The Ferrari flat-12 engine family is a series of 180° V12 DOHC petrol engines produced by Ferrari from 1973 to 1996. Introduced with the 365 GT4/BB, this engine shared its construction with the flat-12 race-engines used in the 312B and 312 PB, but its displacement, bore & stroke, rods and pistons were the same as the Tipo 251 60° V12 Colombo engine powering the Daytona it replaced.
Design and development of the new engine was overseen by Ferrari engineers Giuliano de Angelis and Angelo Bellei.
The engine was the first flat-12 cylinder configuration fitted in a Ferrari road car and had factory type reference F102A. It had two valves per cylinder and twin overhead camshafts per bank, although these were now belt driven, instead of by chain as on earlier Ferrari 12-cylinder engines. It was fitted with two banks of two triple-choke Weber 40IF3C carburettors and an electronic ignition system. The block and cylinder heads were constructed from light alloy and featured wet sump lubrication.
In 1981 the 512 BBi replaced the outgoing model’s four triple-choke carburettors with a Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection. The new engine got factory type reference F110A but otherwise it was mechanically identical to its predecessor.
With the debut of Testarossa in 1984, the evolution of the flat-12 engine saw it equipped with four valves per cylinder: with 390 PS (287 kW; 385 hp) it was the most powerful engine mounted on a production sports car at the time of its launch. It maintained the same cubic capacity of 4943cc of the 512 BBi model, and had factory type reference number F113A. It was fitted with a Marelli Microplex MED120 electronic ignition system and Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection. Export versions for United States, Canada and Japan had catalytic converter and KE-Jetronic fuel injection. European versions got those features in 1986 and the revised engine was known as F113B.
The 1991 512 TR had an upgraded version of the engine used in the Testarossa, maintaining the same cubic capacity of 4.9 L, and had factory type reference number F113D. Changes were made to the porting, with redesigned inlet plenums and larger valves providing more efficient fuel/air mix ingress, whilst the fuel injection and ignition system were changed to a combined Bosch Motronic M2.7 system.
|F102, F110, F113|
Ferrari Testarossa's engine
|Cooling system||Water cooled|
|Predecessor||Ferrari Colombo engine|
|Successor||Ferrari F116/F133 engine|
|Eng. code||Displ.||Bore × stroke||Years||Usage||Peak power||Notes|
|F102 A||4.4 L
|81 mm × 71 mm
(3.2 in × 2.8 in)
|1973–1976||365 GT4/BB||344 PS (253 kW; 339 hp) at 7200 rpm||wet-sump, carburettors|
|F102 B||4.9 L
|82 mm × 78 mm
(3.2 in × 3.1 in)
|1976–1981||512 BB||340 PS (250 kW; 340 hp) at 6200 rpm||dry-sump, carburettors|
|F110 A||1981–1984||512 BBi||340 PS (250 kW; 340 hp) at 6000 rpm[a]||dry-sump, K-Jetronic fuel injection|
|F113 A||1984–1986||Testarossa (European markets)||390 PS (290 kW; 380 hp) at 6300 rpm|
|F113 A 040||1984–1991||Testarossa (North America and Japan)||380 PS (280 kW; 370 hp) at 5750 rpm||dry-sump, KE-Jetronic fuel injection, catalytic converters|
|F113 B||1986–1991||Testarossa (European markets)||390 PS (290 kW; 380 hp) at 6300 rpm|
|F113 D||1991–1994||512 TR||428 PS (315 kW; 422 hp) at 6750 rpm||dry-sump, Motronic fuel injection, catalytic converters|
|F113 G||1994–1996||F512 M||440 PS (320 kW; 430 hp) at 6750 rpm|
The Ferrari Colombo Engine was a petrol fueled, water cooled, carburetted 60° V12 engine designed by Gioacchino Colombo and produced in numerous iterations by Italian automaker Ferrari between 1947 and 1988. The design team also included Giuseppe Busso and Luigi Bazzi.Colombo had formerly designed Alfa Romeos for Enzo Ferrari. These V12 powerplants ranged from the diminutive 1,497 cc (1.5 L; 91.4 cu in) unit fitted to the 125S to the 4,943 cc (4.9 L; 301.6 cu in) unit in the 1986 412i. Colombo designed bore centres at 90 mm apart. Significant updates were made in 1963 for the 330 series featuring a redesigned block with wider, 94 mm, bore spacing.Enzo Ferrari had long admired the V12 engines of Packard, Auto Union, and Alfa Romeo
(where he was long employed), but his first car, the 1940 Auto Avio Costruzioni 815, used a Fiat straight-8. Ferrari's first homegrown engine was a V12 designed by Colombo, with development continuing long after original designer Colombo had been replaced by Aurelio Lampredi as the company's marquee engine designer. Although Lampredi's engines were a real force for the company, it was Colombo's V12 which would be the primary motivator for the company's consumer products through the 1950s and 1960s.Ferrari Mythos
The Ferrari Mythos is a mid-engine, rear wheel drive concept car based on the mechanical underpinnings of the Ferrari Testarossa. Designed by Italian design house Pininfarina and developed by automobile manufacturer Ferrari, its world premiere was at the 1989 Tokyo Motor Show.Ferrari Testarossa
The Ferrari Testarossa (Type F110) is a 12-cylinder mid-engine sports car manufactured by Ferrari, which went into production in 1984 as the successor to the Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer. The Pininfarina-designed car was originally produced from 1984 to 1991, with two model revisions following the end of Testarossa production called the 512 TR and F512 M, which were produced from 1992 to 1996. Including revised variations, almost 10,000 cars in total were produced, making it one of the most mass-produced Ferrari models.The Testarossa is a two-door coupé that premiered at the 1984 Paris Auto Show. All versions of the Testarossa were available with a rear-mounted, five-speed manual transmission. The rear mid-engine design (engine between the axles but behind the cabin) keeps the centre of gravity in the middle of the car, which increases stability and improves the car's cornering ability, and thus results in a standing weight distribution of 40% front: 60% rear. The original Testarossa was re-engineered for the 1992 model year and was introduced as the 512 TR (TR meaning TestaRossa), at the Los Angeles Auto Show, effectively as a completely new car, and an improved weight distribution of 41% front, 59% rear. Another new variant called the F512 M was introduced at the 1994 Paris Auto Show. The car dropped the TR initials and added the M which in Italian stood for modificata, or translated to modified, and was the final version of the Testarossa, which continued its predecessor's weight distribution improvement of 42% front, 58% rear. The F512 M was Ferrari's last mid-engine 12-cylinder car (apart from the flagship F50, Enzo and LaFerrari models), and it featured the company's last flat-12 engine. The Testarossa was replaced in 1996 by the front-engine 550 Maranello grand tourer.Flat-12 engine
A flat-12 is a 12-cylinder internal combustion engine in a flat configuration. Rarer, wider, and less tall than a V12, the flat-12 design was used in Formula One and endurance racing and some exotic sports cars.
Flat-12 engines are generally not horizontally opposed engines (boxers), but rather 180° V-engines. A true boxer has one crankpin journal per piston, while in the 180° V-engine, two opposing pistons share the same crankpin journal. The engine also has a naturally lower center of gravity than a V12, but, with the exception of the Mercedes-Benz C291, is mounted somewhat higher in the engine bay to provide clearance for the exhaust system.