The Ferrari Testarossa (Type F110) is a 12-cylinder mid-engine sports car manufactured by Ferrari, which went into production in 1984 as the successor to the Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer. The Pininfarina-designed car was originally produced from 1984 to 1991, with two model revisions following the end of Testarossa production called the 512 TR and F512 M, which were produced from 1992 to 1996. Including revised variations, almost 10,000 cars in total were produced, making it one of the most mass-produced Ferrari models.
The Testarossa is a two-door coupé that premiered at the 1984 Paris Auto Show. All versions of the Testarossa were available with a rear-mounted, five-speed manual transmission. The rear mid-engine design (engine between the axles but behind the cabin) keeps the centre of gravity in the middle of the car, which increases stability and improves the car's cornering ability, and thus results in a standing weight distribution of 40% front: 60% rear. The original Testarossa was re-engineered for the 1992 model year and was introduced as the 512 TR (TR meaning TestaRossa), at the Los Angeles Auto Show, effectively as a completely new car, and an improved weight distribution of 41% front, 59% rear. Another new variant called the F512 M was introduced at the 1994 Paris Auto Show. The car dropped the TR initials and added the M which in Italian stood for modificata, or translated to modified, and was the final version of the Testarossa, which continued its predecessor's weight distribution improvement of 42% front, 58% rear. The F512 M was Ferrari's last mid-engine 12-cylinder car (apart from the flagship F50, Enzo and LaFerrari models), and it featured the company's last flat-12 engine. The Testarossa was replaced in 1996 by the front-engine 550 Maranello grand tourer.
|Ferrari Testarossa, 512 TR and F512 M|
|Designer||Leonardo Fioravanti, Ian Cameron, Guido Campoli, Emanuele Nicosia, Diego Ottina at Pininfarina|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car (S)|
|Body style||2-door berlinetta|
|Layout||Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive|
|Engine||4.9 L Tipo F113 and Tipo 113 B flat-12|
|Predecessor||Ferrari BB 512i|
|Successor||Ferrari 550 Maranello|
The Testarossa name paid homage to the famed World Sportscar Championship winner 1957 250 Testa Rossa sports racing car. Testa Rossa, which literally means "red head" in Italian, refers to the red-painted cam covers sported by both cars' 12-cylinder engines.
The Testarossa traces its roots back to the faults of the 1981 BB 512i. The problems that the Testarossa was conceived to fix, included a cabin that got increasingly hot from the indoor plumbing that ran between the front-mounted radiator and the midships-mounted engine and a lack of luggage space. To fix these problems the Testarossa was designed to be larger than its predecessor. For instance, at 1,976 mm (78 in) wide the Testarossa was half a foot wider than the Boxer. This resulted in an increased wheelbase that stretched about 64 mm (2.5 in) to 2,550 mm (100 in) which was used to accommodate luggage in a carpeted storage space under the front forward-opening hood. The increase in length created extra storage space behind the seats in the cabin. Headroom was also increased with a roofline half an inch taller than the Boxer.
The design came from Pininfarina. The design team at Pininfarina consisted of Ian Cameron, Guido Campoli, Diego Ottina and Emanuele Nicosia. They were led by design chief Leonardo Fioravanti, who also designed many other contemporary Ferrari models. The design was originated by Nicosia, but the guidance of Fioravanti was equally important. Being a trained aerodynamist, Fioravanti applied his know-how to set the aerodynamics layout of the car. This meant the large side intakes were not only a statement of style but actually functional – they drew clean air to cool the side radiators and then went upward and left in the car through the ventilation holes located at the engine lid and the tail. The Testarossa did not need a rear spoiler. The aerodynamic drag coefficient of Cd=0.36 was significantly lower than the Lamborghini Countach's 0.42.
The styling was a departure from the curvaceous boxer—one which caused some controversy. The side strakes sometimes referred to as "cheese graters" or "egg slicers," that spanned from the doors to the rear fenders were needed for rules in several countries outlawing large openings on cars. The Testarossa had twin radiators coupled with the engine at the rear instead of a single radiator up-front. In conjunction, the strakes provided cool air to the rear-mounted side radiators, thus keeping the engine from overheating. The strakes also made the Testarossa wider at the rear than at the front, thus increasing stability and handling.
One last unique addition to the new design was a single high mounted side view mirror on the driver's side. On US based cars, the mirror was lowered to a more normal placement for the 1987 model year and was quickly joined by a passenger side view mirror for the driver to be able to make safe lane changes.
Like its predecessor, the Testarossa used double wishbone front and rear suspension systems. Ferrari improved traction by adding 10-inch-wide alloy rear wheels. The Testarossa's drivetrain was also an evolution of the BB 512i. Its engine used near identical displacement and compression ratio, but unlike the BB 512i had four-valve cylinder heads that were finished in red.
Ferrari Testarossa (French spec)
|Production||1985–1991 (7,177 produced)|
|Engine||4.9 L Tipo F113 F12|
|Power output||287 kW (390 PS; 385 hp)|
|Wheelbase||2,550 mm (100.4 in)|
|Length||4,485 mm (176.6 in)|
|Width||1,976 mm (77.8 in)|
|Height||1,130 mm (44.5 in)|
|Curb weight||1,708.2 kg (3,766 lb)|
|Predecessor||Ferrari BB 512i|
|Successor||Ferrari 512 TR|
The Testarossa has a naturally aspirated 4.9 L (4,943 cc) longitudinally-mounted, 180° Ferrari flat-12 engine. The engine has DOHC 4 valves per cylinder (48 valves in total) and is lubricated via a dry sump system. The engine has a compression ratio of 9.20:1. These combine to provide a maximum power of 287 kW (390 PS; 385 hp) at 6,300 rpm and maximum torque of 490 N⋅m (361 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 rpm. Early U.S. versions of the car had the same engine, but had slightly less power, which stood at 283 kW (385 PS; 380 hp).
The Testarossa can accelerate from 0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 5.3 seconds and from 0–97 km/h (60 mph) in 5.2 seconds and on to 161 km/h (100 mph) in 11.4 seconds (though Motor Trend Magazine managed 5.29 seconds and 11.3 seconds, respectively). It can complete a standing (from stationary) quarter mile ~1⁄4 mi (402 m) in 13.5 seconds and a standing kilometre in 23.8 seconds. The top speed of the Testarossa is estimated at 290 km/h (180 mph).
When introduced for the 1985 model year, the Testarossa had magnesium single bolt "knockoff" wheels with a 16.33 inches (415 mm) diameter. These wheels used the Michelin TRX tyres having sizes of size 240/45 VR 415 at the front and 280/45 VR 415 at the rear.
In the 1986 model year, the wheels kept the same design but were changed to a standard 16 inches (406 mm) diameter, with a width of 8 inches at the front and 10 inches at the rear. Goodyear Gatorback 225/50 VR 16 front tyres and 255/50 VR 16 rear tyres were fitted. However, for the US market the cars were delivered with the metric sized TRX wheels until the 1989 model year.
The rear suspension consisted of independent, unequal-length wishbones, coil springs, twin telescopic shock absorbers on each side, and an anti-roll bar. The entire drivetrain and suspension was designed to be removed as a unit from underneath the car so the engine and timing belts could be serviced.
In the mid of the 1988 model year, the suspension was redesigned and the wheels were changed again from the single bolt knockoff setup to the standard Ferrari five bolt pattern. The wheel design still resembled the ones installed at the Testarossa's debut.
The front brakes have a diameter of 309 mm (12.17 in) and the rear brakes have a diameter of 310 mm (12.20 in).
The car received a positive reception from the automotive press - it was featured on the cover of Road & Track magazine nine times in just five years. It lost comparison tests to Lamborghini Countach, Alpina B10 Bi-Turbo and BMW M5.
Well-known Testarossa owners included Jordan Belfort, Elton John, Marti Pellow, Alain Delon, O.J. Simpson, Rod Stewart, Michael Jordan, Mike Tyson, John Carmack, Dr. Dre, Suge Knight, Austrian Formula One racing driver Gerhard Berger, and Gary Monsieur. Don Johnson, who famously drove a white Testarossa on Miami Vice, was gifted a brand-new silver 1989 Testarossa by Enzo Ferrari himself, who was a fan of Miami Vice. Michael Mann, executive producer of the series, also had a custom painted, blue metallic Testarossa.
Jack Nerad of Driving Today states, the Testarossa "... [was] a car designed and built to cash in on an image. And since cashing in was what the Eighties were all about, it was the perfect vehicle for its time. The saving grace was, it was also a damn good automobile."
As Ferrari's flagship model during the 1980s, the car made numerous appearances in pop culture, most notably in the arcade game OutRun, and in the third, fourth, and fifth seasons of Miami Vice. The car has subsequently become synonymous with 1980s "yuppies" and is an icon of 1980s retro culture. Its signature side strakes have become a popular aftermarket body component for wide arch aesthetic body kits. The side strakes also spawned body kits that were designed for cars such as the Pontiac Fiero and the Mazda B-Series pickup trucks (these were referred to as "Truxtarossa" kits), in addition to a wide variety of Japanese and American sports cars and motorcycles such as the Honda VFR.
The Testarossa Spider, serial number 62897, is the sole official convertible variant of the Testarossa commissioned in 1986 by the then Fiat chairman Gianni Agnelli to commemorate his 20 years of chairmanship of the company. The Testarossa Spider had an Argento Nurburgring exterior, a white magnolia leather interior with a dark blue stripe running above the matte black sills, and a white electronically operated soft top that could be manually stowed away. The vehicle was delivered to Agnelli in four months, and had a solid silver Ferrari logo on the hood instead of an aluminium one. The silver theme refers to elemental silver's periodic table abbreviation, Ag, the first two letters of Agnelli's name.
Despite many requests from interested customers for a Testarossa Spider, Ferrari refused to produce the car as a regular production variant of the Testarossa on the grounds of spatial and structural challenges that would be difficult to resolve, and so Pininfarina and other after market firms such as Pavesi, Lorentz and Rankel and Koenig Specials offered unofficial Spider conversions on special consumer requests. The official Spider was no different mechanically than the normal Testarossa available in the European market. It had a standard 4.9 L flat-12 engine with a power output of 291 kW (396 PS; 390 hp), though the top speed was reduced because of the excessive weight arising due to the reinforced chassis. The only differences, other than being a convertible, were that the Spider's front window and door windows were both shorter than those of the normal car and the spider had a special transmission manufactured by Valeo installed which is convertible to both automatic and the standard 5-speed manual versions with the push of a button, a technology ahead of its time. The transmission was installed on special request of Agnelli as he suffered from a chronic leg injury.
|Production||1992–1994 (2,261 produced)|
|Engine||4.9 L Tipo F113 D F12|
|Power output||319 kW (434 PS; 428 hp)|
|Wheelbase||2,550 mm (100.4 in)|
|Length||4,480 mm (176.4 in)|
|Width||1,976 mm (77.8 in)|
|Height||1,135 mm (44.7 in)|
|Curb weight||1,656 kg (3,650 lb)|
|Successor||Ferrari F512 M|
The 512 TR sports a 4.9-litre (4.943 L (4,943 cc)) longitudinally rear-mounted flat-12 engine. Each cylinder of the engine has four valves, with forty-eight valves total. The engine is lubricated via a dry sump system, and has a compression ratio of 10.00:1. These combine to provide a maximum of 491 N⋅m (362 lb⋅ft) at 5,500 rpm and a maximum power output of 319 kW (434 PS; 428 hp) at 6,750 rpm.
The car can accelerate from 0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 4.80 seconds and on to 161 km/h (100 mph) in 10.70 seconds. It can complete a standing (from stationary) quarter mile in 13.20 seconds or a standing kilometre in 23.40 seconds.The 512 TR has a top speed of 313.8 km/h (195.0 mph).
A recall was issued in 1995, regarding fuel hose fitting issues. Over 400 cars had this defect which was caused by variances in temperature and environment. Another recall was issued in relation to the passive restraint system on seat belts not functioning properly, on over 2,000 cars. If the restraint system suffered a mechanical or electrical failure only the lap belt would provide safety to the occupant.
The 512 TR's engine was extensively reworked. Nikasil liners were added, along with a new air intake system, Bosch engine management system, larger intake valves, and a revised exhaust system. In addition to the higher peak power, the modifications delivered a more broad power band for better acceleration.
Gearshifting effort, a prolonged complaint about the Testarossa, was eased with a new single-plate clutch, sliding ball bearings, and better angle for the gearshift knob. The braking system included larger cross-drilled front rotors. Quicker steering, lower-profile tyres, and new shock settings improved handling. Most importantly, engine and gearbox position was rethought, which improved the centre of gravity, aiding the handling and making the car easier to drive.
The interior also received updates, with the centre console split from the dashboard, and the climate controls relocated. Pietro Camardella at Pininfarina was tasked with redesigning the body of the car for better integration of the newly included spoilers and the new engine cover. The design was updated in line with the recently introduced 348.
The 512 TR has 18 in (457 mm) wheels with a width of 8 in (200 mm) at the front and 10.5 in (270 mm) at the rear. The tyre for the front wheels are 235/40 ZR 18 and 295/35 ZR 18 for the rear. The front brakes have a diameter of 315 mm (12.40 in) and the rear brakes have a diameter of 310 mm (12.20 in).
The 512 TR is featured on the cover and in the 1994 arcade racing video game The Need For Speed.
|Production||1995–1996 (501 produced)|
|Engine||4.9 L Tipo F113 G Flat-12|
|Wheelbase||2,550 mm (100.4 in)|
|Length||4,480 mm (176.4 in)|
|Width||1,976 mm (77.8 in)|
|Height||1,135 mm (44.7 in)|
|Curb weight||1,631 kg (3,596 lb)|
|Predecessor||Ferrari 512 TR|
|Successor||Ferrari 550 Maranello|
The F512 M was the last version of the Testarossa. 501 cars were produced in total, of which 75 were right hand drive.
The F512 M sports a 4.9-litre (301.6 cu in (4,943 cc)) Tipo F113 G longitudinally mid mounted flat-12 engine. This provides a maximum torque of 500 newton metres (370 ft⋅lbf) at 5,500 rpm and a maximum power output of 328.1 kW (446.1 PS; 440.0 hp) at 6,750 rpm. The engine features four valves per-cylinder, for forty-eight valves total and is lubricated via a dry sump system, with a compression ratio of 10.40:1. Due to new titanium connecting rods and a new crankshaft that together weighs 7.26 kilograms (16.0 lb) less than those that they replace, the engine has a 7,500 rpm electronic rev limit.
The Ferrari F512 M can accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 4.70 seconds, on to 161 km/h (100 mph) in 10.20 seconds, and can complete a standing quarter mile in 12.70 seconds or a standing kilometre in 22.70 seconds. The F512 M has a top speed of 315 km/h (196 mph).
The front and rear lamps received a design change. The pop-up headlamps were replaced by two fixed square units. The rear taillamps were round and the bumpers had been restyled to yield a more unified look. The car featured a different front lid with twin NACA ducts.
The F512 M's interior received a minor update from the 512 TR. The gearshift knob had a chromed finish, the aluminum pedals were drilled, and air conditioning was now included as standard. Carbon fibre racing bucket seats were also available at no extra cost, weighing only 14.97 kg (33.0 lb); much less than the standard seats. Pininfarina and Ferrari flags line the dash board.
The F512 M has 18 in (457 mm) wheels with a width of 8 in (200 mm) for front and 10.5 in (270 mm) for the rears. The tyres are Pirelli P Zero units, with codes for the front wheels of 235/40 ZR 18 and 295/35 ZR 18 for the rear. The front brakes have a diameter of 315 mm (12.4 in) and the rear brakes have a diameter of 310 mm (12.2 in).
The Ferrari Mythos is a mid-engined, rear wheel drive concept car based on the mechanical underpinnings of the Ferrari Testarossa. The Mythos is powered by a 4.9 L Tipo F113 B Ferrari flat-12 engine sourced from the Ferrari Testarossa, the engine produces 390 hp (291 kW; 395 PS) at 6,300 rpm and 354 N⋅m (261 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4,500 rpm while having a power to weight ratio of 308 hp (230 kW) per tonne. Power is sent to the rear wheels through a Testarossa sourced 5-speed manual transmission. The car utilises a helical coil suspension system with transverse arms on the front and rear. Acceleration figures of the car remain unknown, but the car has a projected top speed of about 180 mph (290 km/h).
Designed by Luigi Colani in 1989, the Testa d'Oro was designed to break land speed records at the salt flats. It was based on a Testarossa with a turbocharged flat-12 engine featuring a 5.0 L Ferrari-Lotec turbocharger. The engine had a power output of 750 hp (559 kW) at 6,400 rpm and 900 N⋅m (660 lb⋅ft) of torque at 5,000 rpm. It successfully broke the record in its class in 1991, reaching 351 km/h (218 mph) with catalytic converters fitted.
The Ferrari FX was a one-off sports car custom made for the 29th Sultan of Brunei by Pininfarina. It featured the flat-twelve engine of the Ferrari Testarossa and a 7-speed sequential manual transmission from the Williams Formula One team. Only nine cars were ever made, six of which were delivered to the Royal Family in Brunei. After the Sultan cancelled delivery of car number four, Dick Marconi bought the car from Williams. Car number four is now on display at the Marconi Automotive Museum in Tustin, California. The FX has a top speed of around 205 mph (330 km/h), yet Ferrari claimed "We don't want to make the fastest car in the world".
The FZ93 (Formula Zagato '93) was designed by Ercole Spada as a follow up to Zagato's series of Ferrari specials. In 1994 the car was reworked and repainted all-red; it was also renamed as ES1 in honour of its designer.
For almost 18 years, Ferrari denied that the F90 existed. The project was eventually discovered along with the fact that six were made for the Sultan of Brunei in 1988.
The project was managed by Enrico Fumia, the head of the Research and Development department at Pininfarina. At the time, the project was top secret to that extent that Ferrari themselves didn't know of the project. Fumia styled the car and said the F90 name referred to it being a "Ferrari of the '90s."
All six F90s used a Ferrari Testarossa chassis which Pininfarina used to sculpt an entirely new body and interior on top of. The engines were stock units, having a power output of 390 PS (287 kW; 385 hp) and having a rear-wheel drive layout, but the radiators were moved to the front of the car.
For reasons we don't know, number four of seven was still being finished at Williams when the Sultan stopped his influx of cars and anything else expensive.External link in
The cars in Miami Vice mainly involve the Ferrari Daytona Spyder and the Ferrari Testarossa, but also include other automobiles driven by the characters on the show. Currently one Daytona (Car #4) is in a private collection and the other (Car #1) is on display at the Volo Auto Museum; the Ferrari Testarossa stunt car resides in Kingsport, Tennessee and is owned by Carl Roberts of Carl Roberts Motor Group. Today, the hero car (Ferrari Testarossa chassis #63631) is part of The Witvoet collection owned by Bastiaan Witvoet in Belgium.Dog-leg gearbox
A dog-leg gearbox is a manual transmission shift pattern distinguished by an up-over-up shift between first and second gear. The layout derives its name from a dog's hind leg, with its sharp angles. Dog leg gearboxes have fallen out of fashion primarily because most manual performance cars now have six-speed gearboxes, which are unsuited to the dog-leg layout.Emanuele Nicosia
Emanuele Nicosia (11 January 1953 – 23 March 2016) was an automobile designer from Italy. He worked at Pininfarina for many years, designing the Jaguar XJS spyder in 1979 and working on the Ferrari 288 GTO and Testarossa. Later, he worked on the interior design of the Lamborghini Diablo and Bugatti EB110.
Nicosia also works on motorbike projects, and has collaborated with Oralengineering of Mr.Forghieri designing racing motorbikes.
In 2000 he developed a concept for a SUB (Sport Utility Bike) based on a Moto Guzzi 750 engine which was introduced at 2000 Bologna Motor Show.
He was head of Automotive Program at DYPDC Center for Automotive Research and Studies, started running his Beestudio design branch office in Pune, India. He went to RCA, London for specializing in design.Ferrari Mythos
The Ferrari Mythos is a mid-engine, rear wheel drive concept car based on the mechanical underpinnings of the Ferrari Testarossa. Designed by Italian design house Pininfarina and developed by automobile manufacturer Ferrari, its world premiere was at the 1989 Tokyo Motor Show.Ferrari flat-12 engine
The Ferrari flat-12 engine family is a series of 180° V12 DOHC petrol engines produced by Ferrari from 1973 to 1996. Introduced with the 365 GT4/BB, this engine shared its construction with the flat-12 race-engines used in the 312B and 312 PB, but its displacement, bore & stroke, rods and pistons were the same as the Tipo 251 60° V12 Colombo engine powering the Daytona it replaced.Design and development of the new engine was overseen by Ferrari engineers Giuliano de Angelis and Angelo Bellei.The engine was the first flat-12 cylinder configuration fitted in a Ferrari road car and had factory type reference F102A. It had two valves per cylinder and twin overhead camshafts per bank, although these were now belt driven, instead of by chain as on earlier Ferrari 12-cylinder engines. It was fitted with two banks of two triple-choke Weber 40IF3C carburettors and an electronic ignition system. The block and cylinder heads were constructed from light alloy and featured wet sump lubrication.
In 1976 Ferrari launched a revised version of the BB, the 512 BB, with a flat-12 engine enlarged to 4943cc. Named F102B, it featured a dry sump lubrication system to help the car scavenge oil.In 1981 the 512 BBi replaced the outgoing model’s four triple-choke carburettors with a Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection. The new engine got factory type reference F110A but otherwise it was mechanically identical to its predecessor.With the debut of Testarossa in 1984, the evolution of the flat-12 engine saw it equipped with four valves per cylinder: with 390 PS (287 kW; 385 hp) it was the most powerful engine mounted on a production sports car at the time of its launch. It maintained the same cubic capacity of 4943cc of the 512 BBi model, and had factory type reference number F113A. It was fitted with a Marelli Microplex MED120 electronic ignition system and Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection. Export versions for United States, Canada and Japan had catalytic converter and KE-Jetronic fuel injection. European versions got those features in 1986 and the revised engine was known as F113B.The 1991 512 TR had an upgraded version of the engine used in the Testarossa, maintaining the same cubic capacity of 4.9 L, and had factory type reference number F113D. Changes were made to the porting, with redesigned inlet plenums and larger valves providing more efficient fuel/air mix ingress, whilst the fuel injection and ignition system were changed to a combined Bosch Motronic M2.7 system.For the 1994 F512M the engine was further upgraded with a lightened crankshaft, titanium alloy connecting rods, new pistons and a stainless steel low backpressure exhaust system.The flat-12 production ceased with the F512M, being replaced by the front-engined 550 Maranello which featured the new 65° V12 F133 engine.Flat-12 engine
A flat-12 is a 12-cylinder internal combustion engine in a flat configuration. Rarer, wider, and less tall than a V12, the flat-12 design was used in Formula One and endurance racing and some exotic sports cars.
Flat-12 engines are generally not horizontally opposed engines (boxers), but rather 180° V-engines. A true boxer has one crankpin journal per piston, while in the 180° V-engine, two opposing pistons share the same crankpin journal. The engine also has a naturally lower center of gravity than a V12, but, with the exception of the Mercedes-Benz C291, is mounted somewhat higher in the engine bay to provide clearance for the exhaust system.František Juhan
František Juhan (1914-1992) was a Czech born motorcycle racer in speedway, road racing and trials.Front mid-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a Front Mid-engine, Front-wheel-drive layout (sometimes called FMF or just MF) is one in which the front road wheels are driven by an internal-combustion engine placed just behind them, in front of the passenger compartment. In contrast to the Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout (FF), the center of mass of the engine is behind the front axle. This layout is typically chosen for its better weight distribution (the heaviest component is near the center of the car, lowering its moment of inertia). Since the differences between the FF and MF layouts are minor, most people consider the MF layout to be the same as the FF layout.
However, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making the resulting vehicle rather long. This may be why no manufacturer currently offers the MF layout.
Examples of road cars using the MF layout include the Acura Vigor, Cord 810, BSA Scout, Citroën Traction Avant, Citroën DS, Renault 4 (and derivatives R5 and R6), Renault 16, Saab Sonett mk1, and the Citroën SM, also some commercial vehicles like the Tempo Matador. These vehicles have longitudinal mounted engines; transverse engined vehicles are possible in theory if the issue of passenger footwell location is addressed. The Toyota iQ comes close to this by having its front differential in front of the engine, however despite this, the iQ is still considered to have an FF layout. One of the main disadvantages of front mid-engine, front wheel drive is the greater torque steer these cars have, compared to regular front wheel drive cars.Traditionally, the term mid-engine has been reserved for cars that place the engine and transaxle behind the driver and in front of the rear axles, as in the Lamborghini Countach or Ferrari Testarossa, but an engine placed in front of the driver's compartment but fully behind the front axle line also qualifies as mid-engine.Knightsbridge Security Deposit robbery
The Knightsbridge Security Deposit robbery took place on 12 July 1987 in Cheval Place, Knightsbridge, England, part of the City of Westminster in London. This robbery, the Banco Central burglary at Fortaleza, and the $900 million stolen from the Central Bank of Iraq in 2003 are said to be the largest bank robberies in history.
The robbery was led by Valerio Viccei (1955–2000), a lawyer's son who arrived in London in 1986 from his native Italy, where he was wanted for 50 armed robberies. Once in London, he quickly resumed his robbery career to fund his playboy lifestyle. On this occasion he secured inside help, obtaining the help of the managing director of the centre, Parvez Latif, a cocaine user, who was heavily in debt.On the day of the robbery, two men entered the Knightsbridge Safe Deposit Centre and requested to rent a safe deposit box. After being shown into the vault, they drew handguns and subdued the manager and security guards. The thieves then hung a sign on the street-level door explaining that the Safe Deposit Centre was temporarily closed, whilst letting in further accomplices. They broke open many of the safe deposit boxes and left with a hoard estimated to be worth £60 million (equivalent to roughly US$98 million at the 1987 exchange rate).
One hour after the robbers departed, the shift changed and the new staff discovered the crime and alerted the police. Police forensic investigators recovered a bloody fingerprint that was traced to Valerio Viccei. After a period of surveillance, several of his accomplices were arrested during a series of coordinated raids on 12 August 1987 and later were convicted of the crime. Viccei, however, fled to Latin America for some time. Later, when he returned to England to retrieve and ship his Ferrari Testarossa to Latin America, police arrested him by blocking the road and smashing the front windscreen of his car and dragging him out.Viccei was sentenced to 22 years, serving his sentence in Parkhurst Prison on the Isle of Wight. While serving his sentence there, he forged a friendship with Dick Leach, a Flying Squad officer who led his arrest. They regularly wrote letters to each other, referring to themselves as Fred (Leach) and Garfield or The Wolf (Viccei).In 1992, he was deported to Italy to serve the rest of his sentence. He was incarcerated in an open jail in Pescara, where he was allowed to live a lifestyle he was already accustomed to, as well as running a translation company.On 19 April 2000, during day release from prison, a gunfight broke out between Viccei, an accomplice, and the police, resulting in the Viccei's death. Two autobiographies of Viccei's life have been published, titled Too Fast to Live (1992) and Live by the Gun, Die by the Gun (published posthumously in 2004).Koenig Specials
Koenig Specials GmbH (known widely as Koenig) is a German tuning house based in Munich that specialised in modifications to European luxury cars but gained notability in the 1980s and 1990s for their performance modifications to Ferraris. Some of its most notable works included a twin-turbo Ferrari Testarossa (known as the Koenig Competition) that produced 1,000 bhp, a highly unusual output for cars at the time, as well as the 850 bhp Ferrari F50. Koenig also entered into automobile production with its road-going version of the Porsche 962 known as the Koenig C62, therefore becoming the first road-legal Group C-based car.
Many of its cars have been featured in non-German mainstream publications such as Road & Track, Top Gear and Sports Car International. Car magazine described its Competition Evolution as "the most famous modified supercar of the 1980s".Leonardo Fioravanti (engineer)
Leonardo Fioravanti (born 1938) is an Italian automobile designer and CEO of Fioravanti Srl.Out-Run 3-D
Out Run 3-D is the second in a quartet of Out Run driving video games developed for the Sega Master System, and was released in 1989. Although based on the original and similar in design, it is a separate game and not (as its name might otherwise suggest) a three-dimensional version of the original Out Run.OutRun (album)
OutRun is the debut studio album by French electronic musician Kavinsky. It was released on 22 February 2013 by Record Makers, Vertigo Records and Mercury Records. Production for the album was handled primarily by Kavinsky, along with close friend and fellow French electro house artist Sebastian. The album is named after Sega's 1986 arcade game of the same name, which featured the Ferrari Testarossa.The concept behind OutRun follows Kavinsky's backstory of a young man who crashed his Testarossa in 1986 and reappeared in 2006 as a zombie who produces electronic music. Kavinsky cites influences from 1980s video games, television cop shows such as Miami Vice, and the films of Dario Argento.Out Run
Out Run (also stylized as OutRun) is an arcade game released by Sega in September 1986. It is known for its pioneering hardware and graphics and innovative features such as nonlinear gameplay and a selectable soundtrack with music composed by Hiroshi Kawaguchi. Designed as a racing game where the goal is to avoid traffic and reach one of five destinations, Out Run was set up for players to enjoy the experience of driving.
The game was designed by Yu Suzuki, who traveled to Europe to gain inspiration for the game's stages. Suzuki had a small team and only ten months to program the game, leaving him to do most of the work himself. The game was a critical and commercial success, becoming one of the best-selling video games of its time and Sega's most successful arcade cabinet of the 1980s. It was ported to numerous video game consoles and home computers and spawned a number of sequels. Out Run has been cited as an influence upon later video games.Pininfarina
Pininfarina S.p.A. (short for Carrozzeria Pininfarina) is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder, with headquarters in Cambiano, (Metropolitan City of Turin), Italy. It was founded by Battista "Pinin" Farina in 1930. On 14 December 2015, Mahindra Group acquired Pininfarina S.p.A. for about €168 million.Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufacturers to design vehicles. These firms have included long-established customers such as Ferrari, Alfa Romeo, Peugeot, Fiat, GM, Lancia, and Maserati, to emerging companies in the Asian market with Chinese manufactures like AviChina, Chery, Changfeng, Brilliance, and JAC and VinFast in Vietnam and Korean manufacturers Daewoo and Hyundai.
Since the 1980s Pininfarina has also designed high-speed trains, buses, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, yachts, airplanes, and private jets. With the 1986 creation of "Pininfarina Extra" it has consulted on industrial design, interior design, architecture, and graphic design.
Pininfarina was run by Battista's son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, then his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008. After Andrea's death, his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO.At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco and the United States. As of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana (Milan Stock Exchange).Pocher
Pocher, based in Italy, produced model cars from 1966-2000, and from 2013-2017 as a subsidiary of Hornby. It is currently owned by Vestergaard Group A/SSan Giorgio Canavese
San Giorgio Canavese is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the region of Piedmont, northern Italy.
The main attraction is the castle, once a possession of the Novarese counts of Biandrate.
Near San Giorgio in San Giusto there is a Pininfarina factory.
The body of Giorgio di Biandrate is interred in the town's church.Test Drive (1987 video game)
Test Drive is a racing video game developed by Distinctive Software and published by Accolade for Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Atari ST, Commodore 64, MS-DOS and Apple II.Testarossa (disambiguation)
Testarossa or Testa rossa (Italian for redhead) may refer to:
Ferrari Testarossa, an Italian sports car from the 1980s and '90s
Ferrari 250 TR (Testa Rossa), an Italian sports car from the 1950s and '60s
Ferrari Monza 500 TR (Testa Rossa), an Italian race car from 1954
Fate Testarossa, a fictional character in the anime series Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha
Teletha Tessa Testarossa, a fictional character from the light novel, manga, and anime series Full Metal Panic!
Testarossa (album), a 2016 album by Yoni & Geti
"Testarossa", a song by Sir Mix-a-Lot from Mack Daddy
“Testarossa”, a dubstep song by Pantyraid
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|8 cylinder||Mid-engine berlinetta||308||308 i||308 QV||328||348||360|
|208||208 Turbo||GTB/GTS Turbo||F355|
|Mid-engine 2+2||308 GT4||Mondial 8||Mondial QV||Mondial 3.2||Mondial t|
|12 cylinder||Boxer berlinetta||365 BB||512 BB||512i BB||Testarossa (F110)||512TR||F512 M|
|Grand tourer||250||275||365 GTB/4
|2+2 grand tourer||250 GT/E||330 GT 2+2||365 GT 2+2||365
|365 GT4 2+2||400||400 i||412||456||456M|
|Supercar||250 GTO||250 LM||288
|Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline Sold under the|