Although Enzo Ferrari resisted the move even with Cooper dominating F1, Ferrari began producing mid-engined racing cars in 1960 with the Ferrari Dino-V6-engine Formula Two 156, which would later be turned into the Formula One-winner of 1961.
Sports car racers followed in 1963. Although these cars shared their numerical designations (based on engine displacement) with road models, they were almost entirely dissimilar. The first Ferrari mid-engine in a road car did not arrive until the 1967 Dino, and it was 1971 before a Ferrari 12-cylinder engine was placed behind a road-going driver in the 365 GT4 BB.
Ferrari produced the 250 P in 1963 in response to the FIA introducing a prototype class for the upcoming season of the World Sportscar Championship. This was a new design, with a chassis unrelated to existing 250-series Grand Touring cars. Designed by Mauro Forghieri, the 250 P was an open cockpit mid-engined rear wheel drive design, utilizing a tubular space-frame chassis, double wishbone suspension, rack and pinion steering, four wheel disc brakes and a longitudinally-mounted V12 engine with a 5-speed gearbox and transaxle. The 250 Testa Rossa-type single-cam 3.0-litre engine was supplied by six Weber 38 DCN carburetors and produced 310 bhp at 7,500 rpm. This was the first time a V12 engine was mounted in the rear of a Ferrari sports racing car.
The 250 P achieved immediate success on the racetrack, winning the 1963 24 Hours of Le Mans, 12 Hours of Sebring, 1000 km Nürburgring, and Canadian Grand Prix. The cars were raced by Scuderia Ferrari in Europe and NART in the Americas. Notable drivers included John Surtees, Ludovico Scarfioitti, Willy Mairesse, Lorenzo Bandini and Pedro Rodriguez.
In total Ferrari produced four 250 P chassis (serial numbers 0810, 0812, 0814 and 0816) and one development mule based on a Dino 246 SP chassis (number 0796). All 250 P chassis were converted to 275 P or 330 P specification following the 1963 racing season.
For the 1964 season, Ferrari developed the 275 P and 330 P. These were improved versions of the 250 P with larger displacement engines and slightly modified bodywork. The tubular space-frame chassis and most other components remained the same as in the 250 P. The 275 P used a bored-out 3.3L version of the 250 Testa Rossa-type engine originally utilized by the 250 P. The 330 P used a different design, a 4.0L Colombo-designed V12 based on engines used in the 400 Superamerica road cars. The 330 P developed more power than the 275 P (370 bhp vs 320 bhp) but weighed more (785 kg vs 755 kg). Some drivers preferred the extra power of the 330 P while others appreciated the more nimble feel of the 275 P and the two models were raced concurrently.  Production of these types included three brand new chassis and conversions of all four 250 P chassis. It is not possible to clearly determine the number of chassis produced with each engine type as 275 and 330 engines were swapped as needed between cars. 275 P and 330 P cars were actively and successfully raced by Scuderia Ferrari, NART and Maranello Concessionaires during 1964 and 1965 seasons. The most notable result was a 1-2-3 sweep at the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans. The Scuderia Ferrari-run 275 P driven by Guichet and Vaccarella took first, followed by a Maranello Concessionaires 330 P (Hill/Bonnier) in second and a Scuderia Ferrari 330 P (Bandini/Surtees) in third.
At the November 1963 Paris Auto Show, Ferrari introduced the 250 LM (Le Mans). It was developed as a coupe version of the 250 P and was ostensibly a new production car intended to meet FIA homologation requirements for the Group 3 GT class. The intention was for the 250 LM to replace the 250 GTO as Ferrari's premier GT-class racer. However, in April 1964 the FIA refused to homologate the model, as Ferrari had built considerably fewer than the required 100 units. The 250 LM thus had to run in the prototype class until it was homologated as a Group 4 Sports Car for the 1966 season.
32 total 250 LM chassis were built from 1963 to 1965, with all but the first chassis (s/n 5149, the Paris Auto Show car with a 250 P engine) powered by 3.3-litre 320 bhp (238 kW) engines as used in the 275 P. According to Ferrari naming convention, the 3.3 litre cars should have been designated "275 LM", however Enzo Ferrari insisted that the name remain 250 LM in order to facilitate the homologation process. The 250 LM shared fully independent double wishbone suspension, rack and pinion steering, four wheel disc brakes and 5-speed transaxle with the 250 P, however the tubular space frame chassis was significantly strengthened with the roof structure, additional cross-bracing and heavier gauge tubing. The interior was trimmed out as a nod to the ostensible production status of the car, but ultimately it was little different from a prototype racer.
The 250 LM was successfully raced around the world by both factory-supported and privateer racers. Unlike the 250/275/330 P cars, new 250 LMs were sold to private customers and campaigned by privateer teams. From 1964 through 1967, 250 LMs were raced by Scuderia Ferrari, NART, Maranello Concessionaires, Ecurie Filipinetti, Ecurie Francorchamps and others, even when this model was no longer competitive with the latest factory prototypes. Notably, a 250 LM (chassis 5893) entered by the North American Racing Team won the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans driven by Jochen Rindt and Masten Gregory. This remains Ferrari's last overall victory in the endurance classic. This car is now owned by the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum and was displayed at the 2004 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance and the 2013 Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance.
The 250 LM is highly sought-after by serious auto collectors and individual cars are often featured at auctions, car shows and historic racing events. 250 LMs typically sell for more than $10 million USD and auction records for this model have been repeatedly broken in the past 10 years.
Two entirely new cars, the 275 P2 and 330 P2, followed in 1965. Featuring lower and lighter chassis and more aerodynamic body, the cars were paired with revamped versions of the previous 275 and 330 V12, now equipped with four camshafts and producing 350 hp and 410 hp, respectively. The 330 P2 was first used by Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) in the Daytona race that year. In 1965 275 P2 0836 won the 1000 km of Monza, 275 P2 0828 won the Targa Florio, 330 P2 0828 won the Nurburgring 1000 km, and 365 P2 0836 or 0838 won the 12 hr. Reims. The P2 cars were replaced by the P3 for 1966.
For 1965 Ferrari also built a customer version of P2 cars; they were equipped with a SOHC 4.4 L engine and thus were named 365 P2. In 1966 Ferrari upgraded their 365 P2 cars with new bodywork by Piero Drogo.
There are no longer any Ferrari P3s extant as the original P3 0846 was converted to a P3/P4 and definitively written off and scrapped by Ferrari due to previous accident damage and fire damage it sustained at Le Mans 1967, and P3s 0844 and 0848 were converted to P3/412 Ps by Ferrari. At a later point P3/412P 0844 was converted by Ferrari to a 330 Can-Am and in the 1990s returned to P3/412P configuration in private ownership.
The Ferrari 412 P was a "customer version" of the famous 330 P3 race car, built for independent teams like NART (0844), Scuderia Filipinetti (0848), Francorchamps (0850), and Maranello Concessionaires (0854). These cars had carburetor engines instead of the factory Lucas fuel injection. Surviving 412 P cars are worth approximately $35–45 million USD according to Cavallino Magazines' current Buyers Guide.
There are only two cars that were originally built as 412 P's: 0850 and 0854. P3 chassis. P3 Typo Motors except for Carburetors in place of FI. P4 suspension 0844 and 0848 were originally P3 Factory Racecars but when Ferrari sold them to customers they removed the Lucas Mechanical Fuel Injection and replaced it with Weber carburetors which reduced their output, something Ferrari wanted to do so that they would win points but not beat the factory cars which were then P4 0846 (See Above), P4 0856, P4 0858, and P4 0860. The P3's and 412 P had the same 4-liter block which is different from the P4-4 liter block and all had P3 not P4 chassis. All of the P3 chassis were made in 1966 at the same time but because of labor strikes only three of the five P3 chassis were built up into cars in 66. The unbuilt up P3 chassis were eventually build up into 412P 0850 and 0854 in 1967. P4 0846 was unique having, after modification by Ferrari for the 1967 race season, a P3 chassis with a P4 engine.
The 412 P and P4 models weren't eligible for the International Championship of Makes in 1968 as their engines were too large for the new 3 litre Group 6 Prototype category and too few examples had been built to allow homologation for the 5 litre Group 4 Sports Car category which required production of at least 50 units. Ferrari did not contest the championship for a year in protest.
Two 412 P Berlinettas were originally built. Two P3's were converted to 412P's by Ferrari:
1967 was a banner year for the Enzo Ferrari motor company, as it saw the production of the mid-engined 330 P4, a V12-engined endurance car intended to replace the previous year's 330 P3. Only four Ferrari P4-engined cars were ever made: three new 330 P4s and one ex P3 chassis (0846). Their three-valve cylinder head was modeled after those of Italian Grand Prix-winning Formula One cars. To this was added the same fuel injection system from the P3 for an output of up to 450 hp (335 kW).
The P3 won the 1000 km Monza in 1966, and the P4 won the same race in 1967. Two P4s, and one 412 P crossed the finish line together (in first 0846, second 0856, and third place 0844) in the 1967 24 Hours of Daytona, for a photo finish to counter Ford's photo of the Ford GT40 Mk.II crossing the finish line together First, Second, and Third at the 1966 24 Hours of Le Mans.
Since then, the fate of these four cars has been the subject of much attention.
After boycotting sports car racing in 1968 to protest the rule change, Ferrari built another 3000cc prototype in 1968, named the 312 P.
The 3.0 Ferrari 312P Barchetta and 3.0 Ferrari 312P Berlinetta were hardly more than 3-litre F1 Ferrari 312s with prototype bodies. At the 12 Hours of Sebring the spyder finished second to a JWA Gulf Ford GT40. At the BOAC 500 at Brands Hatch the same spyder was fourth behind three Porsche 908-01s. At 1000km Monza, Chris Amon took the pole with the 312P spyder, ahead of Jo Siffert's 908-01, but had to retire. At the 1000km Spa, a 312P was second, behind the Siffert-Redman 908-01LH. At Le Mans two 312P Berlinettas were entered. They were five and six on the grid, but did not finish. At the end of the season the 312Ps were sold to NART, the American Ferrari importer of Luigi Chinetti.
Three 312 Ps were built:
0868 Spyder configuration, dismantled after Monza accident
0870 Berlinetta configuration in Bardinon Collection
0872 Berlinetta configuration (and Spyder body available) in Switzerland
In 1971, another rule change was announced for 1972, and Ferrari abandoned further development of the 512M in order to focus on a new 3 Litre prototype based on the 312B F1 car. The 312P would prove fast but fragile in its debut at the 1971 Sebring 12 hours. Further development over the 1971 season brought increased reliability. The press added a "B" to 312P. Ferrari official records: Ferrari 312 P.
The 312Ps with the flat-12 boxer engine were very successful, winning ten out of eleven races in the 1972 World Championship for Makes and delivering the title to Ferrari. Scuderia Ferrari didn't enter the 1972 24 Hours of Le Mans, as Enzo Ferrari thought that the F1-based engine could not last the full 24 hours. He would be proven wrong.
The team competed in the 1973 24 Hours of Le Mans and finished second behind Matra, which would also be the teams' final standing in the 1973 championship. At the end of the 1973 season, Ferrari was forced by chief investor FIAT to abandon sports car racing, instead focusing on F1.
The 1951 Formula One season was the fifth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1951 World Championship of Drivers, which commenced on 27 May 1951 and ended on 28 October after eight races. The season also included 14 races that were open to Formula One cars but did not count towards the championship standings.1952 Formula One season
The 1952 Formula One season was the sixth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. In comparison to previous seasons, the 1952 season consisted of a relatively small number of Formula One races, following the decision to run all the Grand Prix events counting towards the World Championship of Drivers to Formula Two regulations rather than Formula One. The Indianapolis 500 was still run to AAA regulations as in previous seasons.
The 3rd FIA World Championship of Drivers, which began on 18 May and ended on 7 September after eight races, was won by Alberto Ascari, driving for Scuderia Ferrari.
In addition to the Formula One races and the World Championship Formula Two races, numerous other Formula Two races, which did not count towards the Championship, were held during the year.1953 Formula One season
The 1953 Formula One season was the seventh season of the FIA's Formula One racing. It consisted only of a number of non-championship motor races. As in 1952, all races counting towards the World Championship of Drivers, apart from the Indianapolis 500, were held for cars complying with Formula Two regulations rather than with Formula One, with the Indianalpolis 500 held to AAA regulations.
The 4th FIA World Championship of Drivers, which commenced on 18 January and ended on 13 September after nine races, was won by Alberto Ascari, driving for a Scuderia Ferrari. Ascari became the first driver to successfully defend his title.
In addition to the non-championship Formula One races and the World Championship Formula Two races, numerous other non-championship Formula Two races were also held during the year.1954 Formula One season
The 1954 Formula One season was eighth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1954 World Championship of Drivers and a number of non-championship races. The World Championship of Drivers was contested over a nine race series which commenced on 17 January and ended on 24 October 1954. The championship was won by Juan Manuel Fangio who drove, and won races, for both Maserati and Mercedes-Benz over the course of the series. Argentine drivers gained the first two positions in the championship with José Froilán González placing second to his compatriot Fangio.Butterfly doors
Butterfly doors or vertical doors are a type of car door sometimes seen on high-performance cars. They are similar to scissor doors. While scissor doors move straight up via hinge points at the bottom of the A-pillar, butterfly doors move up and out via hinges along the A-pillar. This makes for easier entry/exit at the expense of requiring more opening space than needed for scissor doors.
The McLaren F1, Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale, Saleen S7, Enzo Ferrari and its non road-going version, the FXX, Toyota Sera/EXY-10, and the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren, among others, use butterfly doors. It was also a common feature for Group C and IMSA GTP/Camel Lights prototype racers as they incorporate teardrop tops which allows the driver to get in and out of the car more quickly than conventional and gullwing doors, especially in a cramped pitlane environment such as the pre-1991 Le Mans circuit. Since then, butterfly doors have been an adopted design of closed top sportscar racers, such as the Toyota GT-One, Bentley Speed 8 and more recently, the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP. The Toyota Sera, made between 1990 and 1995, was a limited-release car designed exclusively for the Japanese market which was the first mass produced vehicle to use this design. The Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren Roadster was one of the few open top cars to use butterfly wing doors. This is made possible by having the doors hinged at the side of A-pillar instead of at top by the roof. The McLaren MP4-12C has a unique system where the butterfly doors do not use a top hinge meaning that the car can use frameless windows which allows for the car's convertible version to retain them.David Pesetsky
David Michael Pesetsky (born 1957) is an American linguist. He is the Ferrari P. Ward Professor of Modern Languages and Linguistics and Head of the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
He received a B.A. in linguistics from Yale in 1977 and a Ph.D. in linguistics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1982. Pesetsky has taught at the University of Southern California and the University of Massachusetts Amherst before joining the faculty of MIT in 1988. Pesetsky was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2011, and a Fellow of the Linguistic Society of America in 2013.He has published articles and books within the framework of generative grammar. A specialist in syntax, he has published on the cross-linguistic properties of wh-movement as well as the theory of argument structure. In a collaboration with Esther Torrego, he developed a theory of grammatical case in noun phrases, arguing that nominative and accusative cases are the mirror image for the nominal system of phi feature agreement in the verbal system. He has worked extensively on the structure of Russian, and recently has argued (in collaboration with Jonah Katz) that the syntax of tonal music is identical to the structure of language.In an article coauthored with Andrew Nevins and Cilene Rodrigues, Pesetsky criticized claims by Daniel Everett concerning the Pirahã language, touching off a protracted debate in the pages of the journal Language.Enzo Ferrari (automobile)
The Enzo Ferrari (also unofficially referred to as the Ferrari Enzo) (Type F140) is a 12 cylinder mid-engine sports car named after the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was developed in 2002 using Formula One technology, such as a carbon-fibre body, F1-style electrohydraulic shift transmission, and carbon fibre-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) ceramic composite disc brakes. Also used are technologies not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics and traction control. The Enzo Ferrari generates substantial amounts of downforce which is achieved by the front underbody flaps, the small adjustable rear spoiler and the rear diffuser working in conjunction, 3,363 N (756 lbf) is generated at 200 km/h (124 mph) 7,602 N (1,709 lbf) is attained at 299 km/h (186 mph) before decreasing to 5,738 N (1,290 lbf) at top speed.The Enzo's F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It is based on the design of the V8 engine found in the Maserati Quattroporte, using the same basic design and 104 mm (4.1 in) bore spacing. This design replaced the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferrari models. The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari automobile to get a version of this new powerplant.Ferrari 312 PB
The Ferrari 312 PB was a Group 6 Prototype-Sports Car introduced in 1971 by Italian carmaker Ferrari. It was officially designated the 312 P, but often known as the 312 PB to avoid confusion with a previous car of the same name. It was part of the Ferrari P series of Prototype-Sports Cars but was redesignated as a Group 5 Sports Car for 1972.Ferrari 330
The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta, spyder, and race car versions between 1963 and 1968.
The first, the 2+2 330 America, was a 250 GT/E with a larger 3.3 litre engine; the 330 GTC/GTS shared its chassis with the 275; the 330 GT 2+2 had its own chassis and bodywork; the mid-engined 330P racer was part of the Ferrari P series, produced in four models. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series.
All 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamerica's 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was substantially changed, with wider bore spacing and an alternator replacing a generator.Ferrari 512
Ferrari 512 S is the designation for 25 sports cars built in 1969–70, with five-litre 12-cylinder ("512") engines, related to the Ferrari P sports prototypes. The V12-powered cars were entered in the 1970 International Championship for Makes by the factory Scuderia Ferrari and private teams. Later that year, modified versions resembling their main competitor, the Porsche 917, were called Ferrari 512 M (for modificata). In the 1971 International Championship for Makes, the factory focused on the new Ferrari 312 PB and abandoned the 512 which was only entered by privateers. From 1972 onwards, the 512 (as the 917) was withdrawn from the world championship following a change in the regulations, and some 512s in private hands were entered in CanAm and Interserie races.Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina
The Ferrari P4/5 (officially known as the Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina) is a one-off sports car made by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari but redesigned by Pininfarina for film director and stock exchange magnate James Glickenhaus.
The car was initially an Enzo Ferrari but the owner James Glickenhaus preferred the styling of Ferrari's 1960s race cars, the P Series. The project cost Glickenhaus US$ 4 million and was officially presented to the public in August 2006 at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elégance. Several websites were allowed to publish images of the clay model in July 2006.Ferrari SF15-T
The Ferrari SF15-T is a Formula One racing car which Ferrari used to compete in the 2015 Formula One season. It was driven by Sebastian Vettel and Kimi Räikkönen. The SF15-T was launched on 30 January 2015. Carrying over his tradition from Red Bull and Toro Rosso, Vettel named his SF15-T "Eva" for the 2015 season.Fleming–Viot process
In probability theory, a Fleming–Viot process (F–V process) is a member of a particular subset of probability measure-valued Markov processes on compact metric spaces, as defined in the 1979 paper by Wendell Helms Fleming and Michel Viot. Such processes are martingales and diffusions.
The Fleming–Viot processes have proved to be important to the development of a mathematical basis for the theories behind allele drift.
They are generalisations of the Wright–Fisher process and arise as infinite population limits of suitably rescaled variants of Moran processes.Gelato
Gelato (Italian pronunciation: [dʒeˈlaːto]) is a popular frozen dessert of Italian origin. It is generally made with a base of 3.25% milk and sugar. It is generally lower in fat than other styles of frozen desserts. Gelato typically contains 70% less air and more flavoring than other kinds of frozen desserts, giving it a density and richness that distinguishes it from other ice creams.Gelato as we know it is credited to the Italian chef Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli who in the late 1600s opened his “Café Procope” in Paris and introduced gelato at his café, earning notability first in Paris and then in the rest of Europe. Thanks to his gelato, Procopio not only obtained French citizenship, but also got an exclusive royal licence issued by the Sun King Louis XIV, making him at the time the sole producer of the frozen dessert in the kingdom.Nowadays, gelato is known worldwide and Italy is the only country where the market share of artisanal gelato versus mass-produced gelato is over 55%, with more than 5,000 modern Italian ice cream parlors employing over 15,000 people.Istaroxime
Istaroxime is an investigational drug originally patented and developed by the Italian pharmaceutical company Sigma-Tau. Istaroxime is now under development for treatment of acute decompensated heart failure by CVie Therapeutics. CVie Theraputics is a Taiwanese pharmaceutical company owned by Lee's Pharmaceutical Holdings Limited, that in July 2012 has acquired from Sigma-Tau, the patents and rights on istaroxime, and related compounds. It is still in early-stage development, having been evaluated in phase two clinical trials. Istaroxime is an innovative medication as it is an effective treatment for both systolic and diastolic heart failure. Systolic heart failure is characterized by impaired ventricular emptying, caused by reduced contractility, and diastolic dysfunction is defined by defective ventricular filling, caused by the heart’s inability to properly relax between beats. Intracellular calcium fluxes regulate both contraction and relaxation. Cardiac muscle cells from patients with heart failure show smaller amounts of peak calcium in their cytoplasm during contraction, and slower removal., The mishandling of intracellular calcium is often due to problems in the cells’ ability to mediate calcium influx, and sequestration of calcium back in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.,List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions
The Formula One World Drivers' Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One racing car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on individual Grand Prix results.
The Drivers' Championship was first awarded in 1950, to Giuseppe Farina. The first driver to win multiple Championships was Alberto Ascari, in 1952 and 1953. The current Drivers' Champion is Lewis Hamilton who won his fifth title in 2018.
A driver secures the World Championship each season when it is no longer mathematically possible for another driver to beat them no matter the outcome of the remaining races, although it is not officially awarded until the end of the season. The Drivers' Championship has been won in the final race of the season 29 times in the 69 seasons it has been awarded. The earliest in a season that the Drivers' Championship has been clinched was in 2002, when Michael Schumacher secured the title with six races remaining.
Overall, thirty-three different drivers have won the Championship, with German Michael Schumacher holding the record for most titles, at seven. He also holds the record for most consecutive Drivers' Championships, winning five from 2000 to 2004. The United Kingdom has produced the most Champions with ten; Brazil, Germany and Finland are next with three each. Of the 33 drivers to win the World Championship, nineteen are still alive. The most recently deceased is Niki Lauda (1949–2019). Among teams, Scuderia Ferrari has produced the most winning drivers with 15.Porsche 910
The Porsche 910 or Carrera 10 was a race car from Porsche, based on the Porsche 906. 29 were produced and were raced in 1966 and 1967. The factory name for the 910 was the 906/10. The 910 was considered the next sequence in the 906 line.Premazepam
Premazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative. It is a partial agonist of benzodiazepine receptors and was shown in 1984 to possess both anxiolytic and sedative properties in humans but was never marketed.Sauber C34
The Sauber C34 is a Formula One racing car which Sauber used to compete in the 2015 Formula One season. The C34 was driven by Marcus Ericsson and Felipe Nasr.
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