the technical expertise of some of finest British shipbuilders: John Brown, Vickers[100][98] and Armstrong[101] now in charge of building the new Spanish Fleet[102].

For a period of sixteen years, all the technicians were exclusively British, and the situation was not altered till 1925 when the management was taken over by Spanish engineers, as one of the new policies introduced by the then newly created government, including ministers both civil and military, of the dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera[103] (1923–1930). The arrival of the British coincided with the construction of a local electric-powered trolley streetcar's line (1924–1961).[104]

In sight of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, and because there was fear of social unrest in the naval station, the Foreign Office in London,[105][106] organized a ship to repatriate all the remaining British citizens and on 22 July 1936 HMS Witch (D89)[107] departed from Ferrol back to Britain. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) the shipbuilding yards, workshops, foundries and dry docks in Ferrol were taken over by the state and fully nationalized in 1945 under the name "Bazán", later renamed "IZAR", and, starting from January 2005, Navantia. The town was the birthplace of Francisco Franco, after whom the city was officially known as El Ferrol del Caudillo from 1938 to 1982. The end of the Spanish State and the arrival of democracy in 1978 did not help Ferrol,[108][109] and from 1982 to the early 1990s, the city confronted numerous problems due to a decline in the naval sector. The beginning of the new millennium however has been a time of economic expansion and prosperity in general.[110] A new motorway and an outer-port[111] have been built as well as numerous arcades and shopping centres mostly in the outskirts of the city between Ferrol and Naron which basically is the same metropolitan area and young shoppers with their families tend to make their big family shopping as well as weekend day out with the family attracted to all the amenities like bowling, cafeterias, fast food outlets, cinemas and sports facilities.

The Spanish Squadron, as always have done from times immemorial,[112][113] loves taking part in Naval demonstrations and at the beginning of the 21st century Ferrol hosted the large NATO Maritime Exercise Loyal Mariner (RN) back in June 2008.[114]

The Ferrol Terminus railway station, connecting Lugo to Ferrol, branching off from the line from Madrid to nearby Corunna, was sanctioned by the Cortes in Madrid as early as 1865 but it took many decades till its final inauguration in 1904. A century later more of the same happened with the High Speed Railway AVE; so it took as late as 2013[115] till inauguration day.

From September 2017,[116] a new local railway branch serving the outer-port of Ferrol (known as Canelinas-Ferrol container-port) the inside of the bay docks and the Ferrol Terminus railway station has been given a green light to start constructing and very soon operating I’m sure moving loads of modern containers in and out of Ferrol and distributing goods throughout Galicia and the rest of Spain and Europe. It must be noted, that there was a similar small railway local branch operating here from the early years of the 20th century with the difference that at that time, Ferrol itself and its ports were intended solely for the Royal Navy and its shipyards,[72] and henceforth not open to the general commerce per se, even though, historically, there have been many local exceptions like; PEMSA (Timber), PYSBE (Dry-Cod) and HISPANIA (Pencils) all three very good examples without forgetting: manufactures of hats, paper, leather, naval stores and hardware as well as other local items for export like: corn, wine, brandy, vinegar, pilchards and herrings (and other produce of Ferrol's own fisheries)[117]

Climate

As in most of Galicia, Ferrol climate is a humid oceanic climate, characterised by year-long mild temperatures, rainy winters, and relatively dry summers, although slightly wetter than the typical Spanish mediterranean climate during the summer season.

Economy

  1. Primary IndustriesAgriculture (Horse Breeding), Aquaculture (Fish Farming), Fishing (Specializing in the Atlantic Shoals), Important Mines (ENDESA), NTFPs (Forestry), Quarries and Timber.
  2. Secondary IndustriesShipbuilding, Ship Engines, Turbines (Wind Mills and Ships), Electrical Equipment, Ironworks, Fashion (Textiles), Food (Canned Fish) and Wood-Made Products.
  3. Tertiary IndustriesMercantile, Fishing and Military Ports, Restaurants, News Media (Ferrol TV/Diario de Ferrol), Hotels (Barceló Almirante/Pazo Libunca), Leisure and Tourism (World Surf Competitions, Popular Transatlantic Steamships Stop), Consulting, Health Care/Hospitals (Arquitecto Marcide Hospital Complex), Education (Schools, Colleges/ESENGRA and Universities/UNED/PERITOS) and Public Utilities, Franchises (main brand names and designer label's shops), Wholesale (Navy Suppliers/Anton-Martin) and Retail Industries (El Corte Inglés/Alcampo).
  4. Quaternary Sector IndustriesNaval, Electrical and Mechanical Equipment together with New Technologies.

Festivals

Event Name Translation into (in Spanish) Event Date
The Three Kings Parade Desfile de los Reges Magos 6 January
Saint Julian's Day[119] Día de San Julián 7 January
Carnival Festival[120] Festival de Carnaval February or March
Saint Josephine's Night[121] Noche de las Pepitas 18 March
Holy Week Celebration[122] Semana Santa March or April
Chamorro's Day[123] Día de Chamorro March or April
Horse Riding Competitions[124] Competiciones de Hípica April
Galician Literature Day Día de las Letras Gallegas 17 May
Corpus Christi Celebrations[125] Corpus Christi May or June
St. John's Eve[126] Víspera de San Juan 23 June
Our Lady of Mount Carmel´s Day[127] Día del Carmen 16 July
Celtic Music Festival Festival de Música Celta 29 July
Traditional Horse Events[128] Festivales Equinos Tradicionales August
Surf Championships Competiciones de Surf August
Ferrol Summer Festival[129] Fiestas de Verano de Ferrol August
Battle of Mount Brion[130] Batalla del Monte de Brión 25-26 August
Saint Raymond's Day[131] Día de San Ramón 31 August
Santa Claus Parade Desfile de Papá Noel 25 December

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Ferrol is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Municipal Register of Spain 2018". National Statistics Institute. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  2. ^ Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. pp. 7–8.
  3. ^ Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. p. 69.
  4. ^ Ptolemaeus, Claudius (100–170). "Atlas - Claudius Ptolemaeus Geographia - Ancient Geography - EuropaeIiTab.hispania". archive.org. Retrieved 20 March 2018.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  5. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica; Or A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature. Archibald Constable. 1823. p. 484.
  6. ^ Prévost, abbé; Gmelin, Johann Georg (1746). Histoire générale des voyages, ou nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre, qui ont été publiées jusqu'à present dans les différentes langues de toutes les nations connues ... Tome premier [-vingtième]. John Carter Brown Library. A Paris, : chez Didot ... p. 36.
  7. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ferrol" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 289.
  8. ^ a b Tofiño de San Miguel, Vicente; Mengs, Anton Raphael; Salvador Carmona, Manuel; Ballester, Joaquín; Vázquez, Bartolomé; Valdés, Antonio; Asensio, Josef (1789). Atlas marítimo de España [Material cartográfico]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Madrid: [s.n.] p. 35.
  9. ^ Morse, Jedidiah; Morse, Richard C. (Richard Cary); Converse, Sherman (1823). A new universal gazetteer, or Geographical dictionary : containing a description of the various countries, provinces, cities, towns, seas, lakes, rivers, mountains, capes, &c. in the known world. With an appendix ... accompanied with an atlas. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library. New-Haven :Printed and published by S. Converse. p. 256.
  10. ^ Edinburgh encyclopaedia. Gerstein - University of Toronto. Edinburgh, Blackwood. 1830. p. 308.CS1 maint: others (link)
  11. ^ Blaeu, Joan (1659). Geographia Blauiana [Mapas]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Amsterdam : Juan Blaeu. p. 524.
  12. ^ Noticias ordinarias del Norte, Italia, Africa, y España : con la noticia plausible de todas, del dichosissimo arribo de la reyna nuestra señora al Puerto de Ferrol en Galicia à 26 del passado : publicadas à 4 de abril 1690. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. [En Madrid] : por Sebastian de Armendariz, librero. 1690. pp. 109–110.CS1 maint: others (link)
  13. ^ Stanhope, Alexander (1844). Spain Under Charles the Second; Or, Extracts from the Correspondence of the Hon. Alexander Stanhope, British Minister at Madrid. 1690–1699. J. Murray. p. 3.
  14. ^ Gallucci, Giovanni Paolo; Pérez, Miguel (1614). Theatro del mundo, y del tiempo : en el qual no solo se descriuen sus partes, y se da regla en el medirlas, mas con ingeniosas y acomodadas demostraciones y figuras, se representan ante los lectores ... : cõ index. Getty Research Institute. Impresso en Granada : Por Sebastian Muñoz, a costa de Iulio Castellon. pp. 127–128.
  15. ^ Blaeu, Joan (1659). Geographia Blauiana [Mapas]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Amsterdam : Juan Blaeu. p. 11.
  16. ^ "Burlington weekly free press. (Burlington, Vt.) 1866–1928, July 21, 1898, Image 15". 21 July 1898. ISSN 2166-2037. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  17. ^ Rego, Paco (30 September 2018). "El Ferrol y el 'caudillo'". El Mundo.
  18. ^ Camino, Follow the. "Camino Ingles - English Way • Follow the Camino". FollowtheCamino.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  19. ^ Elements, Web. "The English Way to Santiago de Compostela | Camino Walk Spain". www.utracks.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  20. ^ Clericus, Joannes (1679–1705). "Atlas Antiquus, Sacer, Ecclesiaticus Et Profanus - Joannes Clericus - HispaniaeAntiquaeTabula". Retrieved 18 March 2018.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  21. ^ Ptolemy, 2nd cent; D'Angelo, Jacopo; Nicolaus Germanus, 15th cent; Schnitzer, Johann; Hol, Lienhart (1482). Cosmographia. Boston Public Library. Ulm : Lienhart Holle. pp. 155–156.
  22. ^ Ptolemy, 2nd cent; D'Angelo, Jacopo; Nicolaus Germanus, 15th cent; Schnitzer, Johann; Hol, Lienhart (1482). Cosmographia. Boston Public Library. Ulm : Lienhart Holle. pp. 151–152.
  23. ^ a b Mela, Pomponius; Vadianus, Joachim; Camers, Joannes (1522). Pomponii Melae De orbis situ libri tres, : accuratissime emendati. John Carter Brown Library. Basileae, : apud Andream Cratandrum. pp. 162–163.
  24. ^ Ptolemy, 2nd cent; D'Angelo, Jacopo; Nicolaus Germanus, 15th cent; Schnitzer, Johann; Hol, Lienhart (1482). Cosmographia. Boston Public Library. Ulm : Lienhart Holle.
  25. ^ Wilkinson, Robert (1823). "Wilkinson's Atlas Classica - HispaniaAntiquaAnteaIberia". archive.org/. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  26. ^ "En el siglo XI Ferrol ya se llamaba así". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 17 November 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  27. ^ Cf. Cabeza Quiles, Fernando (2008). Toponimia de Galicia. Vigo: Galaxia. p. 275. ISBN 978-84-9865-092-1.
  28. ^ García de Salazar, Lope. Libro de las Bienandanzas e Fortunas. Parnaseo-Lemir: Universidad de Valencia. pp. 1471–1476.
  29. ^ Primera continuacion de los obsequios y festejos, que se hizieron à ... Doña Maria Ana, en su real jornada desde el puerto del Ferrol à esta Catolica Corte ... : publicase à 9 de Mayo 1690. [S.l.] : Sebastian de Armendariz. 1690. pp. 1–12.
  30. ^ a b William, of Malmesbury; Henry, of Huntingdon; Roger, of Hoveden; Ethelwerd, d 998?; Ingulf, 1030?–1109; Savile, Henry; Bishop, George; Newbery, Ralph; Barker, Robert (1596). Rervm anglicarvm scriptores post Bedam praecipvi. Harold B. Lee Library. Londoni : excudebant G. Bishop, R. Nyberie, & R. Barker. p. 172.
  31. ^ City Council of Ferrol. "General Guide to the City" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. ^ de Aracil, Carlos. El Escudo de Armas de Ferrol de la Ilustración. Ferrol, Spain: Ferrol Análisis.
  33. ^ a b Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. pp. 7–8.
  34. ^ a b Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. pp. 157–159.
  35. ^ Montanus, Arnoldus; Ogilby, John; Middleton, John fmo RPJCB; Underwood, John; Brown University. fmo RPJCB (1671). America: being the latest, and most accurate description of the Nevv VVorld; : containing the original of the inhabitants, and the remarkable voyages thither. The conquest of the vast empires of Mexico and Peru, and other large provinces and territories, with the several European plantations in those parts. Also their cities, fortresses, towns, temples, mountains, and rivers. Their habits, customs, manners, and religions. Their plants, beasts, birds, and serpents. With an appendix, containing, besides several other considerable additions, a brief survey of what hath been discover'd of the unknown South-Land and the Arctick region. John Carter Brown Library. London : printed by the author, and are to be had at his house in White Fryers. pp. 18–19.
  36. ^ Ptolemy, 2nd cent; D'Angelo, Jacopo; Nicolaus Germanus, 15th cent; Schnitzer, Johann; Hol, Lienhart (1482). Cosmographia. Boston Public Library. Ulm : Lienhart Holle.
  37. ^ Young, Otis E. (1965). "The Spanish Tradition in Gold and Silver Mining". Arizona and the West. 7 (4): 299–314. JSTOR 40167137.
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  39. ^ Bitong, Anna. "In Spain, a beach made of gold?". Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  40. ^ a b Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2.
  41. ^ Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. pp. 45–46.
  42. ^ a b c Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. p. 69.
  43. ^ "ESPANA: GALICIA". Pinterest. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  44. ^ Mela, Pomponius; Vadianus, Joachim; Camers, Joannes (1522). Pomponii Melae De orbis situ libri tres, : accuratissime emendati. John Carter Brown Library. Basileae, : apud Andream Cratandrum. pp. 162–163.
  45. ^ Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. p. 71.
  46. ^ Arnoldi, Joh Conrad (Johann Conrad); Fürstlich Solms-Lich'sche Bibliothek zu Lich (Lich, Germany) fmo RIBRL (1718). Joh. Conrad Arnoldi, lic. Theolog. & Philosoph. Prof. publ. ordin. Gründliche und nach denen letztern Europäischen Frieden-Schlüssen neu-eingerichtete Historisch- und politische Geographie: : in welcher, nebst einer nöthigen Vorbereitung, der heutige Zustand derer Staaten, vornemlich in Europa, nach ihrer Natur, Eintheilung, Kirch- und Policey-Wesen deutlich vorgestellet, mit kurtzen Anmerckungen aus der alten und neuen Historie, auch anderer Merckwürdigkeiten erläutert, und also der politen Jugend Fleiss, in civiler Conversation und Reisen, erleichtert wird. Mit einem nützlichen und zulänglichen Register. John Carter Brown Library. Giessen : in Verlag Johann Müllers, Hoch-Fürstl. Hessen-Darmstättischen Regierungs-Buchdr. p. 172.
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  50. ^ (Britoniensis ecclesiae episcopus) Mailoc or Maeloc was the bishop of Britonia who participated in the Second Council of Braga (572)
  51. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica; Or A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature. Archibald Constable. 1823. p. 496.
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  53. ^ Gallichan, Catherine Gasquoine (1912). The story of Santiago de Compostela;. Robarts - University of Toronto. London, Dent. pp. 36–37.
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  56. ^ Oman, Charles William Chadwick (1898). England and the hundred years' war (1327–1485). Pratt - University of Toronto. London : Blackie. pp. 66–67.
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  58. ^ Oman, Charles William Chadwick (1898). England and the hundred years' war (1327–1485). Pratt - University of Toronto. London : Blackie. pp. 160–161.
  59. ^ Ferrol Naval 1750 Ferrol Historia - Interesting document showing the royals of Spain from 1492 till 1805: Spanish Empire
  60. ^ "History of Ferrol" El Ferrolano Newspaper, 10 February 1846, no.1, Front Cover: Ferrol
  61. ^ Blaeu, Joan (1659). Geographia Blauiana [Mapas]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Amsterdam : Juan Blaeu. p. 524.
  62. ^ a b Meakin, Annette M. B. (1909). Galicia, the Switzerland of Spain. Robarts - University of Toronto. London, Methuen. p. 315.
  63. ^ World Heritage List: El Ferrol (Submission Papers) UNESCO, 27 April 2007
  64. ^ Primera continuacion de los obsequios y festejos, que se hizieron à ... Doña Maria Ana, en su real jornada desde el puerto del Ferrol à esta Catolica Corte ... : publicase à 9 de Mayo 1690. [S.l.] : Sebastian de Armendariz. 1690. pp. 1–12.
  65. ^ Noticias ordinarias del Norte, Italia, Africa, y España : con la noticia plausible de todas, del dichosissimo arribo de la reyna nuestra señora al Puerto de Ferrol en Galicia à 26 del passado : publicadas à 4 de abril 1690. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. [En Madrid] : por Sebastian de Armendariz, librero. 1690. pp. 109–110.CS1 maint: others (link)
  66. ^ The City and Naval Station of El Ferrol during the Reign of Charles III of Spain by the Dutch pilot Hugh Debbieg (1731–1810)
  67. ^ Theodor de Bry (Firm); Bry, Theodor de; Bry, Johann Theodor de; Bry, Johann Israel de; Merian, Matthaeus; Espejo, Antonio de; Heyn, Piet; Hermite, Jacques l'; Smith, John (1630). Vierzehender Theil Americanischer Historien, : inhaltend, erstlich, warhafftige Beschreibung etlicher West-Indianischer Landen in dem Theil Americae gegen Mitternacht hinder Nova Hispania gelegen, alss New Mexico, Cibola, Cinaloa, Quiuira, vnd anderer, deren bissher in vnserm West-Indianischen Werck Theils gar nicht, theils sehr wenig gedacht worden, sampt Denckwürdigen Geschichten vnd Wunderwercken der Natur in Jucatan, Guatimala, Fonduras, vnd Panama, wie auch vom Zustandt etlicher Englischen Colonien, wie sich die in lauffendem 1630. Jahr befinden. Zum andern, eine Schiffart der Holländer vnder dem Admiral Jacob Eremiten vmb die gantze Welt, vnd was ihm auff dieser sehr langen vnd gefährlichen Reyse begegnet, alles in Form eines Jurnals oder Tagregisters fleissig verzeichnet. Zum dritten, historische Erzehlung, welcher gestalt die sehr reiche Spanische Silberflotta durch Peter Hein, General der Holländischen Armada in dem Hafen Matanza der Insul Cuba im September dess Jahrs 1628. ertapt vnd heim gebracht worden. Zum Vierdten, was massen die Statt Olinda de Fernambucco in Brasilien, sampt dem Meerport vnd dabey Ligenden Castellan, durch die Holländer vnder dem General Heinrich Cornelis Lunck erobert worden, im Monat Februario dess Jahrs 1630. Alles mit zugehörigen Tafeln vnd Kupfferstücken gezieret, verlegt vnd an Tag gegeben. John Carter Brown Library. Gedruckt zu Hanaw : Bey David Aubri. pp. 20–21.
  68. ^ Flórez, Enrique (1747). España sagrada, theatro geographico-historico de la Iglesia de España : origen... de todas sus provincias, antiguedad, traslaciones y estado antiguo y presente de sus sillas en todos los dominios de España y Portugal ... . T. I, Contiene una clave geographica, y geographia eclesiastica de los Patriarcados [Material Cartográfico]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. En Madrid : por Don Miguel Francisco Rodriguez. p. 12.
  69. ^ "Ferrol" Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009
  70. ^ Tofiño de San Miguel, Vicente; Mengs, Anton Raphael; Salvador Carmona, Manuel; Ballester, Joaquín; Vázquez, Bartolomé; Valdés, Antonio; Asensio, Josef (1789). Atlas marítimo de España [Material cartográfico]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Madrid: [s.n.] p. 21.
  71. ^ McCulloch, J. R. (John Ramsay); Martin, Frederick (1866). A dictionary, geographical, statistical, and historical : of the various countries, places, and principal natural objects in the world. Oxford University. London : Longmans, Green. p. 338.
  72. ^ a b Edinburgh encyclopaedia. Gerstein - University of Toronto. Edinburgh, Blackwood. 1830. p. 309.CS1 maint: others (link)
  73. ^ "Horatio Hornblower | Age Of Sail | Page 2". ageofsail.wordpress.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  74. ^ Napier, W. F. P. (1814). History Of The War In The Peninsula. p. 76.
  75. ^ Morse, Jedidiah; Morse, Richard C. (Richard Cary); Converse, Sherman (1823). A new universal gazetteer, or Geographical dictionary : containing a description of the various countries, provinces, cities, towns, seas, lakes, rivers, mountains, capes, &c. in the known world. With an appendix ... accompanied with an atlas. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library. New-Haven :Printed and published by S. Converse. pp. 730–731.
  76. ^ Morse, Jedidiah; Morse, Richard C. (Richard Cary); Converse, Sherman (1823). A new universal gazetteer, or Geographical dictionary : containing a description of the various countries, provinces, cities, towns, seas, lakes, rivers, mountains, capes, &c. in the known world. With an appendix ... accompanied with an atlas. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library. New-Haven :Printed and published by S. Converse. p. 256.
  77. ^ Laborde, Alexandre Louis Joseph (1809). A view of Spain; comprising a descriptive itinerary, of each province, and a general statistical account of the country. Robarts - University of Toronto. London Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme. p. 440.
  78. ^ Laborde, Alexandre Louis Joseph (1809). A view of Spain; comprising a descriptive itinerary, of each province, and a general statistical account of the country. Robarts - University of Toronto. London Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme. p. 487.
  79. ^ Busk, M. M. (1833). The history of Spain and Portugal, from B.C. 1000 to A.D. 1814. Robarts - University of Toronto. London, Baldwin. p. 258.
  80. ^ a b "The Armies of Europe - Spain as a War-making Power". The New York Times. 6 February 1858.
  81. ^ "The Armies of Europe - Spain as a War- making Power". The New York Times. 6 February 1858.
  82. ^ "The Armies of Europe, Spain as a War Making Power" New York Times, 6 February 1858, Page 4
  83. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online LABOUR RIOT IN SPAIN.|1899-09-25|South Wales Daily News - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  84. ^ Lay E.J.S. (1933). Citizenship. pp. 125–133.
  85. ^ "Entrance into Ferrol of the Government Troops" New York Times, 16 October 1872, Page 1
  86. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online STRIKE IN SPAIN I|1910-10-01|Evening Express - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  87. ^ "CUBA.; Ferrol Insurgents Arrived A Coolie Ship The Spanish Army Reinforced by Blood-Hounds". The New York Times. 5 December 1872. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  88. ^ "TELEGRAMS.; The Revolt in Ferrol, Spain, Virtually Suppressed. Disheartened and Hemmed In, the Rebels Begin to Desert. Probable Murder of a Wealthy Bank Director in Boston. Partial Destruction of Iron-Works in Johnstown, Penn. Conversion of an Indian Chief to Christianity. SPAIN. The Ferrol Insurrection Almost Strangled Troops Arriving The Mass ofthe(sic) Population Taking No Part in theMovement. Discussion on Cuba and Porto Rico-Reforms in the Cortes". The New York Times. 14 October 1872. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  89. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online THE LOSS OF THE". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  90. ^ Castillo Sotomayor, Juan del; García, Lorenzo (1690). Aclamacion panegyrica y gratulatoria al misterio incomprehensible de la Encarnacion del Verbo, en la Nave Real de Maria Santissima y al Arribo felicissimo de la Reyna nuestra Señora Doña Mariana de Neoburg, el mismo dia de la Encarnacion, en el Puerto dichosissimo de el Ferrol... : predicado en el Real Convento de las Señoras Descalças de esta Corte, el dia tres de Abril de este presente año. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla: En Madrid : por Lorenzo Garcia. p. 12.
  91. ^ "Cleopatras Needle, The Embankment, London". Historic UK. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
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  93. ^ "Great Activity at Ferrol" New York Times, 11 June 1898, Page 1
  94. ^ The launch of "Cardenal Cisneros" the first "Pre-dreadnought battleship" built in Ferrol, Spain (1897) "The Ferrol and the Galician-rias commercial-role with North, South and Central America":El Correo Gallego (Spanish Newspaper) 19 March 1897 by Jose R. de Trujillo, Spanish Royal Navy Commander (in Spanish)
  95. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online THE WAR.'|1898-04-30|Evening Express - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  96. ^ Peydró, Vicente; Caballero y Martínez, Ricardo (1896). España en Cuba : episodio lírico-dramática en un acto, original y en verso. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University Library. Ferrol : Impr. de R. Pita.
  97. ^ Meakin, Annette M. B. (1909). Galicia, the Switzerland of Spain. Robarts - University of Toronto. london: London, Methuen. p. 22.
  98. ^ a b "Vickers, Sons and Maxim". www.gracesguide.co.uk. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  99. ^ Glas, Eduardo Jorge (1997). Bilbao's Modern Business Elite. University of Nevada Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-87417-269-0.
  100. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online I BRITAIN AND SPAIN'S NAVY.I|1908-05-25|Evening Express - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  101. ^ "SPANISH NAVY: Huge Contract in British Hands" Manchester Guardian, 1 February 1909, Page 12
  102. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online SPAIN'S NEW NAVYII|1909-05-26|Evening Express - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  103. ^ Times, the New York Times Company Special Cable To the New York (20 February 1928). "SPAIN TO START WORK ON 3 NAVY BASES SOON; Ferrol, Cartagena and Mahon Will Be Fortified With Guns of the Longest Range". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  104. ^ Vistas y curiosidades sobre la historia de El Ferrol y España Amazing Charley Inc.
  105. ^ "British Vice-Consulate at Ferrol" General Correspondence FO 63/1041, The National Archives
  106. ^ "British Vice-Consulate at Ferrol" General Correspondence FO 72/1689, The National Archives
  107. ^ "British Sending Troops" New York Times, 22 July 1936, Page 3
  108. ^ Shipbuilding Ferrol Historia - Shipbuilding crisis after the arrival of democracy in Spain
  109. ^ Spanish shipyard resists that sinking feeling Financial Times, 19 October 1984
  110. ^ Fridtjof Nansen class frigates during one of the final stages for completion in Ferrol Ferrol Historia
  111. ^ Views of the new outer-port of Ferrol, an intermodal freight transport port design to suit the new needs Ferrol Historis
  112. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online SPANISH NAVAL DEMONSTRATION,I|1895-08-07|South Wales Echo - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  113. ^ "DYNAMIC MONARCH 17". Flickr. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  114. ^ NATO Maritime Exercise Loyal Mariner (RN) Archived 23 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  115. ^ "Renfe duplica su oferta diurna a Galicia y estrena un Alvia Ferrol-Lugo-Madrid - Galicia Ártabra Digital". Galicia Ártabra Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  116. ^ "La obra del tren a Caneliñas se pone en marcha". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 22 September 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  117. ^ McCulloch, J. R. (John Ramsay); Martin, Frederick (1866). A dictionary, geographical, statistical, and historical : of the various countries, places, and principal natural objects in the world. Oxford University. London : Longmans, Green. p. 338.
  118. ^ "CIS Ferrol".
  119. ^ This is a very special day because Saint Julian is the patron saint of Ferrol. On this day all the locals enjoy having a gorgeous traditional sweet rice pudding following a local recipe as they have been doing for so long that nobody can tell for sure when this ancient tradition really started.
  120. ^ Also known as "O'Antroido" in Galician.
  121. ^ On Saint Josephine's Night all the men of Ferrol take to the streets with their guitars and other musical instruments, wearing traditional gear design for purpose, to sing beautiful songs to every woman young and old, particularly those with the name Josephine or “Peppa” (which means Josephine in Spanish, hence “Noche de la Pepitas”, literally “Night of the young Peppas”).
  122. ^ The Holy Week celebrations of Ferrol were declared of National Interest by Spanish Government in 1996. (in Spanish) Official website of one of the organisers “Cofradias de Dolores”
  123. ^ Every year at the end of the Holy Week the city of Ferrol celebrates a bank holiday devoted to the Holy Virgin Mary at mount Chamorro where a shrine was built by the Andrade family about a century earlier than the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
  124. ^ The best known one is organised by FIMO and is known as "Equiocio" (in English) Official website of Turgalicia about EQUIOCIO
  125. ^ For "Corpus Christi" Ares and other localities of Ferrolterra, following an ancient Christian tradition, celebrate and rejoice plentiful in style, covering the main streets of their city centres with colourful flowery carpets.
  126. ^ St. John's Eve (or Bonfire Night) is celebrated in all the parishes of Ferrolterra with the lighting of bonfires.
  127. ^ This special day is celebrated in different ways throughout the different parishes of Ferrolterra; while some of them enjoy preparing beautiful floral offerings dedicated to the Virgin Mary pretty much in the “Corpus Christi” carpets fashion, others are more inclined to organize a small sea or land procession if not a food party.
  128. ^ In different parts of Ferrolterra, particularly in the Sierra da Capelada where horse breeding is an important industry, there is an interesting celebration of Celtic roots involving food, music and horses. This is a “Rapa das Bestas” where the newly born horses are marked and have their hair cut as the major part of the event. Of course, the whole event and festivity is open to all visitors.
  129. ^ Usually involves different activities like theatrical performances, rock concerts, fireworks and all sorts of organized entertainment.
  130. ^ Literally, a re-enactment of the battle which took place in Ferrol between the British and the local Spaniards in the year 1800 where the British, the belligerent force, were driven out from their attempt to capture the most important naval station of Spain in northern Iberia. There were well founded reasons for the British to believe that the Spaniards were going to take side with Napoléon a few years later. And this was exactly what happened. (in Spanish) Website of the voluntaries from Madrid 1808–1814
  131. ^ Also known as the fireworks of the Marquis of Amboage.

External links

Beaches in Ferrol, Spain

Doninos, Esmelle and St. George's Beach are beaches in Ferrol, Spain. Ferrol is privileged to have, within its borders, several high quality gorgeous sandy beaches that are ideal for practising water sports such as windsurfing, kayaking, Boogie Board, kite surfing, and surfing. These beaches are also suitable for more relaxing endeavours such as walking in the dunes, or Sun bathing.Other activities like Bisolvon Ritual Nights were performed during the last decade.

The best known beaches from Northwest to Southwest:

Ponzos' Beach [1]

Saint Comba's Beach (also "Santa Comba") [2]

Saint George's Beach (also "San Xurxo") [3]

Esmelle's Beach [4]

Donino's Beach (also "Doniños") [5]

O Vilar's Beach [6]

The Frigate's Beach (also "A Fragata")[7]

A Grana's Beach (also "A Graña") [8]

Caranza's Beach [9]

CB OAR Ferrol

Club Baloncesto OAR Ferrol was a professional basketball club based in Ferrol, Spain.

Chris Swecker

Chris Swecker (born July 14, 1956 in Ferrol, Spain) was Assistant Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2004-2006). He later established a law practice in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, and was appointed by North Carolina Gov. Pat McCrory as chairman of the Governor's Crime Commission in 2013.

David Mouriz

David Mouriz Dopico (born December 31, 1982 in Ferrol, Spain) is a professional wheelchair basketball player from Spain. A 2.5 point player, he was a member of the Spanish men's team that finished fifth at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, and third at the 2013 European Championships. He has played professionally in Spain's top division for Aldasa Amfiv de Vigo, FCBarcelona and Bilbao BSR.

El Correo Gallego

El Correo Gallego is a Galician newspaper founded in Ferrol, Spain, by José María Abizanda in 1878. In 1938 its owner, Juan Sáenz-Díez García, moved the daily to Santiago de Compostela; since then the paper has been headquartered there. The publisher of the daily is Editorial Compostela S.A.

El Diario de Ferrol

Diario de Ferrol is a Galician daily newspaper founded in Ferrol, Spain, in 1998 by Editorial La Capital (company of El Ideal Gallego, DXT Campeón, Diario de Arousa and Diario de Bergantiños). It is the distributed mostly in metropolitan area of Ferrolterra having an important section dedicated to local news. Additionally covers regional and national news thanks to the collaboration it was with the newspaper La Razón. It's the 13th most distributed newspaper in Galicia with an audience in 2017 of 18K readers.

Until the early 1980s, Ferrol had a popular newspaper with a very similar name El Ferrol Diario which became extinct during the critical years of the decade which saw the advent of democracy and the recession in the shipbuilding industry.

The building which hosts the headquarters of Diario de Ferrol also hosts a museum devoted to the history of the newspaper manufacturing in general, though it focuses in Ferrol and its newspapers since the early years of the 19th century.

El Ferrol Diario

Ferrol Diario was a Galician newspaper founded in Ferrol, Spain, sometime in the late 1950s and very early 1960s. It did not survive the turbulent and difficult years of the early 1980s, which were marked with a huge recession in the shipbuilding sector affecting Ferrol considerably.

Emiliano Aguirre

Emiliano Aguirre Enríquez (born October 5, 1925 in Ferrol, Spain), is a Spanish paleontologist.

Estadio Municipal da Malata

Estadio Municipal da Malata (English: A Malata Municipal Stadium) is a multi–use stadium in Ferrol, Spain and the home stadium of Racing de Ferrol.

Racing de Ferrol have used three main stadiums over the years, starting with Campo de Futbol Infernino which they continued to use until moving to Estadio Manuel Rivera in 1954. This was an oval shaped enclosure with a single cantilever stand. In the 1970s, a cover was erected over the popular terrace.

In 1993 the metropolitan area of Ferrol built Estadio da Malata to the west of the town, near the valley of Serantes. The total cost of the development was 1.7 billion pesetas.

The first match to be played at A Malata took place on 18 April 1993 when Racing de Ferrol beat Atlético B 3-2. The official opening took place on 29 August 1993 with friendly match between Celta Vigo and Deportivo La Coruña.

Ferrol Naval Base

Ferrol Naval Base also known as the Arsenal of Ferrol is a military base and arsenal of the Spanish Navy located in Ferrol, Spain. It is the main Spanish naval base on the Atlantic.

French ship Intrépide (1800)

Intrépide was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the French navy. She was originally built at Ferrol, Spain in 1790 by José Romero y Fernández de Landa as the Spanish ship of the line Intrepido, and later was sold to France in 1800.

On 21 October 1805, Intrépide was one of the ships of Rear-Admiral Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley at the Battle of Trafalgar, under Captain Louis-Antoine Infernet.

Dumanoir commanded the six ship vanguard of the French fleet, with Scipion, Duguay-Trouin, Mont-Blanc, Intrépide and Neptune. Nelson's attacks left these ships downwind of the main confrontation and Dumanoir did not immediately obey Villeneuve's orders to return to the battle. When the ships did turn back, most of them only exchanged a few shots before retiring.

Infernet and his crew, wanting to join the fight, eventually disobeyed Dumanoir's orders and joined the battle, followed by the Spanish Neptuno (Captain Valdes). Intrépide fought against Leviathan, Africa, Agamemnon, Ajax, Orion and Conqueror, only to strike her colours at about 17:00, badly damaged with half of her crew dead.

The Intrépide was later scuttled on Admiral Collingwood's orders to avoid recapture by the counter-attack of the six ship French squadron led by Captain Julien Cosmao of Pluton, two days later.

Ilmārs Starostīts

Ilmārs Starostīts (born May 30, 1979, Rēzekne, Latvia) is a Latvian chess Grandmaster (2010).

Ilmārs Starostīts participated in various Junior World Championships from 1993 to 1999. In 2001 he achieved the International Master title. Ilmārs Starostīts won the Latvian Chess Championship in 2002. He has played in more than 80 important tournaments and won the Stockholm Elo Challenge in 2010, and was second in Rodrigo Memorial (Ferrol, Spain) in 2010.Ilmārs Starostīts played for Latvia in Chess Olympiads:

In 2002, at second reserve board in the 35th Chess Olympiad in Bled (+5 −3 =4);

In 2012, at reserve board in the 40th Chess Olympiad in Istanbul (+4 -2 =2).Ilmārs Starostīts played for Latvia in European Team Chess Championship:

In 2011, at fourth board in Porto Carras (+4 −3 =2).

J. M. Langtry

James MacKay Langtry (1894–1971) was a British Technical Advisor who was seconded by the engineering firm Vickers Armstrong to the Spanish naval shipbuilder Sociedad Española de Construcción Naval (SECN), of which it owned a part. He arrived in Ferrol, Spain, in 1919. He defended the colours of the Racing Ferrol Football Club during the 1920s.

Punta de Estaca de Bares

Punta de Estaca de Bares is the northernmost point of Spain and the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude of 43° 47′ 38″ North. It is located in Galicia. Conventionally, it marks the western end of the Cantabrian Sea, or Bay of Biscay, in the North Atlantic ocean.

The peninsula of Estaca de Bares penetrates considerably into the Atlantic Ocean and the Cantabrian Sea, and as a result it is one of the rainiest places in Europe, with more than 2500 mm a year (a Temperate rain forest).

These special weather conditions have created over the centuries a unique ecosystem and biodiversity which have made it possible for this area to be declared an Area of National Natural Interest.

The history of Estaca de Bares Point is very rich. The ruins of the Phoenician Salt Fish Factory and the Phoenician Port are open to visitors. There is a lighthouse that was constructed in 1850 and still works to this day, under the administration of the Captain of the Port of Ferrol, Spain. There is also a bird sanctuary, ruins of molinas (grain mills) and abandoned military bases located here.

There is currently an abandoned military site there. It was first operated by the US Coast Guard beginning in the early 1960s as a LORAN (Long Range Aid to Navigation) Station. The station at Estaca de Bares operated jointly with stations operated by the British Government in East Blockhouse, Wales and, until 1973, the French Government in Pospoder, France. In 1978, after the Coast Guard ended the LORAN operations, the US Air Force assumed control of the base. The US Air Force 2186 Communications Squadron, headquartered at Torrejon Air Base near Madrid, operated the site as a remote Radio Relay Link (RRL) communications site until 1991, and it now sits in ruins. While the site was open, many Americans met and married local citizens.

There are also a series of waterways that used to power mills for the local citizens. These mills are located between the abandoned military base and the bird sanctuary.

The other site used to be an old signaling station used by the Spanish Navy. It has been converted into a hotel/restaurant.

During World War II a German submarine was sunk off the coast there. One of the German officers who survived the sinking returned every year thereafter to mark the anniversary. After his death he had his ashes scattered over Estaca de Bares.

SM UC-48

SM UC-48 was a German Type UC II minelaying submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) during World War I. The U-boat was ordered on 20 November 1915, laid down on 1 February 1916, and was launched on 27 September 1916. She was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 6 November 1916 as SM UC-48. In 13 patrols UC-48 was credited with sinking 35 ships, either by torpedo or by mines laid. UC-48 was severely damaged by a depth charge attack by HMS Loyal on 20 March 1918 that ruptured the fuel tanks. Unable to return to Zeebrugge, the boat was steered to Ferrol, Spain, where she and her crew were interned for the rest of the war. The Spanish authorities removed UC-48's propellers to prevent any attempts at leaving port.

Spanish frigate Blas de Lezo (F103)

Blas de Lezo (F-103) is a Spanish Navy guided missile frigate of the Alvaro de Bazan (F100) class. This is the third ship of the F-100 class of air defense frigates in the Spanish Navy. It was named after the 18th century Spanish Admiral Blas de Lezo. The ship was built by Izar Shipbuilding in Ferrol, Spain and entered into service in 2004.

Tony Bouza

Anthony V. Bouza (born 10 April 1928 in Ferrol, Spain) is a Spanish American retired police officer who served in the New York City Police Department and as police chief of the Minneapolis Police Department from 1980 to 1989.

Universitario de Ferrol

Club Universitario de Ferrol, also known as Baxi Ferrol for sponsorship reasons, is a women's professional Basketball team based in Ferrol, Spain. The team currently plays in the top tier of the Spanish League.

William Watkins Ltd

William Watkins Ltd one of the first tugboat owning companies in the world, was founded by John Rogers Watkins in 1833.Already during the companies' early years their paddle tugboats, often sail-assisted, were seen in ports all over the world.The most well known of the tows that William Watkins undertook was that of Cleopatra's Needle, from Ferrol, Spain to London by the paddle tug Anglia in 1878.Between 1833 and 1918 Watkins had vessels taken up for Government service in both the Crimean War and WWI, and again during WW2 many of Watkins tugs were requisitioned by the Government.

Climate data for Ferrol, Galicia (Spain) (2002–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
14.1
(57.4)
15.8
(60.4)
17.2
(63.0)
18.9
(66.0)
22.1
(71.8)
23.2
(73.8)
23.9
(75.0)
23.4
(74.1)
19.8
(67.6)
15.8
(60.4)
13.9
(57.0)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
10.2
(50.4)
11.8
(53.2)
12.9
(55.2)
14.8
(58.6)
17.9
(64.2)
19.0
(66.2)
19.7
(67.5)
18.4
(65.1)
15.7
(60.3)
12.5
(54.5)
10.3
(50.5)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.0
(44.6)
8.4
(47.1)
9.4
(48.9)
11.2
(52.2)
14.3
(57.7)
15.5
(59.9)
16.4
(61.5)
14.8
(58.6)
12.4
(54.3)
9.6
(49.3)
7.3
(45.1)
11.1
(52.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 140
(5.5)
97
(3.8)
102
(4.0)
97
(3.8)
75
(3.0)
57
(2.2)
51
(2.0)
38
(1.5)
50
(2.0)
183
(7.2)
208
(8.2)
157
(6.2)
1,257
(49.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 17 11 13 11 11 7 7 6 6 14 17 15 137
Mean monthly sunshine hours 79 124 158 194 218 238 261 248 217 139 95 90 2,060
Source: MeteoGalicia[118]
City Councils of the three Regions of Ferrolterra
Ferrol
Eume
Ortegal
Ancient lands of the Counts of Andrade and Vilalba in the 14th century
Ports and lighthouses under the Authority of Ferrol-San Cibrao
Cities in Galicia
Municipalities of the province of A Coruña

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