The Ferrari Mondial (Type F108) is a mid-engined, V8-powered grand tourer which was produced by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1980 and 1993. Offered with coupé and cabriolet bodystyles, it replaced the Ferrari 308/208 GT4 coupé and remains the last V8, rear mid-engined, 2+2 model Ferrari produced.
The Mondial name (French for world or global) originated from Ferrari's motor racing history — the 500 Mondial was a successful lightweight sports racer of the early 1950s which was named to celebrate Ferrari's consecutive Formula 1 World Championships in 1952 and 1953. The name was revived as Ferrari won the Formula 1 World Constructors Championships in 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1979. The Mondial name was also chosen as it was an equivoque, the car designed to meet global safety and emission standards for 1980, compared to previous offerings. Conceived as a 'practical' Ferrari, the Mondial is a genuine long-distance four-seater, with sufficient rear head- and leg-room for children and smaller adults. It affords easy access via the long single doors, and has surprisingly good all-round visibility for a mid-engined car. The vehicle has a slightly higher roofline and greater all-round dimensions compared to its two-seater stable mates, resulting in a comparative weight penalty of around ten percent.
1,145 (coupe) produced
629 (cabriolet) produced
987 (coupe) produced
810 (cabriolet) produced
858 (coupe) produced
1,017 (cabriolet) produced
|Designer||Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2+2 coupe|
|Related||Ferrari 208/308 GTB & GTS|
|Predecessor||Ferrari 208/308 GT4|
The Ferrari Mondial is a mid-engined vehicle of the R-M-R configuration. It was produced in 2-door coupé and convertible (or cabriolet) forms, with all vehicles offering 2+2 passenger accommodation. It was produced concurrently with Ferrari's 2-seater 308 GTB/GTS, 328, and 348 sports cars, and all major mechanical systems in the Mondial, including engine, transmission, steering and suspension, are either identical to, or very similar to, those used on the matching 2-seater vehicle being produced at the same time.
Unlike its GT4 predecessor which was styled by the Italian Gruppo Bertone, the Mondial was designed by famed designer Leonardo Fioravanti of Pininfarina in Turin, the vehicle designer with whom Ferrari had worked very closely since 1951.:58
Pininfarina's bodywork was manufactured by Ferrari's regular coachbuilder Carrozzeria Scaglietti. Its structure conformed with Ferrari's practice at the time, with outer body panels fitted onto a separate space-frame chassis constructed from tubular box or oval-shaped steel sections. While most body panels are steel pressings, the front lid and rear engine cover of the Mondial 8 and QV models are from aluminium.:64 Full-width aluminium louvre panels across the front lid and engine cover form a distinctive feature of all Mondials, and provide for improved airflow through the front-mounted radiators and engine bay respectively.
Additional louvre grilles are located on each side of the vehicle just ahead of the rear wheels. Intake air is fed to the engine from the intake on the right-hand side, while the matching grille on the left side of the vehicle directs air into an external oil cooler nestled ahead of the rear wheel arch. Louvres also feature in the front polished aluminium grille behind which sits the main radiator, supplied with coolant via alloy tubing running through the central chassis spine. A final full-width black louvre panel closes-off the rear of the car below the rear bumper, and through which protrudes a pair of exhaust outlets on each side of the vehicle. Front and rear bumpers are from black plastic on the Mondial 8 and QV, while the 3.2 and "t" models use integrated wrap-around glass-fibre panels finished in body colour.:58,59
The Mondial chassis includes several detachable sub-frames holding major mechanical assemblies, including one at the rear supporting the entire engine/transmission/rear suspension assembly. This design considerably simplifies engine removal for a major rebuild or cylinder head removal compared to previous Ferrari V8 vehicles.:60
At the front of the vehicle, a front-hinged lid encloses space for the spare tyre, radiators and cooling fans, battery (ahead of a wheel arch), heating and cooling systems and the vehicle's electric control systems. At the rear, a full-width, insulated and trimmed luggage boot with a gas-strut-supported lid sits behind the engine bay, sizeable enough to hold several sizeable soft bags or set of golf clubs.:73,74 Electrically actuated pop-up headlights fit flush to the vehicle nose, and contain twin round lamps in each for all 8, QV and 3.2 models, and a single homofocal rectangular unit each side of the Mondial t.
Differences in body features between sales markets was small, with the most obvious being the prominent rectangular side turn-indicator lamps affixed front and rear to all U.S. marketed vehicles.:60
All Mondials are fitted with a V8 engine which is essentially identical to that used in Ferrari's concurrent 2-seater 308/328/348 series vehicles. All engines derive from Ferrari's original 3.0 l (180 cu in) V8 powerplant first released in the 1974 Ferrari (Dino) 308 GT4, which in-turn was a two-cylinder extension of the V6 engine originally deployed in the Dino 206 GT of 1968.:16, 49–54
At their core, all Mondial engines comprise: a Ferrari-cast lightweight alloy V8 block with 90° bank-angle; shrink-fit cylinder liners; a five-bearing, flat-plane crankshaft with paired connecting rods on each journal; belt-driven, quad overhead camshafts (two per cylinder bank) acting directly on the valves; alloy crossflow cylinder heads; and a wet-sump lubrication system (excepting the Mondial t, which used a dry-sump system).:25–27,49–54,74 Engine capacity started at 3.0 l (180 cu in) for the Mondial 8 and QV models, increasing to 3.2 l (200 cu in) for the Mondial 3.2, and culminating in 3.4 l (210 cu in) for the Mondial t model. The orientation of the V8 engine block is quite different in the Mondial t compared to the earlier Mondials. Mirroring the two-seater Ferrari V8 vehicles, all 3.0 and 3.2 l engines sit across the car with their crankshaft and cylinder planes transverse to the main vehicle axis. The 3.4 l engine in the Mondial t (and 348 GTB cousin) is rotated ninety degrees to a longitudinal orientation with respect to the car.
In the Mondial 8 the V8 employs two valves-per-cylinder, and this increases to four valves-per-cylinder for the Quattrovalvole QV and all later models. All models feature a cast-alloy intake housing nestled centrally above the engine "vee" with manifold tubing running directly to each cylinder. Marelli electronic ignition is used on all vehicles with the exception of the Mondial t, and comprises twin coils, a separate distributor run off each bank of cylinders, and a common electronic control module. Again excepting the Mondial t, fuel metering is via Bosch K Jetronic continuous fuel injection with lambda exhaust sensing. For the Mondial t, a Bosch Motronic 2.5 or 2.7 engine management system controls both the ignition and fuel metering functions. Exhaust gases on all models are collected via 4-2-1 systems fitted to the outside of each cylinder bank, flowing through a one or two catalytic converters to twin outlets each side of the rear panel.:74
In operation, the Ferrari V8 displayed impressive characteristics for the time, with good specific power values (between 71 and 88 bhp/l), high maximum-rpm limits of 7700 rpm (3.0 and 3.2 l) and 7500 rpm (3.4 l), a flexible torque range, and an undeniably Ferrari exhaust note all combining to produce an excellent sports-touring engine.
|Engine code||Displacement||Bore||Stroke||Power*||Torque*||Comp ratio||Max rpm||Years||Vehicle model||0-60||Source|
|F106B||2,926 cc (178.6 cu in)||81 mm (3.2 in)||71 mm (2.8 in)||160 kW (214 hp) @ 6600 rpm||243 N⋅m (179 lb⋅ft) @ 4600 rpm||8.8:1||7700||1980-82||Mondial 8||8.2 sec||Motor Trend 1981|
|F105A||2,926 cc (178.6 cu in)||81 mm (3.2 in)||71 mm (2.8 in)||175 kW (235 hp) @ 6800 rpm||255 N⋅m (188 lb⋅ft) @ 5500 rpm||8.6:1||7700||1982-85||Mondial QV||6.4 sec||Motor 1982|
|F105C||3,185 cc (194.4 cu in)||83 mm (3.3 in)||73.6 mm (2.90 in)||201 kW (270 hp) @ 7000 rpm||304 N⋅m (224 lb⋅ft) @ 5500 rpm||9.8:1||7700||1985-89||Mondial 3.2||6.3 sec||Car and Driver 1987|
|F119D or G||3,405 cc (207.8 cu in)||85 mm (3.3 in)||75 mm (3.0 in)||224 kW (300 hp) @ 7200 rpm||323 N⋅m (238 lb⋅ft) @ 4200 rpm||10.4:1||7500||1989-93||Mondial t||5.6 sec||Autocar June 1992|
In the Mondial 8, QV and 3.2 models, the transmission housing is integral with the engine sump casting, albeit with its own oil supply, sitting below and slightly to one side of the main block. Drive to the gearbox is via a single-plate, diaphragm-spring clutch and a set of drop-gears located outboard of the left-hand end of the crankshaft, with output torque feeding into a friction-plate limited-slip final drive unit offset to the rear of the gearbox.:27–28,54,76
A five-speed, all-indirect manual transmission using a "dog-leg" selector pattern was the only transmission offered. Instead of the conventional "H" shift pattern, this arrangement (also known as a "reverse h-gate") has 1st gear situated to the far left and back, behind reverse. This pattern has been popular with racing gearboxes, as it allows quicker, more direct shifts between 2nd and 3rd, and 4th and 5th, gears. Output from the final drive to the rear wheels is via a pair of short, solid drive shafts fitted with constant-velocity joints at each end to allow for suspension articulation.
For these models, clutch actuation is hydraulic, unlike their two-seater cousins' cable systems, and transmission selection is via a rod which extends through the centre chassis tunnel and passes through the engine sump into the transmission housing.:76
For the Mondial t, the engine and transmission were substantially reconfigured and their orientations rotated by ninety degrees to place the axes of both the engine crankshaft and the transmission input shafts parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal axis. The transmission and final-drive units form a combined transaxle arrangement fitted to the rear of the engine block, using a design originally derived from Ferrari's 312T Formula 1 car. Drive from the single-plate clutch enters the gearbox and is turned ninety degrees by bevel gears to the main transmission shafts which are aligned transverse to the vehicle. A parallel crownwheel with integral limited-slip action directs output torque to driveshafts with CV joints at each end. The clutch is hydraulically-actuated, and gear selection is via cable operation.:76
An "auto-clutch" option was available on the Mondial t, developed by French supplier Valeo. This system retained the conventional manual transmission mechanicals but replaced the normal clutch mechanism with an electro-mechanical one without a foot pedal. Clutch engagement and disengagement on the Valeo unit is triggered by movement of the gear-lever, although the electronic control unit combines data from sources including engine, road-speed and gear selection to warn against, or over-ride, attempted selections outside the specified operating limits.:76
Although based on the two-seater vehicle designs, Mondials are slightly larger overall including having appreciably wider front and rear track dimensions.:38,60 Suspension systems are fully independent all-round, comprising unequal-length upper and lower wishbones, coil-over damper units and anti-roll bars at each end of the vehicle.:77–78 Mondial t vehicles include a driver-adjustable selector to set the electronically controlled damper units, providing three choices of ride-stiffness adjustment.
Steering is a rack-and-pinion mechanism sitting ahead of the front wheels, unpowered on all 8, QV and 3.2 models. Hydraulic power-assistance was standard on the subsequent Mondial t model. Braking is via four-wheel ventilated disks with split-circuit vacuum assistance on all vehicles. Anti-lock braking (ABS) was available as an option in 1987, and it was fitted as standard from 1988.
Road wheels on all vehicles are of a five-spoke alloy design in a clear-lacquered finish. Two distinct patterns were used: the Mondial 8 and QV models have wheels with a flat centre and pronounced edges to the five spokes, whereas the 3.2 and t models' wheels have a convex centre and smoother, angled spokes. All wheels feature a yellow circular centre cap bearing Ferrari's black Cavallino Rampante rearing-horse logo.:78–89
Mondials until the late 1980s, including all 8 and QV models and many 3.2s, were originally fitted with Michelin TRX tyres of size 220/55 VR 390 front and 240/55 VR390 rear. TRX tyres require wheels with the proprietary TRX rim profile, meaning all vehicles fitted with such wheels could only utilise TRX-style tyres. Later 3.2 vehicles and the Mondial t reverted to industry-standard wheel designs of size 7x16 front and 8x16 rear, enabling a far wider range of tyre choices to suit the 205/55 VR16 front and 225/55 VR16 rear tyre specifications.:78–79
The seats and interior of all Mondial variants are fully trimmed in Connolly hide with the exception of the use of black vinyl for the dashboard top and upper door linings. Paint, upholstery and carpet colours generally match those available on Ferrari's concurrent two-seater models, with the commonest choices being Rosso Corsa or Rosso Dino (reds), Azzurro (blue) and Nero (black), in combination with beige, tan or black leather. All seats including those in the rear are strongly bucket-shaped, and fitted with inertia-reel seatbelts.:66–71
A central tunnel for the chassis structure is prominent in both front and rear footwells, and is straddled by a large front centre console with a polished open-gated gear selector and electronic warning-light panel. Electric windows (the front panes only are opening) and air-conditioning are standard fitments, with their controls on the central console. The handbrake is located outside the driver's seat beside the inner sill, and is a "drop-down" design to assist ingress and egress. A three-spoked leather steering wheel is mounted to a steering column adjustable for reach and rake, behind which is a "pod-style" instrument binnacle holding six gauges: speedometer, tachometer, fuel level, water temperature, oil pressure and oil temperature. The Mondial instrumentation is completed with a comprehensive set of warning lights and electronic check panels.:66–73
The Mondial was, at the time, one of Ferrari's most commercially successful models, with over 6,000 examples produced over its thirteen-year run. The Mondial underwent many updates throughout its production with four distinct variants produced: the Mondial 8, Mondial QV, Mondial 3.2, and Mondial t. All but the Mondial 8 were released in both coupé and cabriolet (convertible) body form.:58–60
Starting with the Mondial 8 coupé launched in 1980, the vehicle which served as sole V8-engined Grand Touring or "GT" vehicle within the Ferrari range proved to be a disappointment to some Ferrari enthusiasts. With a body that was larger, heavier and less aerodynamically efficient than the equivalent two-seater models, combined with the introduction of tougher emission standards which significantly dropped power outputs, overall vehicle performance inevitably decreased. In addition, Ferrari responded to new safety requirements, especially in the U.S., with large, black, over-dominant bumpers which were considered to have negatively affected the external design. The fact that the Mondial 8 was a significantly more expensive vehicle than its better-performing two-seater 308 GTBi sister somewhat compounded the situation.:58–60
Ferrari acted quickly just two years later in 1982 to address the straight-line performance issues, by upgrading the engine with a new four-valve head. This model, the Mondial Quattrovalvole or QV, shared its engine with the contemporary two-seaters 308 GTB/GTS QV. A new cabriolet version was also introduced at this time, a body style which would be carried forward through all subsequent Mondial models.:58–60
The next evolution was the Mondial 3.2 produced from 1985, which saw the engine grow in displacement and power, and both the internal and external styling significantly refreshed. This car has enjoyed strong popularity within the Mondial range due to it being a good all-round performer and one of the last Ferraris to have the relatively straightforward maintenance provided by the Ferrari 328 engine and transmission configuration.:58–60
The final Mondial variant was the Mondial t, released in 1989. This contained some of the biggest changes in the Mondial history, with an even-larger 3.4 l (210 cu in) engine, a substantial update to the exterior styling and interior ergonomics, and with an entirely new, albeit more complex to service, powertrain. Overall the Mondial t is considered the best vehicle in the range regarding overall performance and refinement, although it is often noted that this comes at the cost of greater maintenance.:58–60
Production of the Mondial ceased in 1993, with a total of 6,149 vehicles from all variants having been manufactured.:79
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2+2 coupe|
|Layout||Transverse, mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Engine||3.0 L Tipo F106B FI V8|
|Wheelbase||2,650 mm (104.3 in)|
|Length||4,580 mm (180.3 in)|
|Width||1,790 mm (70.5 in)|
|Height||1,250 mm (49.2 in)|
|Curb weight||1,569 kg (3,459 lb)|
The first Mondial iteration introduced as the Mondial 8 at the 1980 Geneva Auto Salon. It was the first Ferrari to depart from the company's simple 3-digit naming scheme, and some reviews found it relatively mild, compared to other Ferraris, regarding performance, drawing criticism from some in the motoring press. It used a mid/rear-mounted Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection V8, shared with the 308 GTBi/GTSi, mounted transversely. The engine used in the 1973 Dino 308 GT4. The K-Jetronic system is mechanical, with a high-pressure pump which streams fuel continuously to the injectors; it does not have a computer, just a few relays to handle the cold start sequence etc. The chassis was also based on the 308 GT4, but with a 100 mm-longer (3.9 in) wheelbase at 2,650 mm (104.3 in). The suspension was the classic layout of unequal-length double wishbones and Koni dampers all around.
Today, the Mondial 8 is considered one of the marque's most "practical" vehicles, due to its 214 hp (160 kW), proven drivetrain, four seats, and relatively low cost of maintenance (major services performed without removing the entire engine/transmission subframe). 703 examples made. At the time of release, the base price was $64,000 (1981) (or $167,530 in 2015 dollars.)
The Mondial 8 is often the target of negative perceptions due to what many considered unworthy performance for the marque. Two of the three major US automotive publications (Road & Track, Car and Driver) yielded negative performance results that found the Mondial much slower than the 308 GTBi/GTSi
Mondial 8 Production started: 1980. Production ended: 1982. Total production: 703 (145 Right Hand Drive) - 147 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 31075. Last serial number: 41727.
|Mondial QV (Quattrovalvole)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2+2 coupe|
|Layout||Transverse, mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Engine||3.0 L Tipo F105A 32V V8|
|Wheelbase||2,650 mm (104.3 in)|
|Length||4,580 mm (180.3 in)|
|Width||1,790 mm (70.5 in)|
|Height||1,260 mm (49.6 in)|
|Curb weight||1,555 kg (3,428 lb)|
1,607 kg (3,543 lb) (Cabriolet)
The first Mondial engine, although a DOHC design, used just two valves per cylinder. The 1982 Quattrovalvole or QV introduced a new four-valve head; the combustion chamber design purportedly based on the early eighties Formula 1 engine. Again, the engine was shared with the contemporary 308 GTB/GTS QV, and produced 240 hp (179 kW). Appearance was largely as per the Mondial 8, although with red engine heads and prominent "Quattrovalvole" script at the rear. 1,145 coupés built between 1982 and 1985.
Mondial QV Production started: 1982. Production ended: 1985. Total production: 1,145, (152 Right Hand Drive) - 69 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 48037. Last serial number: 55507.
A new Cabriolet convertible model was added for 1983. The body styling remained the same as the coupé variant, with the roof maintaining the 'buttress' design, though the Cabriolet required the rear seats to be mounted closer together laterally. The introduction of the Cabriolet saw the popularity of the Mondial rise, particularly in the American market, where a convertible option was highly desirable. The Cabriolet has the added distinction of being the only four-seat, mid-rear engine, convertible automobile ever manufactured in regular production. 629 units were produced between 1983 and 1985, making this the rarest version of the Mondial.
Mondial QV Cabriolet Production started: 1983. Production ended: 1985. Total production: 629 (27 Right Hand Drive) - 282 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 47247. Last serial number: 59163.
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2+2 coupe|
|Layout||Transverse, mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Engine||3.2 L Tipo F105C 4v V8|
|Wheelbase||2,650 mm (104.3 in)|
|Length||4,535 mm (178.5 in)|
|Width||1,795 mm (70.7 in)|
|Height||1,235 mm (48.6 in)|
1,265 mm (49.8 in) (Cabriolet)
|Curb weight||1,540 kg (3,395 lb)|
1,607 kg (3,543 lb) (Cabriolet)
Like the new Ferrari 328, the Mondial's engine grew in both bore and stroke to 3.2 L (3,185 cc) in 1985. Output was now 270 PS (199 kW; 266 hp). The Mondial 3.2 was first presented at the 1985 Frankfurt Auto Show in September that year.
Available in both Coupé and Cabriolet forms, styling refreshed with restyled and body-coloured bumpers, similar to the 328 with more integrated indicators and driving lamps, and new alloy wheels with a more rounded face. The 3.2 also boasted a major interior update, with a more ergonomic layout and a more rounded instrument binnacle. Later cars, from 1987 onwards, also sported ABS brakes. Fuel injection remained the primarily mechanical Bosch K-Jetronic (CIS) with an O2 sensor in the exhaust providing feedback to a simple computer for mixture trimming via a pulse modulated frequency valve that regulated control fuel pressure. The ignition system was Marelli Microplex, with electronic advance control and one distributor per bank of the V8. The 1988 Mondial 3.2 would be the final model year that retained the relatively low maintenance costs of the 308/328 drivetrain, allowing major service items like timing belt and clutch replacement performed with the engine/transmission package still in the car.
3.2 Mondial Coupe Production started: 1985. Production ended: 1988. Total production: 987 (91 Right Hand Drive) - 87 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 59165. Last serial number: 79671.
3.2 Mondial Cabriolet Production started: 1985. Production ended: 1988. Total production: 810, (57 Right Hand Drive) - 449 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 59393. Last serial number: 78895.
|Production||1988–1993 (MY 1989-1993) Coupe: 858 (45 RHD)|
43 Imported to USA/Canada
Cabriolet: 1,017 (51 RHD)
379 Imported to USA
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2+2 coupe|
|Layout||Longitudinal, mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Engine||3.4 L Tipo F119D/G V8|
|Wheelbase||2,650 mm (104.3 in)|
|Length||4,535 mm (178.5 in)|
|Width||1,810 mm (71.3 in)|
|Height||1,235 mm (48.6 in)|
|Curb weight||1,560 kg (3,439 lb)|
1,570 kg (3,461 lb) (Cabriolet)
The final Mondial evolution was 1989's Mondial t (Coupe and Cabriolet). It was a substantially changed model, "spearhead of a new generation of V8 Ferraris", according to Road & Track magazine. It was visually different from preceding Mondial models, the most recognizable being the redesign of the air intakes to a smaller rectangular shape. Additionally, the door-handles were of a visually different design, as were the front and rear bumpers which became body colored. New front and rear wings cover wider tracks and are re-profiled to a fuller shape compared to previous models, which feature a rolled lip.
The 't' called attention to the car's new engine/transmission layout: the previously transverse engine mounted longitudinally while the gearbox remained transverse, thus forming a 't'. The 't' suffix was also homage to the first use of a transverse transmission by Ferrari in the highly successful Ferrari 312T, driven by F1 World Champion Niki Lauda. By adopting this layout, a longer engine could be mounted lower in the chassis, improving handling dramatically. The 't' configuration was used by Ferrari's Formula One cars of the 1980s, and would be the standard for the marque's future mid-engined V8 cars, beginning with the 348, introduced later in the year. The transverse manual gearbox fitted with a Limited Slip Differential with a twin-plate clutch design with bevel gears driving the wheels. Later in production, a Semi-automatic transmission termed "Valeo" was available as an option; while shifting was using a traditional gear lever, the clutch was actuated automatically without a clutch pedal. The engine was up to 3.4 L (3405 cc) and 300 hp (224 kW). The engine controlled by Bosch Motronic DME 2.5 (later DME 2.7) electronic engine management that integrated EFI and ignition control into a single computer unit. Two of these used in the car: one for each bank of the engine. Engine lubrication upgraded to a dry-sump system.
The Mondial's chassis would underpin a new generation of 2-seat Ferraris, right up to the Ferrari 360, but the 2+2 Mondial would end production just four and a half years later in 1993. However, the "t" layout of the engine and transaxle, adapted from Ferrari's Formula One cars, continues to be used in mid-engined V8 model Ferraris to date, albeit with a more sophisticated chassis. The new layout saw the engine and transmission mounted on a removable subframe; the assembly removed from the underside of the vehicle for maintenance. This process is necessary for timing belt replacement, making this a costly procedure for the owner who does not have a lift. On the other hand, the clutch was now located at the very rear of the drive train. This arrangement makes clutch replacement and service a simple, inexpensive, and readily owner-doable proposition.
The "t" was home to other Ferrari firsts: It used power assisted steering for the first time and had a 3-position electronically controlled suspension for a variable tradeoff between ride quality and road holding. It also had standard ABS.
The Mondial t represented the most substantial upgrade to the Mondial model line in performance and handling since its introduction in 1980. The "t" offered greater performance while retaining a mid-engined layout and a practical packaging layout, and was once again, favorably received.
The company has not produced a mid-engined 2+2 car since then, leaving the 2+2 configuration to the more classic front-engined design starting with the 456 in 1992. As of 2018, the V12 GTC4Lusso and both the twin-turbocharged V8 GTC4Lusso T and Portofino are the company's only 4-seat vehicle offerings, but both of these are front engined, leaving the Mondial t as the most modern 4-seat, mid-engined, Ferrari yet produced in 25 years.
Mondial t Coupe: Production started: 1988. Production ended: 1993. Total production: 858 (45 Right Hand Drive) - 43 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 79596. Last serial number: 97698.
Mondial t Cabriolet: Production started: 1989. Production ended: 1993. Total production: 1,017 (51 Right Hand Drive) - 379 Imported to US/CA First serial number: 80399. Last serial number: 97733.
A Mondial-t was manufactured exclusively by Ferrari for PPG Industries to use as a pace car for the PPG Indy Car World Series. Built under the design of I.DE.A Institute at a cost of approximately $1 million, it was introduced at the 1989 Champion Spark Plugs 300 in Laguna Seca. The vehicle used Mondial t chassis 76390 as its basis, and included significant external body modifications in its design.
The Mondial 8 received a mixed range of reviews upon release; the automotive press was unanimous in their accolades of the Mondial 8's road manners, but a number of sources were quite critical of the vehicle's performance, especially when compared to earlier or concurrent Ferrari models. In more recent times, several retrospective articles have rated the Mondial 8 poorly, with Time magazine going as far as including the Mondial 8 in their list of the 50 worst cars of all time.
It seems likely that the stigmas bestowed upon the Mondial line trace to a few negative articles written about the early Mondial 8. Three top US automotive publications (Motor Trend, Car & Driver, and Road & Track) all published reviews of the Mondial 8 in the fall of 1981. Road & Track and Car & Driver reported comparatively disappointing performance results. Road & Track noted a faulty gear selector which may have contributed to the overall poor showing. Car & Driver received a pre-production model, which may have contributed to poor performance. Motor Trend's review was much more favourable, and recorded performance on par with the 308 GTBi/GTSi and Porsche 928. There was never any definitive conclusion on these performance disparities; Automobile magazine has suggested that the vehicle's engine being new (not "broken-in") as the reason their observed 0-60 time was below expectations, since the sample vehicle tested by Motor Trend had an engine with significantly greater mileage.
The Quattrovalvole was better received by the automotive press and the public, although some of the previous poor reviews for the Mondial 8 engendered negative perceptions that would follow the Mondial line throughout its life.
The 3.2 received very positive reviews from the automotive press:
The t was the final evolution of the series, and once again received universal praise from the press:
|Mondial QV Cabriolet|
|Weird Science, 1985|
|Madonna: Material Girl Music Video, 1985|
|Lionel Richie: Dancing On the Ceiling Music Video, 1985|
|Mondial 3.2 Cabriolet|
|Into the Night, 1985|
|The Hidden, 1987|
|Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, 1988|
|Only You, 1994|
|Mondial T Cabriolet|
|Scent of a Woman, 1992|
|Father of the Bride Part II, 1995|
|Vegas Vacation, 1997|
With its one-of-a-kind Pininfarina derived design; everyday versatility, the Mondial has amassed a cult following of enthusiasts. It historically has not received widespread admiration however and is sometimes the target of derision due to what many consider the compromises (4 seats and heavier weight) Ferrari undertook creating the car in both form and function. Some early negative reviews for the first model, the Mondial 8, have often been repeated by derivative articles that further tarnished the Mondial image across the subsequent six iterations.
Many current enthusiasts have welcomed the contrary views, as it has allowed the price of the model to remain relatively stable and Ferrari ownership and parts manageable, many speculate (and some lament) that it will inevitably rise significantly in value.
The Mondial has also garnered more positive press in recent media.
In my car collection, I have a Mondial QV... I love my Mondial with a passion. My car guy pals think I'm just a little bit strange, why you got a Mondial QV? Because it's just a cool car. What they don't understand is that I need cars to communicate with me....and it puts a smile on me face. This really is a cool car.
-John Pogson - The Drive May 2016
6 Time British Championship Winner for Ferrari
15 Years Ferrari Engineer in Maranello
25 Years Ferrari Specialist in Italia Autosport
"The Mondial has been the perennial underdog Ferrari along with the V-12 400i/412. Both are having the last laugh, but Mondial prices in particular have been climbing. Offered in 2+2 coupe and convertible body styles, the Mondial shares the revvy 308/328/348 flat-plane crank V-8 with all of the visceral thrills that entails. Striking Pininfarina looks, decent reliability, Ferrari sounds and room in back for the kids? What’s not to like?" -Hagerty - August 2015
"..the V8 sings and the chassis is a delight, with many thinking it sweeter in the ride and handling than the equivalent two-seat models...Find a good one and you’ll get one of Ferrari’s most reliable and inexpensive cars." -Mark Pearson "Autocar" May 2015
"The Mondial might be a four-seat GT car on paper, but it's still a mid-engined screaming Ferrari at Heart." -Terry Shea "Hemmings Sports & Exotic Car" August 2014
"The Mondial is a highly usable, underrated Ferrari with good parts availability..." -Malcom McKay - "Classic Sports Car" June 2013
"Ferrari Mondial makes an excellent practical classic Ferrari. With four seats, a comfortable ride, that quintessential Ferrari sound track and in later forms - impressive handling and performance, the Mondial represents excellent value for the money." -"Italia" July 2012
In 2012, Top Gear reviewed a 1980 Mondial 8, nominating the Mondial and the F50 as the two Ferrari contenders for "the worst car in the history of the world." James May compared it to "Lennon & McCartney's Eggman - rubbish," criticized the performance, handling, and interior space, and stated that anybody who bought one would be "bitterly disappointed." Jeremy Clarkson decided that the F50 was a "worse catastrophe in Ferrari's history."
In 2015, a pristine 1991 Mondial t coupe sold for €95,200 + (12% buyers premium + 20% VAT on premium) = €108,909, or approximately $117,000 US Dollars
The Ferrari Mondial has many misconceptions and urban myths. Historical negative commentary fall under four categories:
1. Performance 2. Reliability 3. Price 4. Aesthetics
In regards to performance, there was a question of the straight line speed for only the first model, the United States variant (which had additional performance inhibiting emissions control equipment) of the Mondial 8 (80-82). The United States variant of the Mondial 8 represents only 147 (or 2%) of the over 6,000 examples produced during the vehicle's lifetime. There were three formal road tests for the United States variant of the Mondial 8 in 1980. Two trials (Car and Driver/Road & Track) lamented straight line speed, one (Motor Trend) test applauded it. Handling is universally praised by the press at the time for all models (including the Mondial 8) and straight-line performance on par with other exotics for all subsequent iterations.
Reliability is another common critique. The Mondial 8,qv, and 3.2 lines shares the exact powertrain and many parts as the 308/328, both regarded as the more reliable Ferrari.
The Mondial is often described as the 'entry-level' Ferrari. The reality is the Mondial was substantially more expensive than the 308/328 when new.
The view of the Mondial's aesthetics has always been a matter of debate. Given the subjective nature of visual design, it is the one criticism that has merit based only on personal judgment.
I think it's Ferrari's most elegant car...the Mondial's shape is perfect...In short, the Mondial is the one Ferrari that causes heads to turn in appreciation rather than shock.
-John Phillips III of Automobile 1987
The styling of the Ferrari Mondial Coupe indeed of most Ferraris is best described as timeless; the Pininfarina penned lines still look fresh after eleven years and have influenced the design of sports cars from Detroit to Tokyo.
"At its launch in 1980, the Mondial 8 was criticized for its styling, weight and lacklustre performance, but time has been kind to the eight-cylinder Fezza. In fact, the restrained styling is central to its appeal."
-Motoring Research 2016
Classic Car Rescue is a British/Canadian reality television series produced by Blink Films and aired on Channel 5 for six weeks in 2012, as well as on Discovery Networks affiliates in international markets.Each one-hour episode documents the work of Cockney mechanic Bernie Fineman and his Italian Canadian business partner Mario Pacione, as they purchase "shameful rust bucket" classic cars from scrapheaps, barns, and backyards and restore them to their former, or to new, glories. Having bought the "bargain wrecks," the pair must then source the parts needed to return the cars to the shiny, desirable motors they once were. At the end of each episode, the cars are appraised by an automotive valuer before being given away in a viewer competition. The programme returned with a second series in 2014, running for eight weeks.Dino (automobile)
Dino (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdiːno]) was a marque for mid-engined, rear-drive sports cars produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1976. Used for models with engines with fewer than 12 cylinders, it was an attempt by the company to offer a relatively low-cost sports car. The Ferrari name remained reserved for its premium V-12 and flat 12 models until 1976, when "Dino" was retired in favour of full Ferrari branding.
Named to honour Ferrari founder Enzo Ferrari's son and heir Dino Ferrari, the Dino models used Ferrari racing naming designation of displacement and cylinder count with two digits for the size of the engine in deciliters and the third digit to represent the number of cylinders, i.e. 246 being a 2.4-litre 6-cylinder and 308 being a 3.0-litre 8-cylinder. Ferrari street models of the time used a three-digit representation of the displacement in cubic centimeters of one of the 12 cylinders, which would have been meaningless in a brand with differing numbers of cylinders.Electrohydraulic manual transmission
Electrohydraulic manual transmission is a type of semi-automatic transmission system, which uses an automated clutch unlike conventional manual transmissions where the driver operates the clutch. The clutch is controlled by electronic computers and hydraulics. To change gears, the driver selects the desired gear with the transmission shift lever, and the system automatically operates the clutch and throttle to match revs and engage the clutch again. Also, many such transmissions operate in sequential mode where the driver can only upshift or downshift by one gear at a time.
Depending on the implementation, some computer-controlled electrohydraulic manual transmissions will automatically shift gears at the right points (like an automatic transmission), while others require the driver to manually select the gear even when the engine is at the redline. Despite superficial similarity, clutchless manual transmission differ significantly in internal operation and driver's 'feel' from manumatics, the latter of which is an automatic transmission (automatics use a torque converter instead of clutch to manage the link between the engine and the transmission) with ability to signal shifts manually.Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS
The Ferrari 308 GTB berlinetta and targa topped 308 GTS are V8 mid-engined, two-seater sports cars manufactured by the Italian company Ferrari from 1975 to 1985. The 308 replaced the Dino 246 GT and GTS in 1975 and was updated as the 328 in 1985. The similar 208 GTB and GTS were equipped with a smaller initially naturally aspirated, later turbocharged two-litre engine, and sold mostly in Italy.Ferrari 348
The Ferrari 348 (Type F119) is a mid-engine V8-powered 2-seat sports car produced by Italian automaker Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 model developed under the direction of Enzo Ferrari before his death, commissioned to production posthumously.Ferrari GT4
The Dino 308 GT4 and 208 GT4 (later Ferrari 308 GT4 and 208 GT4) were mid-engined V8 2+2 cars built by Ferrari. The Dino 308 GT4 was introduced in 1973 and supplemented by the 208 GT4 in 1975. The cars were sold with Dino badging (continuing the Dino brand to differentiate non-V12 Ferrari) until May 1976, when they received Ferrari badging. The GT4 was replaced by the Mondial 8 in 1980 after a production run of 2,826 308s and 840 208s.Ferrari Monza
A Ferrari Monza is one of a series of cars built by Ferrari. In the early 1950s, Ferrari shifted from using the compact Gioacchino Colombo-designed V12 engine in its smallest class of sports racers to a line of four-cylinder engines designed by Aurelio Lampredi. Inspired by the success of the light and reliable 2.5 L 553 F1 car, the four-cylinder sports racers competed successfully through the late 1950s, culminating with the famed 500 Mondial and 750 Monza.
One important stylistic difference between most four-cylinder Ferraris is that they lacked the hood scoops common on V12 models. The V12 cars used downdraft carburettors located centrally in the "valley" of the engine, while the inline-engined fours used side-draft units and thus did not need the hood scoops.Hidden headlamp
Hidden headlamps, also commonly known as pop-up headlamps, hideaway headlights, are a form of automotive lighting and an automotive styling feature that conceals an automobile's headlamps when they are not in use.
Depending on the design, the headlamps may be mounted in a housing that rotates so as to sit flush with the front end as on the Porsche 928, may retract into the hood and/or fenders as on the 1963–2004 Chevrolet Corvette, or may be concealed behind retractable or rotating grille panels as on the Dodge Charger, Mercury Cyclone, or the 1960s Buick Riviera, which pioneered the feature.International Motor Show Germany
The International Motor Show Germany or simply International Motor Show, in German known as the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung (IAA - International Automobile Exhibition), is the world's largest motor show. It is held annually, with passenger vehicles (including some motorcycles) being displayed in odd-numbered years in Frankfurt am Main, and commercial vehicles in even-numbered years in Hanover, Germany. Before 1991 the show was held solely in Frankfurt.
The IAA is organized by the Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA – Association of the German Automotive Industry) and is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles. Currently, the show in Frankfurt occupies twelve buildings.Jaguar XJS
The Jaguar XJ-S (later called XJS) is a luxury grand tourer manufactured and marketed by British automobile manufacturer Jaguar from 1975 to 1996, in coupé, fixed-profile and full convertible body styles. There were three distinct iterations, with a final production total of 115,413 units over 20 years and seven months.
Originally developed using the platform of the then current XJ saloon, the XJ-S was noted for its prominent rear flying buttresses. The styling was by Jaguar's pioneering aerodynamicist Malcolm Sayer — one of the first designers to apply advanced aero principles to cars. Sayer died just before the XJ-S body styling was frozen for production.
In its final iteration produced from 1991 to 1996, was manufactured under Jaguar's new owner Ford, who introduced numerous modifications — and eliminated the hyphen in the name, marketing Jaguar's longest running model simply as the XJS.Keke Rosberg
Keijo Erik Rosberg (pronunciation ; born 6 December 1948), known as "Keke", is a Finnish former racing driver and winner of the 1982 Formula One World Championship. He was the first Finnish driver to compete regularly in the series. He is the father of retired Formula One driver and 2016 Formula One world champion Nico Rosberg.Lancia Thema
The Lancia Thema (Type 834) is an executive car produced by the Italian automaker Lancia between 1984 and 1994, and one of four cars to share the Type Four platform alongside the Alfa Romeo 164, Fiat Croma and Saab 9000. The Thema was first shown in Turin Motor Show in 1984.
In February 2011, it was reported that the second generation of the Chrysler 300C, due for launch later that year, would be marketed as Lancia Thema in all European markets, except the UK and Ireland, which would retain the 300C nameplate.Leonardo Fioravanti (engineer)
Leonardo Fioravanti (born 1938) is an Italian automobile designer and CEO of Fioravanti Srl.Michelin TRX
The Michelin TRX, (and the related TDX), is a radial tire introduced by the Michelin Group in 1975. It is one of the first volume-produced low-profile tires. Although technologically advanced, and reasonably successful, the tire's requirement for a non-standard rim ultimately condemned it to a relatively short commercial life. It has thus been called the "Betamax of the tire industry."Mid-engine design
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axlesMondial
Mondial may refer to:
Mondial (amusement ride manufacturer)
Mondial (motorcycle manufacturer)
Mondial (company), a Brazilian electronics company
Mondial language, an international auxiliary language
Ferrari Mondial, an automobile manufactured from 1980 to 1993Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout (now simply known as MR or Mid-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout) is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle. This layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution (the heaviest component is near the center of the car, making the main component of its moment of inertia relatively low). The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, which allows for best balance to be achieved under braking. However, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically been used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger car's handling, making it 'tail-heavy'. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout. The mid-engined layout also uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some microvans use this layout, with a small, low engine beneath the loading area. This makes it possible to move the driver right to the front of the vehicle, thus increasing the loading area at the expense of slightly reduced load depth.
In modern racing cars, RMR is the usual configuration and is usually synonymous with "mid engine". Due to its weight distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars (such as Formula One and IndyCar) as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was also common in very small engined 1950s microcars, in which the engines did not take up much space. Because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design, maintenance and lack of cargo space. The similar mid-engine, four-wheel-drive layout gives many of the same advantages and is used when extra traction is desired, such as in some supercars and in the Group B rally cars.Scent of a Woman (1992 film)
Scent of a Woman is a 1992 American drama film produced and directed by Martin Brest that tells the story of a preparatory school student who takes a job as an assistant to an irritable, blind, medically retired Army officer. The film is a remake of Dino Risi's 1974 Italian film Profumo di donna, adapted by Bo Goldman from the novel Il buio e il miele (Italian: Darkness and Honey) by Giovanni Arpino and from the 1974 screenplay by Ruggero Maccari and Dino Risi. The film stars Al Pacino and Chris O'Donnell, with James Rebhorn, Philip Seymour Hoffman and Gabrielle Anwar.
Pacino won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance and the film was nominated for Best Director, Best Picture and Best Screenplay Based on Material Previously Produced or Published. The film won three major awards at the Golden Globe Awards: Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Actor and Best Motion Picture – Drama.The film was shot primarily around New York state, and also on location at Princeton University, at the Emma Willard School, an all-girls school in Troy, New York, and at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School in New York City.Semi-automatic transmission
A semi-automatic transmission (also known as a clutch-less manual transmission, auto-manual, automated manual transmission, trigger shift, flappy-paddle gear shift or paddle-shift gearbox) is an automobile transmission that combines manual transmission and automatic transmission.
It allows convenient driver control of gear selection. For most of automotive history, automatic transmissions already allowed some control of gear selection using the console or shifter, usually to limit the transmission shifting beyond a certain gear (allowing engine braking on downhills) and/or locking out the use of overdrive gears when towing. It enhanced such features by providing either steering wheel mounted paddle shifters or a modified shift lever, allowing the driver to enter a "manual mode" and select any available gear, usually in a sequential "up shift/downshift" manner.
Some transmissions allow the driver to have full control of gear selection, though most will intervene to prevent engine stalling and redlining by shifting automatically at the low end and/or high end of the engine's normal operating range. Hydraulically-coupled and most clutch transmissions also provide the option of operating in the same manner as a conventional automatic transmission, by allowing the transmission's computer to select gear changes. A few also allow an alternate automatic mode, often called "sport" mode, where gear selection is still fully automatic but the transmission will favor higher engine speeds (at which the engine will produce the highest horsepower and/or torque) by up shifting later when accelerating and downshifting earlier when slowing.
A clutch-less manual facilitates gear changes by dispensing with the need to press a clutch pedal at the same time as changing gears. It uses electronic sensors, pneumatics, processors and actuators to execute gear shifts on input from the driver or by a computer. This removes the need for a clutch pedal which the driver otherwise needs to depress before making a gear change, since the clutch itself is actuated by electronic equipment which can synchronize the timing and torque required to make quick, smooth gear shifts. The system was designed by automobile manufacturers to provide a better driving experience through fast overtaking maneuvers on highways. Some motorcycles also use a system with a conventional gear change but without the need for manual clutch operation.
« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–1990s — next »
|8 cylinder||Mid-engine berlinetta||308||308 i||308 QV||328||348||360|
|208||208 Turbo||GTB/GTS Turbo||F355|
|Mid-engine 2+2||308 GT4||Mondial 8||Mondial QV||Mondial 3.2||Mondial t|
|12 cylinder||Boxer berlinetta||365 BB||512 BB||512i BB||Testarossa (F110)||512TR||F512 M|
|Grand tourer||250||275||365 GTB/4
|2+2 grand tourer||250 GT/E||330 GT 2+2||365 GT 2+2||365
|365 GT4 2+2||400||400 i||412||456||456M|
|Supercar||250 GTO||250 LM||288
|Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline Sold under the|