Ferrari F12

The Ferrari F12berlinetta[3] (also unofficially referred to as the F12 Berlinetta or the F12, and unofficially stylized as the F12B for short)(Type F152) is a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive grand tourer produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari. The F12berlinetta debuted at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, and replaces the 599 grand tourer.[6] The naturally aspirated 6.3 litre Ferrari V12 engine used in the F12berlinetta has won the 2013 International Engine of the Year Award in the Best Performance category and Best Engine above 4.0 litres. The F12berlinetta was named "The Supercar of the Year 2012" by car magazine Top Gear. The F12berlinetta was replaced by the 812 Superfast in 2017.

In 2014, the F12berlinetta was awarded the XXIII Premio Compasso d'oro ADI. Accepting the award was Ferrari’s Senior Vice President of Design, Flavio Manzoni.

Ferrari F12berlinetta
Ferrari F12 Berlinette - Mondial de l'Automobile de Paris 2016 - 001
Ferrari F12berlinetta in the distinctive 70th anniversary celebration livery on display at the Mondial de l'Automobile de Paris 2016
Overview
ManufacturerFerrari
Production2012–2017
AssemblyMaranello, Italy
DesignerFerrari Styling Centre under Flavio Manzoni, in collaboration with Pininfarina[1]
Body and chassis
ClassGrand tourer (S)
Body style2-door berlinetta
LayoutFront mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive
RelatedFerrari FF
Powertrain
Engine6.3 L F140 FC V12[1]
Transmission7-speed dual-clutch (F1 DCT)[2]
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,720 mm (107 in)
Length4,618 mm (181.8 in)[3]
Width1,942 mm (76.5 in)[3]
Height1,273 mm (50.1 in)[3]
Kerb weight1,791 kg (3,948 lb)[4]
Chronology
PredecessorFerrari 599
SuccessorFerrari 812 Superfast[5]

Specifications

Engine

Ferrari F12 Berlinetta 6.2 '13 (8590894844)
The 6.3 L F140FC V12 engine

The F12berlinetta uses a 6,262 cc (6.3 L; 382.1 cu in), naturally aspirated 65° V12 engine of the Ferrari F140 engine family. Displacement is shared with the FF, but the F140 FC version installed on the F12 generates a power output of 740 PS (544 kW; 730 hp) at 8,250 rpm[2] and 690 N⋅m (509 lb⋅ft) of torque at 6,000 rpm, making it the fourth most powerful Ferrari road car produced to date, only surpassed by the LaFerrari, F12tdf and its successor, the 812 Superfast.[1][2][7][8]

The engine of the F12berlinetta has been designed to be more efficient than that of the 599, as well as more powerful. The engine management system is fitted with Ferrari's HELE start-stop system to reduce fuel consumption when idling. Ferrari reports that the F12berlinetta can achieve 18 mpg‑imp (15.7 L/100 km; 15.0 mpg‑US) – a 30% improvement over the 599 – and produces CO2 emissions of 350 g/km.[2][6]

Transmission

Similar to the California, 458 Italia, FF and LaFerrari, the F12berlinetta transmits power through a 7-speed dual-clutch semi-automatic gearbox operated by the driver using paddle shifters present behind the steering wheel. Compared to similar models, the F12berlinetta uses shortened gear ratios to match the power of the engine.[3][7]

Chassis

The rearview of Ferrari F12Berlinetta
Rear view

The F12berlinetta is built around an aluminium space frame chassis co-developed with Scaglietti. The chassis is made up of 12 different aluminium alloys and improves structural rigidity by 20% over the 599, whilst reducing weight by 70 kg (154 lb). The centre of gravity has also been lowered by around 25 mm (1 in). The F12berlinetta's weight distribution is 48% front, 52% rear.[9]

Ferrari F12 Berlinetta 6.2 '13 (11841933714)
The F12berlinetta has carbon ceramic brakes as standard equipment

Similar to other contemporary Ferrari models, the F12berlinetta uses Ferrari's third generation CCM3 carbon ceramic disc brakes with ABS, SCM-E magnetorheological suspension, an electronic LSD, ESP Premium stability control and F1-Trac traction control. The car's stability and traction control, suspension and other settings are controlled by the Manettino dial mounted on the steering wheel.[3]

Tyres

The F12berlinetta is fitted with Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres, with the tyre codes 255/35 ZR20 (on 20"×9.5J wheels) at the front and 315/35 ZR20 (on 20"×11.5J wheels) at the rear.[2][10]

Aerodynamics

Ferrari F12berlinetta (Scottsdale, Arizona)
The side profile of the F12berlinetta

The F12berlinetta makes use of aerodynamic techniques based on Ferrari's 599XX and Formula One programmes, developed with wind tunnel and CFD testing. A notable feature is the Aero Bridge, an air channel running from the bonnet, through the flanks and along the sides of the vehicle, creating an effect that increases downforce. Another feature is Active Brake Cooling ducts, which open to direct cooling air only when the brakes are hot, keeping them closed at other times to reduce aerodynamic drag. The F12berlinetta produces 123 kg (271 lb) of downforce at 200 km/h (124 mph) – an increase of 76% over the 599 GTB – and has a drag coefficient of 0.299.[1][2][3][7]

Performance

Ferrari reports that the F12berlinetta is capable of lapping the Fiorano test circuit in 1 minute, 23 seconds; three seconds slower than the LaFerrari, a full second faster than the 599 GTO, two seconds faster than the Enzo Ferrari, two seconds faster than the 458 Italia, three seconds faster than the 430 Scuderia and three and a half seconds faster than the 599 GTB.[11]

Ferrari claimed the F12berlinetta to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.1 seconds, 0 to 200 km/h (124 mph) in 8.5 seconds and to reach a top speed of 340 km/h (211 mph).[1][8]

Design

The body of the F12berlinetta is designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, and shares some styling elements with other recent Ferrari models. This includes a front grille similar to the FF and headlights shared with the FF and 458 Italia. The interior, based on the FF, features new "Frau leather" upholstery with aluminium, Alutex, and carbon fibre trim, and has increased luggage space compared to the 599.[3][7]

The body computer system is developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting.

Ferrari F12tdf (2015–2017)

Ferrari Berlinetta TDF (2)
Ferrari F12tdf

The F12tdf (tour de France) is a track-focused version of the F12berlinetta unveiled in October 2015.[12] The name pays homage to the Tour de France automobile race held between 1899 and 1986 and which was regularly won by the Ferrari 250 between 1956 and 1964. The F12tdf shares the same 6.3 litre V12 engine with the F12berlinetta, but with power output increased to 780 PS (574 kW; 769 hp) at 8500 rpm and 705 N⋅m (520 lb⋅ft) of torque at 6750 rpm. The F12tdf is 110 kg (243 lb) lighter than the F12, having a claimed dry weight of 1,415 kg (3,120 lb). Ferrari claimed the F12tdf to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 2.9 seconds and 0 to 200 km/h (124 mph) in 7.9 seconds. The top speed was claimed to be 'in excess of 340 km/h (211 mph)'. The car has recorded a 1 minute 21 seconds lap time on Ferrari's Fiorano test circuit , 2 seconds faster than the standard F12berlinetta and 488 GTB, and just 1.3 seconds behind the fastest lap set by the LaFerrari.[13] F12tdf was designed by Ferrari Styling Centre.[14] Production of the F12tdf was limited to 799 units.

One-offs and special editions

Ferrari F12 TRS

Festival automobile international 2015 - Ferrari F12 TRS - 004
F12 TRS at the 2015 Festival automobile international

The F12 TRS is a one-off barchetta based on the F12berlinetta, made for a customer by Ferrari under its Special Projects programme. It made its public debut in Sicily at the Ferrari Cavalcade in June 2014. Designed in-house by the Centro Stile Ferrari headed by Flavio Manzoni, it took inspiration from the 1957 250 Testa Rossa, reinterpreted in a modern design language. The car has a Barchetta bodystyle, harking back to the original Testarossa. A redesigned rear section also recalls the styling of the Testarossa in a modern fashion. The front of the car features a redesigned front bumper and a new engine cover with a glass panel displaying the V12 engine's cylinder heads.[15][16] The F12 TRS also made an appearance at the 2014 Goodwood Festival of Speed.[17]

In November 2014, a second F12 TRS was spotted testing at Circuito Monteblanco in Spain, painted in black,[18] while the red version was displayed again in January 2015 at the Festival Automobile International in Paris.

The black F12 TRS was seen again, this time in Rome at the Ferrari Cavalcade in June 2015, now finished in liquid silver paintwork and featuring a redesigned front bumper, headlights, mirrors and rear diffuser.[19]

The red F12 TRS was spotted again in Corsica in 2016 now featuring the same redesigned body as the liquid silver version. Only two of these cars were produced and both were commissioned by the same customer.[20]

Ferrari SP America

The Ferrari SP America is a one-off coupé based on the F12berlinetta completed in 2014 and developed under Ferrari's Special Projects programme.[21] It features custom bodywork, including a redesigned hood with three vents, which many reviewers say is reminiscent of the 250 GTO.[22] It also has unique vents on the fenders and slats behind the windows, as well as a redesigned front bumper and redesigned rear end with a large diffuser and an integrated spoiler. The car was commissioned by Danny Wegman, CEO of Wegmans.[23]

Ferrari F60 America

Ferrari F60 America - Museo Ferrari (17514670344)
Ferrari F60 America

The Ferrari F60 America is a limited production roadster derivative of the F12, built to celebrate 60 years of Ferrari in North America.[24] Production was limited to ten examples and according to the manufacturer, all were already spoken for at the time of the car's public introduction in October 2014.[25] The open-top configuration pays homage to US-only limited production convertible Ferraris of the past, such as the 275 GTS/4 NART Spider. Compared to the F12, the F60 has all-new bodywork; it uses a light removable soft top instead of a conventional convertible top. Each of the ten examples built features an asymmetrical cabin design with red trim for the driver's area and black for the passenger, American flag detailing in the center of the backrests of both seats, and classic blue and white North American Racing Team livery.

Touring Berlinetta Lusso

2015-03-03 Geneva Motor Show 4066 (cropped)
Touring Superleggera Berlinetta Lusso at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show

At the March 2015 Geneva Motor Show, Carrozzeria Touring unveiled the Touring Berlinetta Lusso, a one-off, two-seater, three-box coupé based on the F12berlinetta.[26] Carrozzeria Touring developed the car on a client's request. The car has coachbuilt bodywork with each body panel of the car made from hand beaten aluminium. It also features a special blue exterior colour and a redesigned interior. The mechanical components are the same as the F12berlinetta, as are the headlamps and tail lamps. A production run of five examples was announced.[26][27]

Ferrari F12berlinetta SG50 Edition

The Ferrari F12berlinetta SG50 Edition is a one-off made to celebrate Singapore’s 50 years of independence. Changes over the F12berlinetta include a red and white livery featuring a special ‘Rosso Singapore’ paintwork on the exterior and leather upholstery in the same colour on the interior.[28] The colour scheme is designed to mirror the colors of the Singapore flag. Additionally the car has Singaporean lions embroidered in the headrest as well as the words "Singapore 50th Anniversary Edition 1/1" on the steering wheel and the door sills.[29]

Ferrari SP275 RW Competizione

Ferrari SP275 RW Competizione
SP275 RW at the 2016 Ferrari Finale Mondiali in Daytona, Florida

The Ferrari SP275 RW Competizione is a one-off model inspired by the 1964 Ferrari 275 GTB/C Speciale that won in the GT class at the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans and placed 3rd overall. Its design is a collaboration between the Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina.[30] The car is based on the F12berlinetta but utilises the 6.3 liter V12 engine from the F12tdf which generates a power output of 780 PS (574 kW; 769 hp) and 705 N⋅m (520 lb⋅ft) of torque.[31] The car has a coachbuilt body with a redesigned front fascia and headlights, widened rear track, custom 20 inch 10 spoke forged alloy wheels, an aluminium fuel filler cap and unique yellow exterior colour.[30] The body also has 3 vents behind each side window, 3 on each side of the rear bumper and 4 vents on each fender inspired by the vents on the racing 275 GTB/C. The "RW" designation stands for the initials of the person who commissioned the car, Florida dentist Rick Workman, who also owns the 599-based Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta unveiled in 2009 and the F12-based F60 America mentioned above that was unveiled in 2014.

Ferrari SP3JC

Presented in November 2018, the SP3JC is a one-off roadster based on the F12tdf. It was designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre to pay homage to Ferrari roadsters of 1950s and 1960s. It is powered by the V12 engine from the F12tdf which is unchanged from the production car.[32] The body has been completely redesigned, and includes redesigned front and rear fascias, a new front bumper, a rear diffuser, transparent hood vents that show off the engine, roll hoops behind the seats, taillights and wheels from the 812 Superfast and a blue, white and yellow paint job that pays homage to the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO.[33] "JC" stands for John Collins, a Scottish collector and founder of Talacrest, a classic Ferrari dealer located in the U.K. He commissioned the car in mid 2014 and it took 3.5 years to complete. Ferrari said the design process alone took 2 of those years.[34]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Barlow, Jason (29 February 2012). "It's here: meet the new Ferrari F12 Berlinetta". Top Gear. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Ferrari F12berlinetta : new generation of prancing horse 12 cylinders". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Announcing the F12berlinetta: the fastest Ferrari ever built" (29 February 2012). ferrari.com. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  4. ^ https://www.quattroruote.it/auto/ferrari/f12berlinetta/f12berlinetta-096511201502
  5. ^ "Meet the 789bhp Ferrari 812 Superfast". Top Gear. 2017-02-16. Retrieved 2017-03-20.
  6. ^ a b Pollard, Tim (29 February 2012). "Ferrari F12 Berlinetta (2012) – the 599 supercar". Car Magazine. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d Hardy, Sam (29 February 2012). "Ferrari F12 Berlinetta revealed". Auto Express. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  8. ^ a b Davis, Matt (13 September 2012). "2013 Ferrari F12berlinetta [w/video]". Autoblog. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  9. ^ "Ferrari F12 Berlinetta performance - Autocar".
  10. ^ Evans, Huw (19 March 2012). "Ferrari F12 Berlinetta Gets Michelin Super Sport Pilot Tires Standard". Auto Guide. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  11. ^ "Fiorano lap times - FastestLaps.com".
  12. ^ "Berlinetta goes bonkers: Ferrari F12tdf revealed". Auto Express.
  13. ^ Darren Moss. "2015 Ferrari F12tdf revealed with 770bhp - plus new video".
  14. ^ "F12tdf Design". ferrari.com. Archived from the original on 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  15. ^ Pollard, Tim (23 June 2014). "Ferrari F12 TRS: the one-off made for 2014 Ferrari Cavalcade". Car. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  16. ^ Joseph, Noah (23 June 2014). "Ferrari reveals one-off F12 TRS at Sicily cavalcade homage". autoblog.com. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  17. ^ Stevens, Mike (30 June 2014). "Ferrari F12 TRS Special Revealed Further At Goodwood Festival Of Speed". themotorreport.com.au. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  18. ^ "Black Ferrari F12 TRS spotted in Spain". motor1.com. 22 November 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  19. ^ Karkafiris, Michael (8 July 2015). "Unique chrome-silver Ferrari F12 TRS spotted in Rome". carscoops.com. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  20. ^ "Unique one-off Ferrari F12 TRS spotted for the first time". autogespot.com. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  21. ^ Padeanu, Adrian (27 June 2014). "Ferrari SP America photographed from all angles". worldcarfans.com. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  22. ^ "Ferrari delivers one-off F12 SP America in New York". Autoblog. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  23. ^ Anderson, Brad (2014-09-24). "One-Off 2015 Ferrari F12 SP America Snapped in Public - GTspirit". GTspirit. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  24. ^ Wendler, Andrew (10 October 2014). "Limited-Edition, $2.5-Million Ferrari F60 America Debuts—and Is Already Sold Out l". Car and Driver. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  25. ^ Ewing, Steven J. (10 October 2014). "Ferrari F60 America is a powerful, exclusive US special". autoblog.com. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  26. ^ a b D. C. (4 March 2015). "Touring Superleggera Berlinetta Lusso—A Ginevra debutta la fuoriserie su base F12". quattroruote.it (in Italian). Quattroruote. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  27. ^ Petrány, Máté (3 September 2015). "The Touring Berlinetta Lusso Is Your Stunning Coachbuilt F12". Jalopnik. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  28. ^ "Ferrari F12 Berlinetta SG50 Celebrates Singapore's Independence". AutoGuide.com News. 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  29. ^ Hamid, Zaid (14 December 2014). "One-Off Ferrari F12 and Rolls-Royce Ghost SG50 Editions - GTspirit". GTspirit. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Ferrari reveals its latest bespoke one-off: the SP 275 rw competizione - Ferrari.com". Ferrari GT - en-US. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  31. ^ "Full details on the one-off Ferrari SP 275 RW Competizione". Motor Authority. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  32. ^ "Ferrari SP3JC". Ferrari.com. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  33. ^ "This Custom Ferrari SP3JC Was Commissioned by a Former Freelance Journalist". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  34. ^ "Ferrari SP3JC one-off channels vintage roadsters with a color-wheel twist". Autoblog. Retrieved 2018-11-29.

External links

Extra Gear

Top Gear: Extra Gear, known simply as Extra Gear, is a British online television series, broadcast by BBC Three, which is online only and is available on on-demand service BBC iPlayer in the United Kingdom; the series serves as a spin-off show to Top Gear. In the first series, the main presenters were Top Gear co-presenters Rory Reid and Chris Harris. After Reid and Harris were appointed as main presenters to the parent show, comedian George Lewis was announced as the new lead presenter for series 2. Following Lewis’ departure, Reid returned as the presenter of the show for the third series.

Ferrari

Ferrari (; Italian: [ferˈraːri]) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed.

In 2014 Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million.Fiat S.p.A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p.A. from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari.

The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. (a company incorporated in the Netherlands) as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016.Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships (16) and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins (15). Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth.

Ferrari 599

The Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano (internal code F141) is a grand tourer produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari. It was the brand's front engined, two-seat flagship, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model, and was replaced for the 2013 model year by the F12berlinetta.

Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ken Okuyama, the 599 GTB debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006. The bodywork features optimized aerodynamics with distinct sail panels flanking the rear window, directing and maximizing air flow to a linear rear nolder.The 599 is named for its total engine displacement 5,999 cc (6.0 L), Gran Turismo Berlinetta nature, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari.

Flavio Manzoni

Flavio Manzoni (born 7 January 1965 in Nuoro, Sardinia) is an Italian architect and automobile designer. He is the Senior Vice President of Design at Ferrari.

Forza Motorsport 5

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International Engine of the Year

The International Engine of the Year is an annual competition for automotive industry internal combustion engines, judged by a panel of automobile journalists from around the world. It is organised by UKi Media & Events' Automotive Magazines. The competition was started in 1999.

The award is determined by the panellists using "subjective driving impressions and technical knowledge, and took into account characteristics such as fuel economy, noise, smoothness, performance and driveability".

Kim Komando

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The Kim Komando Show is broadcast and syndicated on over 435 radio stations in the United States and two stations in Ontario, Canada to an estimated 3.5+ million listeners. (See Popular US Radio Shows) Her Consumer Tech Update airs on more than 390 stations five days a week. Her radio shows are also heard internationally on the Armed Forces Radio Network, covering 177 different countries. She hosts podcasts served to over 300,000 listeners per week. The Kim Komando Television Show premiered globally on Bloomberg TV January 5, 2019.

Komando refers to herself as "America's Digital Goddess". As of May 2018, her website, Komando.com, serves 2.7 million unique visitors each month and she sends 500 million newsletters per year to subscribers.Komando and her husband, Barry Young, own Phoenix, Arizona-based WestStar TalkRadio Network, which distributes the Komando radio program.

Komando has appeared on CNN, CBS, MSNBC, ABC, BBC and Fox News, and her syndicated columns appear in USA Today and other newspapers. She has been a columnist for USA Today since February 2002. She won the Gracie Award for Outstanding Program Host in 2007 and in April 2016 was the keynote speaker at the NAB Show Radio Luncheon to an audience of industry leaders. In 2016, she was nominated to the National Radio Hall of Fame. In January 2017, she was appointed to Forbes Magazine Tech Council.

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List of Ferrari road cars

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Made in Italy

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Magna PT

Magna PT, known until 2018 as GETRAG (German: [ɡəˈtʁaːk]), is the world's largest supplier of transmission systems for passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The company was founded on 1 May 1935, in Ludwigsburg, Germany, by Hermann Hagenmeyer; as the Getriebe und Zahnradfabrik Hermann Hagenmeyer GmbH & Cie KG.Headquartered in Untergruppenbach in Germany, Magna PT manufactures and develops passenger car transmission products and solutions for the important automotive markets Europe, Asia and North America with 24 locations and about 12,500 employees worldwide. In 2011, the company had a turnover of three billion euros.The company has three joint ventures: Getrag Ford Transmissions headquartered in Cologne with Ford Motor Company, Getrag (Jiangxi) Transmission Co. Ltd. with Jiangling Motors Corporation., Ltd. and Dongfeng Getrag Transmission with Dongfeng Motor Corporation. In addition, Magna PT supplies transmissions to a variety of automotive manufacturers, including BMW (Mini), Daimler AG, Ferrari, Mitsubishi, Porsche, Qoros, Renault, Volkswagen Group and Volvo. Competitors include Aisin Seiki, BorgWarner, Graziano Trasmissioni and ZF Friedrichshafen.

The portfolio ranges from classical manual transmissions, automated manual transmissions and automatic transmissions based on dual-clutch transmission (DCT) technology to various hybridization solutions, range extender systems and purely electric drivetrains.

In July 2015, Magna bought Getrag for 1.9 billion dollars and then renamed to Magna PT

Magnetorheological damper

A magnetorheological damper or magnetorheological shock absorber is a damper filled with magnetorheological fluid, which is controlled by a magnetic field, usually using an electromagnet. This allows the damping characteristics of the shock absorber to be continuously controlled by varying the power of the electromagnet. Fluid viscosity increases within the damper as electromagnet intensity increases. This type of shock absorber has several applications, most notably in semi-active vehicle suspensions which may adapt to road conditions, as they are monitored through sensors in the vehicle, and in prosthetic limbs.

Mansory

Mansory is a luxury car modification firm based in Brand, Germany. Besides luxury cars, they also work on supercars, luxury SUV and custom bikes. The company was founded in 1989 by Iranian-British tuner; Kourosh Mansory. His Munich-based workshop focused on modifications for British brands such as Rolls Royce and Italian brands such as Ferrari. By mid-2001, the company had grown out of its Munich workshop and moved to headquarters in Fichtelgebirge. The company currently operates out of a workshop in Brand, Germany.

Mansory works on vehicles from a number of manufacturers, including Aston Martin, Audi, BMW, Bentley, Bugatti, Ferrari, Lamborghini, Lotus Cars, Rolls-Royce, Tesla. In November 2007, Mansory acquired the Porsche-tuning arm of Rinspeed AG. Rinspeed maintains its Swiss base in Zumikon at Lake Zurich. Currently, Mansory employs 180 members of staff worldwide and has a global dealership network.

Mansory are renowned for their expertise in carbon fibre design and construction. They are notable for outlandish body modifications, light weight alloy wheels and bespoke interior modifications. The company recently started offering a range of performance upgrades for the Lamborghini Aventador and the Ferrari F12 Berlinetta. Mansory's worldwide distribution network includes dealerships in Germany, Britain, India, China, Canada, Poland, Russia, United States, Japan, Greece, Switzerland, Iceland, UAE and a few other countries.

Nick Faure

Nick Faure (born 28 May 1944) is a former English Sportscar racing driver, and purveyor of Porsche in the United Kingdom of his era. Known affectionately as Mr. Porsche, Faure achieved fame through racing and selling Porsche 911 and 356s, since the 1960s and his name has become synonymous with the marque. His fame allowed him the opportunity at Le Mans 24 Hours eleven times. He retired from international motor sport after his last race, 1989 Spa 24 Hours.

Top Gear (magazine)

Top Gear (stylised in magazine as TopGear) is an automobile magazine owned by BBC Worldwide and published under contract by Immediate Media Company. It is named after the BBC's Top Gear television show. It was first published in October 1993 and is published monthly at a price of £4.35. As of March 2019 there have been a total of 320 issues published in the UK.

The major presenters of the television series — Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond, and James May — were regular contributors, along with the series' production staff. "Tame racing driver" The Stig also regularly features in their car tests, though only communicates his thoughts and feelings through the articles of others.

It is Britain's leading general interest car magazine in sales terms, with over 150,000 copies distributed each month in 2012, a drop of 50,000 from 2007. Previous columnists have included former Top Gear presenters Quentin Willson, Tiff Needell and Vicki Butler-Henderson.

Licensed editions are also published in China, the Czech Republic, Greece, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Middle East (with localized versions for each of the Arab countries), Indonesia, South Korea, South Africa, Russia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Thailand, India, Belgium, Romania, Finland, Sweden, Malaysia, and Singapore. On September 2004, the Philippine edition was released.

On 7 May 2007, it was released in Bulgaria, on 16 November 2007 in Italy, on 14 February 2008 in Poland. An Australian edition was brought out in June 2008. A Hong Kong Chinese edition was released in October 2008. A Turkish edition which name is TopGear Turkey was released in May 2011.

More recently, Portuguese was released in June 2011. A German edition was released on 25 April 2013. After a year, the Polish edition is the third largest market, after the British and Russian editions. In January 2010, Top Gear magazine released its 200th edition, and a free 'best of TopGear magazine' supplement was included. In April 2014 the first issue of the Croatian edition was released, and in May 2015, a French edition was launched. In April 2016, the Spanish version was launched, edited by Axel Springer SE.

Top Gear (series 20)

The twentieth series of Top Gear aired during 2013 on BBC Two and consisted of six episodes, beginning on 30 June and concluding on 4 August. This series saw the Vauxhall Astra Tech Line replace the Kia Cee'd as the show's reasonably priced car.

Top Gear (series 23)

The twenty-third series of Top Gear was aired during 2016 on BBC Two and consisted of six episodes, beginning on 29 May and concluding on 3 July; it was planned to feature ten episodes, but this was revised following concerns the series would conflict with the two major sporting events of Summer 2016, despite the fact it was broadcast alongside UEFA Euro 2016 tournament. Following the departure of Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond and James May, this series featured a new hosting line-up that consisted of Chris Evans and Matt LeBlanc, with Sabine Schmitz, Chris Harris, Rory Reid and Eddie Jordan appearing in some episodes when required; regular unnamed driver The Stig was the only part of the former line-up not to leave. While the format received only minor changes, the studio at Dunsfold was redesigned and the Top Gear Test Track received a brand new rallycross circuit to co-exist alongside it, complete with a brand new car for celebrities – a Mini Rallycross Car, which replaced the Vauxhall Astra Tech Line. A brand new spin-off show was also created, entitled Extra Gear, which was broadcast on online channel BBC Three, and had the same number of episodes with each airing immediately after each episode of Series 23.

The series received a high amount of negative feedback before and during its broadcast; while some was positive, the main criticisms were aimed towards presenter Chris Evans and the number of minor changes that had been made to the show. Viewing figures for the series were also not favourable after the first episode, with the final episode drawing in the lowest overnight viewing figures ever in the show's history. A day after the finale was broadcast, Evans announced his resignation from the show on 4 July 2016, feeling he had done his best but that it had not been good enough for viewers.

V12 engine

A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of six cylinders each, usually but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12 pistons driving a common crankshaft. Since each cylinder bank is essentially a straight-six which is by itself in both primary and secondary balance, a V12 inherits perfect primary and secondary balance no matter which V angle is used, and therefore it needs no balance shafts. A four-stroke 12 cylinder engine has an even firing order if cylinders fire every 60° of crankshaft rotation, so a V12 with cylinder banks at 60° or 180° will have even firing intervals without using split crankpins. By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is usually referred to as a "flat-twelve engine" or a "boxer" although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can and normally do use shared crankpins. It may also be written as "V-12", although this is less common.

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