The Ferrari F10 was a Formula One motor racing car built by Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro to compete in the 2010 Formula One season. The car was unveiled in Maranello, Italy on 28 January 2010. On 20 February, Fernando Alonso declared that the F10 was the best car he had ever driven, and that its true pace was being hidden from its rivals.
|Designer(s)||Aldo Costa (Technical Director)|
Luca Marmorini (Engine & Electronics Director)
Nicholas Tombazis (Chief Designer)
Marco de Luca (Chief Aerodynamicist)
|Successor||Ferrari 150° Italia|
|Chassis||carbon-fibre and honeycomb composite monocoque|
|Suspension (front)||Independent suspension, pushrod activated torsion springs|
|Suspension (rear)||as front|
|Engine||Ferrari Type 056 2.4 L (146 cu in) (800 horsepower) V8 (90°) Naturally aspirated, 18,000 RPM limited mid-mounted at a 3.5° angle|
|Transmission||Ferrari 7 speeds + reverse Semi-automatic sequential, electronically controlled, longitudinal gearbox, quick-shift Limited-slip differential|
|Weight||620 kg (1,366.9 lb) (including driver, water and lubricant)|
|Fuel||Shell V-Power ULG 66L/2 Fuel|
Shell Helix Ultra Lubricant
BBS Wheels (front and rear): 13"
|Notable entrants||Scuderia Ferrari|
|Notable drivers||7. Felipe Massa|
8. Fernando Alonso
|Debut||2010 Bahrain Grand Prix|
The F10, the 56th single-seater car produced by Ferrari to compete in Formula One, was launched in Maranello, and online, on 28 January 2010. Felipe Massa was due to undertake the car's first shakedown later the same day at the Fiorano Circuit, but due to inclement weather in the area, this was postponed to the following day. However, the weather conditions did not improve and thus the car's first run was at the first group test at Circuit Ricardo Tormo in Valencia on 1 February.
The F10 proved immediately more competitive than its predecessor, with Felipe Massa and Fernando Alonso picking up 2nd and 3rd respectively in qualifying at the 2010 Bahrain Grand Prix. Fernando Alonso won the race with Felipe Massa finishing second.
At the Australian Grand Prix, Alonso spun at the first corner after contact with Jenson Button. This dropped Alonso to the back of the field, but he fought his way up through the field throughout the race to eventually finish in fourth, just behind his team-mate Massa who finished third.
At the Malaysian Grand Prix, both Alonso and Massa as well as McLaren's Lewis Hamilton failed to make it through to the second qualifying session after late entries into an increasingly wet session. Both Ferrari drivers fought their way up through the field. Alonso suffered from a downshift problem which eventually resulted in an engine failure just two laps from the finish. Despite not completing the full race distance, he was classified in thirteenth. Massa finished seventh after passing Button in the late stages of the race.
In China, Alonso qualified third while Massa qualified seventh. Alonso jumped the start which resulted in a drive-through penalty and both of them made counter-productive pitstops onto intermediate tyres which dropped them to over 50 seconds behind race-leader at the time Nico Rosberg. Alonso passed Massa into the pitlane entry which resulted in Massa having to wait behind Alonso while his team-mate was serviced.
A safety car caused by Jaime Alguersuari colliding with another car allowed the rest of the field, including Alonso and Massa to catch the leaders. With a few laps to go, Alonso passed Robert Kubica to gain fourth but couldn't pass Rosberg for third and he duly finished fourth after another spectacular charge for the third consecutive race. Massa on the other hand struggled in the later part of the race and finished ninth. Ferrari have openly admitted that they have not achieved what they were capable of, having been overtaken by McLaren for first in the Constructors' Championship.
An F-duct system was introduced in the car for Spain. Initially introduced by McLaren on the MP4-25, the F-duct is an aerodynamic aid which causes the rear wing to enter a stalled state at high speed, reducing aerodynamic drag and increasing straight line speed. Unlike the system on the MP4-25, the F10 uses a pad on the drivers left hand to block the airflow.
At the European Grand Prix, Ferrari introduced the blown diffuser, a concept first introduced by the Red Bull Racing team. Ferrari repositioned the exhaust between the rear upper and lower wishbones, beefed up the bodywork and rear upper and lower wishbone assemblies to handle the temperatures and repositioned the rear brake ducts.
For the German Grand Prix, Bridgestone announced its intentions to increase the difference between its tyre compounds, meaning that the teams have to deal with the extremes in the rubber compounds.
At the Belgian Grand Prix, Ferrari introduced an improved double diffuser layout and Red Bull Racing inspired rear wing on Felipe Massa's car.
At the Italian Grand Prix, Ferrari ran revised front and rear wings on both the cars as part of the team's low-downforce package. It turned out that these minor changes suited this car, especially at Monza and Alonso took pole position on Saturday. At the start of the race, Button overtook Alonso, but better strategy contributed to Alonso taking the lead again and winning the race, with team-mate Felipe Massa finishing 3rd, thus having both Ferraris on the podium.
At the Singapore Grand Prix, which is widely regarded as one of Alonso's best drives, he took pole again after Sebastian Vettel made a mistake in Q3. On a very narrow track with almost no opportunities of passing the driver ahead, Alonso drove calmly, led every lap, set fastest lap and won the race.
At the next race in Japan, the track suited Red Bull so neither Alonso nor Massa had a chance of scoring better than Alonso's 3rd position at the end of the race.
In Yeongam, Korea, the race was full of excitement, but Vettel suffered an engine failure which allowed Alonso to win the race. Massa finished 3rd.
At the next race in Brazil, the track again suited the very aerodynamic cars of Red Bull, seeing them score a one-two finish, while Alonso finished 3rd.
At the last race at Abu Dhabi, Alonso only needed 2nd to win the championship, and just 4th if Vettel was to win the race. Despite Vettel taking pole position, it all started well with Alonso taking 3rd in qualifying, but in the race Ferrari chose the wrong strategy when they didn't call Alonso into the pits after the Safety Car had been deployed and that soon put him in a bad position. He found himself in 7th and had to fight for places but despite all Alonso's efforts, the Ferrari F10 with a reduced horsepower engine (this was the 5th consecutive event for the engine due to other engines failures and problems in the first part of the season) was unable to pass Petrov (who, with the Renault engine had a much higher top speed than Alonso) and the Spaniard ultimately missed the chance of winning the championship and finished it in 2nd.
(key) (results in bold indicate pole position; results in italics indicate fastest lap)
|2010||Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro||Ferrari 056 V8||B||BHR||AUS||MAL||CHN||ESP||MON||TUR||CAN||EUR||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||SIN||JPN||KOR||BRA||ABU||396||3rd|
Like the Ferrari F2007, the F10 is featured in Gran Turismo 5. It has also been featured in Ferrari Virtual Academy. In 2019, as part of Codemasters celebration of their 10th year making the F1 games (F1 2019 (video game)), the F10 was featured in the game's Anniversary Edition DLC along with the McLaren MP4-25.
The 2010 Chinese Grand Prix (officially the VII Chinese Grand Prix) was a Formula One motor race held at the Shanghai International Circuit in the Jiading District of Shanghai on 18 April 2010. Approximately 85,000 people attended the event. It was the fourth race of the 2010 Formula One World Championship and the seventh running of the race. The 56-lap race was won by McLaren driver Jenson Button from a fifth position start. His teammate Lewis Hamilton finished in second and Nico Rosberg of the Mercedes team came in third.
Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel won the eighth pole position of his career by posting the fastest lap in qualifying. Fernando Alonso for Ferrari, started from third, and passed both Red Bulls into the first corner. However, the stewards deemed that he had jumped the start and was issued a drive-through penalty. The safety car was deployed on the first lap, after a three-car collision at turn six, and remained out for four laps. Rosberg led from laps five to 19 until Button overtook him. Intermittent rain made track conditions slippery though Button maintained the lead for the rest of the race to secure his second victory of the season and the ninth of his career.
The result of the race meant Button took the lead of the Drivers' Championship for the first time in the season from Ferrari driver Felipe Massa. Rosberg moved to second while Alonso dropped to third and was tied on points with Hamilton. Vettel fell from joint third to fifth in the standings. The lead of the Constructors' Championship changed from Ferrari to McLaren as Red Bull maintained their hold on third place with 15 races remaining in the season.2010 European Grand Prix
The 2010 European Grand Prix (formally the 2010 Formula 1 Telefónica Grand Prix of Europe) was a Formula One motor race held on 27 June at the Valencia Street Circuit in Valencia, Spain. It was the ninth round of the 2010 Formula One season. The 57-lap race was won by Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel who started from pole position. Lewis Hamilton finished second for the McLaren team and his teammate Jenson Button came in third. It was Vettel's second win of the season, and the seventh of his Formula One career.
Vettel maintained his leading heading into the first corner and resisted Hamilton's attempts at passing him. The safety car was deployed following a large accident involving Vettel's teammate Mark Webber and Heikki Kovalainen on the ninth lap. Hamilton passed the safety car and was later issued with a drive-through penalty for which he served on lap 27. Vettel remained the leader at the restart despite running deep in the track's final corner. Hamilton closed the gap between himself and Vettel but was unable to get close and Vettel maintained the lead for the remainder of the race to secure the victory.
As a consequence of the race, Hamilton extended his lead in the World Drivers' Championship to be seven points ahead of Button. This ensured the pair would enter the next, and their home race - the British Grand Prix - as first and second in the championship. Vettel's victory moved him up to third in standings; he became six points behind Button after surpassing the totals of teammate Mark Webber and Fernando Alonso. By gaining the most points from the race, McLaren extended their lead in the World Constructors' Championship to thirty over Red Bull.2010 Formula One World Championship
The 2010 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 64th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. Red Bull Racing won its maiden Constructors' Championship with a one-two finish in Brazil, while Red Bull Racing's Sebastian Vettel won the Drivers' Championship after winning the final race of the season. In doing so, Vettel became the youngest World Drivers' Champion in the sport's sixty-year history. Vettel's victory in the championship came after a dramatic season finale at Abu Dhabi where three other drivers could also have won the championship – Vettel's Red Bull Racing teammate Mark Webber, Ferrari's Fernando Alonso and McLaren's Lewis Hamilton.This was Bridgestone's final season as the sole tyre supplier in Formula One as the company announced that it would not renew its contract at the end of the season. After several months of deliberation, Pirelli was chosen as the tyre supplier for the 2011 season at the FIA World Motor Sport Council meeting in Geneva, in June 2010.
The points system was changed, with 25 points being awarded for first place, 18 for second, 15 for third, then 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2 and 1 for fourth to tenth. The technical and sporting regulations applicable for the season were the subject of much debate.
Before the start of the season, 2009 Drivers' Champion Jenson Button joined McLaren, while the 2009 Constructors' Champion, Brawn GP, was bought by German motor vehicle manufacturer Mercedes-Benz and was renamed as Mercedes GP. The 2010 season saw the return of the most successful driver in Formula One history, with seven-time World Champion Michael Schumacher coming out of retirement after a three-year absence since 2007.The season's first race was held on 14 March in Bahrain and the season concluded on 14 November in the United Arab Emirates after 19 motor races held in 18 countries on five continents.2010 German Grand Prix
The 2010 German Grand Prix (formally the Formula 1 Großer Preis Santander von Deutschland 2010) was a Formula One motor race held on 25 July 2010 at the Hockenheimring in Hockenheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was the eleventh round of the 2010 Formula One season and the seventy-first German Grand Prix. The 67-lap race was won by Ferrari driver Fernando Alonso after he started from second position. His teammate Felipe Massa finished second, and Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel came in third.
Although Vettel and Alonso were on the grids' front row, both drivers were passed by Massa at the start of the race. Alonso and Massa traded the fastest times in the first twelve laps of the race until the pit stop period. Massa struggled with tyre temperatures and was challenged by Alonso on the 21st lap but fended off his efforts to move into the lead. Massa pulled away slightly from Alonso until the former came across slower cars which reduced the time deficit between them. Alonso took over the first position after Massa was issued with team orders by Ferrari which Alonso to pass him. Massa resisted pressure from Vettel while Alonso maintained the lead throughout the remainder of the race and clinched the 23rd victory of his career.
Ferrari's team orders caused them to be fined $100,000 by the race stewards but avoided further punishment from the FIA World Motor Sport Council in September 2010. The result meant Alonso reduced the points deficit to be 13 behind Vettel in the Drivers' Championship, while leader Lewis Hamilton extended his advantage over teammate Jenson Button by two points. Red Bull slightly reduced the deficit to McLaren in the Constructors' Championship, while Ferrari moved further ahead of Mercedes, with eight races left in the season.2010 Korean Grand Prix
The 2010 Korean Grand Prix (formally the 2010 Formula 1 Korean Grand Prix) was a Formula One motor race held on 24 October 2010 at the Korea International Circuit in Yeongam, South Jeolla, South Korea. It was the seventeenth round of the 2010 Formula One season and the first Korean Grand Prix. The 55-lap race was won by Ferrari driver Fernando Alonso, who started from third position. Lewis Hamilton finished second for McLaren and Alonso's teammate Felipe Massa was third.
The race began behind the safety car but was stopped after three laps because of a large amount of standing water on the circuit. After a 45-minute delay, the race was restarted and the safety car pulled into the pit lane after thirteen laps. Pole sitter Sebastian Vettel maintained his lead going into the first corner. A second safety car deployment caused by the collision of Mark Webber and Nico Rosberg on lap nineteen closed up the field but Vettel retained the lead. Alonso maintained second position until a botched pit stop during a third safety-car period caused him to drop to third. At the restart on lap thirty-five, Hamilton ran wide at the first corner, allowing Alonso back into second place. Vettel's engine failed eleven laps later, allowing Alonso to move into the lead, which he maintained to win the race.
The victory was Alonso's fifth of the season; the result put him into the lead of the Drivers' Championship, eleven points ahead of Webber, who had dropped to second after failing to finish the race. Hamilton moved into third and Vettel's retirement demoted him to fourth. Jenson Button remained in fifth position. In the World Constructors' Championship, McLaren reduced the points deficit to Red Bull to twenty-seven points behind. With two races of the season remaining, Ferrari was a further twenty-five points adrift.2010 Malaysian Grand Prix
The 2010 Malaysian Grand Prix (formally the XII Petronas Malaysian Grand Prix) was the third round in the 2010 Formula One season. It was held in Sepang, Malaysia on 4 April 2010.The race was won by Sebastian Vettel leading a one-two finish for the Red Bull-Renault team with Mark Webber coming in second place.2010 Turkish Grand Prix
The 2010 Turkish Grand Prix (formally the 2010 Formula 1 Turkish Grand Prix) was a Formula One motor race held on 30 May 2010 at the Istanbul Park circuit near Istanbul, Turkey. It was the seventh round of the 2010 Formula One season and the sixth Turkish Grand Prix. The 58-lap race was won by McLaren driver Lewis Hamilton who started from second position. His teammate Jenson Button finished second, and Red Bull driver Mark Webber came in third.
Webber clinched the pole position and maintained his lead at the start of the race with Hamilton in second who fended off a challenge from Sebastian Vettel in the other Red Bull. The order was maintained until the first round of pit stops when Hamilton lost second place after his crew had trouble with fitting one of his tyres correctly. Webber conserved fuel on lap 40 which allowed Vettel to challenge him for the lead but the two collided which led to the latter retiring from the event and the incident promoted Hamilton and Button into the first and second positions. Hamilton and Button were instructed to conserve fuel for the remainder of the race but the latter had not been giving a target lap time and attempted to overtake Hamilton on lap 48 although the former retained the lead which he held for the remaining ten laps to win his first race of the season.
Hamilton's victory made him the fifth different driver in seven races to win a Grand Prix in 2010. The result meant Webber's advantage over second place in the Drivers' Championship, now occupied by Button, was extended by five points. Hamilton's victory meant he moved into third place, while Alonso went from third to fourth. Vettel's retirement resulted in him dropping from second to fifth. McLaren's 1–2 finish resulted in them reducing Red Bull's lead in the Constructors' Championship to one point. Ferrari's poor result meant they moved from second to third, with 12 races left of the season.2015 Goodwood Festival of Speed
The Goodwood" Festival of Speed 2015 was held from 26 to 28 June.DHL Fastest Lap Award
The DHL Fastest Lap Award is awarded to the driver with the most fastest laps in a Formula One season. The trophy, inaugurated in 2007, was the first such award to honour drivers with the most fastest laps. According to Bernie Ecclestone, the award, "recognises the very things that make Formula 1: speed and organisation."The award is sponsored by DHL Express, as part of their role as logistics partner of the sport. Ken Allen, chief executive officer of DHL Express explained why DHL sponsors this award, "The fastest lap in a race is always a challenge. This is the result of speed, precision and teamwork. Winning the DHL Fastest Lap Trophy adds continuity and reliability to this. All these attributes found the basis for DHL's express business as well."F10
F10, F 10, F.10, or F-10 may refer to:
Fokker F.10, a United States passenger and cargo airplane
Hannover F.10, a German passenger and cargo triplane
F 10 Ängelholm, a Swedish Air Force wing
Douglas F3D Skyknight, a United States fighter aircraft was redesignated F-10 in 1962
Export designation of Chengdu J-10, a Chinese fighter aircraft
A reconnaissance version of the United States North American B-25 Mitchell
Falconar F10A, a Canadian homebuilt aircraft designIn automobiles:
Ferrari F10, a race car
Volvo F10, F12, and F16, a truck platform
BMW 5 Series (F10), a passenger car platform
Nissan Cherry, a front-wheel drive supermini known as the Datsun F10 in North AmericaIn companies:
F10 (incubator), a startup incubator and acceleratorIn other uses:
ESP F-10, a guitar
F-10, Islamabad, a sector in Islamabad, Pakistan
Factor X, a protein involved in coagulation
A computer keyboard function key
A camera in the Fujifilm FinePix F-series
Health impacts of alcohol categorized by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
HMS Aurora (F10), a Royal Navy Leander-class frigateFelipe Massa
Felipe Massa (Portuguese pronunciation: [fiˈlipi ˈmasɐ], born 25 April 1981) is a Brazilian Formula E and former Formula 1 racing driver. Massa started his career in go-karting from the age of eight continuing in national and regional championships for seven years. He moved into Formula Chevrolet and claimed the championship. He moved in Italian Formula Renault in 2000 and won the title along with the European championship. Massa went into Euro Formula 3000 taking the championship in 2001.
Massa started his Formula One career with Sauber before joining Scuderia Ferrari as a test driver for 2003. He returned to Sauber for 2004 and 2005 before rejoining Ferrari where he won two races in 2006 including his home Grand Prix becoming the first Brazilian since Ayrton Senna to win the Brazilian Grand Prix. Massa won three races in 2007, finishing 4th in the Drivers' Championship. He finished second in the 2008 Drivers' World Championship after a long title battle with Lewis Hamilton, winning six races to Hamilton's five. At the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix, Massa was injured by a suspension spring off the Brawn GP car of Rubens Barrichello. Massa was forced to miss the rest of the season but returned in 2010. Massa suffered a dip in form in 2011 scoring no podiums but consistently scoring points. Massa contributed to Ferrari's Constructors' Championships in 2007 and 2008 and was under contract to race for the team until the end of the 2013 season. On 10 September 2013, he confirmed he would be leaving Ferrari at the end of the 2013 season. Massa replaced Pastor Maldonado alongside Valtteri Bottas at Williams from 2014.Massa announced that he would retire from Formula One at the end of the 2016 season.
However, the abrupt retirement of 2016 Formula One Champion Nico Rosberg from Mercedes precipitated the late move of Valtteri Bottas from Williams to Mercedes, leaving a late vacancy at Williams. Massa subsequently postponed his retirement, returning to Williams to partner rookie Lance Stroll for the 2017 season. On 4 November 2017, Massa confirmed that he would be retiring from Formula One at the end of the 2017 season.Fernando Alonso
Fernando Alonso Díaz audio (born 29 July 1981) is a Spanish racing driver and former Formula One racing driver. He is a two-time Formula One World Champion and is often regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers in the history of the sport. He has contested 17 seasons of Formula One. Outside Formula One, Alonso won the 2018–19 FIA World Endurance Championship with Toyota Gazoo Racing. He won the 2018 24 Hours of Le Mans at his first attempt and won the race again in 2019. He won the 2019 24 Hours of Daytona, after his debut in 2018. He also contested the 2017 Indianapolis 500, and was due to contest in 2019 but failed to qualify.
Born in Oviedo, the capital of the autonomous region of Asturias, Alonso started in karting from the age of 3. He won three consecutive karting championships in Spain from 1994 to 1997, and he became world karting champion in 1996. He made his Formula One debut in the 2001 season with Minardi, and then moved to the Renault team as a test driver the next year. As a main Renault driver from 2003, he was crowned Formula One World Drivers' Champion in both 2005 and 2006. At the age of 24 years and 58 days upon clinching the title, he was the youngest Formula One World Drivers' Champion, and subsequently the youngest double Champion at the time. He joined McLaren in 2007, before returning to Renault for two seasons in 2008 and 2009. Alonso raced for Scuderia Ferrari for five seasons between 2010 and 2014. During that time he finished second in the championship behind Sebastian Vettel three times (2010, 2012 and 2013), and won 11 further Grands Prix. Two of those years, he narrowly lost the title at the final race. He then returned to McLaren for four seasons between 2015 and 2018.
Alonso has held various driving records in Formula One. He was formerly the youngest driver to qualify on pole position and to win a Grand Prix at the 2003 Malaysian Grand Prix and the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix respectively. He was the youngest World champion upon clinching the title at the age of 24 years and 58 days, and subsequently the youngest double World Champion. From 2013 until 2015, he held the record for most career championship points. Each of these records were surpassed initially by Sebastian Vettel. As of February 2019, Alonso is the only Spanish driver to have won a Formula One Grand Prix and is the driver with the sixth highest number of Grand Prix wins, with 32. As a winner of the Monaco Grand Prix and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Alonso is one of just thirteen drivers (with Juan Pablo Montoya, one of two still active) to have won two of the three races that make up the Triple Crown of Motorsport.
Alonso is nicknamed El Nano, a typical diminutive for Fernando in Asturias, his place of birth. He is a Goodwill Ambassador for UNICEF.Ferrari 150° Italia
The Ferrari 150° Italia, formerly known as the Ferrari F150, is a Formula One motor racing car built by Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro to compete in the 2011 Formula One season. It was launched at Ferrari's headquarters in Maranello, Italy on 28 January 2011, one year to the day after the launch of its predecessor, the Ferrari F10. It was driven by 2005 and 2006 World Champion Fernando Alonso, and 2008 championship runner up Felipe Massa.
The car's chassis designation was chosen to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Italy's unification. This was seen by some pundits as a political move by Ferrari president Luca di Montezemolo, who founded the Future Italy think tank.Ferrari 458
The Ferrari 458 Italia (Type F142) is a mid-engine sports car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari. The 458 replaced the F430, and was first officially unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. It was succeeded by the 488, which was unveiled at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show.Ferrari F2012
The Ferrari F2012 is a Formula One racing car designed by Scuderia Ferrari for the 2012 Formula One season. The car was launched on 3 February at Ferrari's facility in Maranello. The car, which was driven by Fernando Alonso and Felipe Massa, made its debut at the first pre-season test at Jerez.Ferrari F60
The Ferrari F60 is a Formula One motor racing car, which Scuderia Ferrari used to compete in the 2009 Formula One season. The car was unveiled on 12 January 2009.Ferrari Virtual Academy
Ferrari Virtual Academy (or FVA) is a sim racing video game for Microsoft Windows developed by Kunos Simulazioni and released in September 2010. The simulation allows the player to drive a Ferrari against the clock at a race track. There are no other vehicles to race against in real time.In January 2015, the servers (needed even for single player gaming) were down for some time, with Ferrari ending its support for the game. As of February 2015, the simulation can be used, however it can no longer be purchased.List of Ferrari competition cars
The following is a complete list of racing cars manufactured by Ferrari.Vertical stabilizer
The vertical stabilizers, vertical stabilisers, or fins, of aircraft, missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide direction stability. It is analogous to a skeg on boats and ships.
On aircraft, vertical stabilizers generally point upwards. These are also known as the vertical tail, and are part of an aircraft's empennage. This upright mounting position has two major benefits: The drag of the stabilizer increases at speed, which creates a nose-up moment that helps to slow down the aircraft that prevent dangerous overspeed, and when the aircraft banks, the stabilizer produces lift which counters the banking moment and keeps the aircraft upright at the absence of control input. If the vertical stabilizer was mounted on the underside, it would produce a positive feedback whenever the aircraft dove or banked, which is inherently unstable. The trailing end of the stabilizer is typically movable, and called the rudder; this allows the aircraft pilot to control yaw.
Often navigational radio or airband transceiver antennas are placed on or inside the vertical tail. In all known trijets (jet aircraft with 3 engines), the vertical stabilizer houses the central engine or engine inlet duct.
Vertical stabilizers, or fins, have also been used in automobiles, specifically in top level motor sports, with the concept making a resurgence in both Formula 1 and Le Mans Prototype racing.
A few aircraft models have a ventral fin under the rear end. Normally this is small, or can fold sideways, to allow landing. Both the North American X-15 supersonic/hypersonic experimental aircraft, and the late World War II German twin-engined Dornier Do 335 heavy fighter used differing forms of the cruciform tail stabilizing surface format.
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