Ferrari Daytona

The Ferrari Daytona, officially designated the Ferrari 365 GTB/4, is a two-seat grand tourer produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1973. It was introduced at the Paris Auto Salon in 1968 to replace the 275 GTB/4, and featured the 275's Colombo V12 bored out to 4,390 cc (4.4 L; 267.9 cu in).

The Daytona was succeeded by the mid-engined 365 GT4 Berlinetta Boxer in 1973.

Ferrari 365 GTB/4
and GTS/4 "Daytona"
1971 Ferrari GTB4 Daytona
Ferrari 365 GTB/4
Overview
ManufacturerFerrari
Production
  • GTB/4: 1968–1973
  •             1,284 produced
  • GTS/4: 1971–1973
  •             122 produced
DesignerLeonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina[1]
Body and chassis
ClassSports car
Body style
LayoutFront-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine4.4 L (4390.35 cc) Tipo 251 Colombo V12
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,400 mm (94.5 in)[2]
Length4,425 mm (174.2 in)[2]
Width1,760 mm (69.3 in)[2]
Height1,245 mm (49.0 in)[2]
Kerb weight1,200 kg (2,646 lb) (GTB/4, dry)[2]
Chronology
Predecessor
SuccessorGTB/4: Ferrari 365 GT4 BB
Ferrari 365 Daytona - Flickr - Alexandre Prévot (3)
Rear three-quarters view of a 365 GTB/4

Name

The unofficial Daytona name is reported to have been applied by the media rather than Ferrari and commemorates Ferrari's 1-2-3 finish[3] in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with a 330 P3/4, a 330 P4 and a 412 P.[4] To this day, Ferrari itself only rarely refers to the 365 as the "Daytona", and refer to it as an "unofficial" name.[5]

Vehicle specifications

1973 Ferrari 365GTB4 Daytona Engine Compartment
Engine compartment of a 1973 Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona, USA version

Unlike Lamborghini's then-new, mid-engined Miura, the Daytona was a traditional front-engined, rear-drive car. The engine, known as the Tipo 251 and developed from the earlier Colombo V12 with a 60° bank angle used in the 275 GTB/4, was a DOHC 2 valves per cylinder 4,390 cc (4.4 L; 267.9 cu in)[2], 365 cc (22.3 cu in) per cylinder, bore x stroke 81 mm × 71 mm (3.19 in × 2.80 in), featuring 6X2 barrel 40 DCN/20 Weber carburetors (40 mm Solex twin carburettors were used alternatively). At a compression ratio of 9.3:1, it produced 259 kW (352 PS; 347 hp) @ 7500 rpm and a maximum torque of 431 N⋅m; 318 lbf⋅ft (44 kg⋅m) @ 5500 rpm, could reach 280 km/h (174 mph). 0-60 mph (97 km/h) acceleration was just 5.4 seconds.[6] For the American version, slight modifications were made - the compression ratio was reduced to 8.8:1 and the exhaust system was equipped with a large central silencer, necessitating visible alterations to the primary pipes.

The five-speed manual transmission (of the transaxle concept) was mounted in the rear for optimal weight distribution, and a four-wheel independent suspension[6] featured wishbones and coil springs.

Styling

Although a Pininfarina design, as with many previous Ferrari road cars styled by Leonardo Fioravanti,[7] the 365 GTB/4 was radically different, replacing the traditional rounded design with much more sharp-edged styling.[8]

Early Daytonas featured fixed headlights behind an acrylic glass cover. A new U.S. safety regulation banning headlights behind covers resulted in retractable pop-up twin headlights in 1971.

Model variations

365 GTB/4 and GTS/4

1973 Ferrari Daytona Spyder Verde Pino front left
A 1973 Ferrari 365 GTS/4 (US-spec), one of only two Spyders finished in Verde Pino (Pine Green)

The generally accepted total number of Daytonas from the Ferrari club historians is 1,406 over the life of the model. This figure includes 156[9] UK right-hand-drive coupés, 122 factory-made spyders (of which 7 are right hand drive), and 15 competition cars. The competition cars are divided into three series, all with modified lightweight bodies and in various degrees of engine tune. All bodies except the first Pininfarina prototype were produced by Italian coachbuilder Scaglietti, which already had a well established record of working with Ferrari.[10]

Historically, and especially since the mid-1980s and early 1990s, there has mostly been a considerable market price difference between a real berlinetta and a real spyder. Many berlinettas were turned into spyders by aftermarket mechanics, often to increase the car's monetary value or simply because of the owner's preference for an open car. Differences in value have typically remained, however, even after the most skillful conversions.

Competition versions

Ferrari365GTB4Daytona
Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Competizione

The first racing version of the 365GTB/4 was prepared in 1969: an aluminium bodied car was built and entered in the Le Mans 24-hour race that year (the car crashed in practice). Ferrari did not produce an official competition car until late in 1970.[11]

The official cars were built in three batches of five cars each, in 1970-1, 1972 and 1973. They all featured a lightweight body making use of aluminium and fibreglass panels, with plexiglas windows. The engine was unchanged from the road car in the first batch of competition cars, but tuned in the latter two batches (to 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS) in 1972 and then around 450 bhp (336 kW; 456 PS) in 1973).

The cars were not raced by the official Scuderia Ferrari team, but by a range of private entrants. They enjoyed particular success in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with results including a 5th overall in 1971, followed by GT class wins in 1972, 1973 and 1974. In 1972 Ferrari 365 GTB/4s took the first 5 places of the GT class.

The final major success of the car was in 1979 (five years after production ended), when a 1973 car achieved a class victory (2nd overall) in the 24 Hours of Daytona.

Legacy

In 1971, the Daytona gained fame when one was driven by Dan Gurney and Brock Yates in the inaugural Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash. Showcasing the car's potential for sustained high speed travel, the pair won with an average speed of 80.1 miles per hour (129 km/h), completing the distance from New York City to L.A. - 2,876 miles (4,628 km) - in 35 hours 54 minutes. Gurney was later quoted as saying "We never once exceeded 175 miles per hour."

It appears on the cover of 1973's Now & Then, the fifth studio album of the American pop band The Carpenters.

Ferrari-daytona-rc
Ferrari 365 Daytona Spider Corvette "Miami Vice" - I
Ferrari 365 Daytona Spider Corvette "Miami Vice" - II
Ferrari 365 Daytona Spider Corvette "Miami Vice" - III

In the 1980s, a Daytona was prominently featured on the first two seasons of NBC's hit television series Miami Vice. The black car seen in early episodes was a replica built on a Corvette C3 chassis. Altogether, two nearly identical cars were used simultaneously in the production of the TV series. Ferrari execs were not pleased that their company and one of their products was represented on TV by an imitation car and sued[12] the manufacturer of the kit for trademark infringement and trademark dilution. The Daytona replicas were retired at the beginning of the show's third season and replaced by two Ferrari-donated Testarossas, the company's newest flagship model at the time.

In 2004, the Daytona was voted top sports car of the 1970s by Sports Car International magazine. Similarly, Motor Trend Classic named the 365 GTB/4 and GTS/4 as number two in their list of the ten "Greatest Ferraris of all time".

See also

References

  1. ^ "Designer". ajovalo.net. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Ferrari 365 GTB4". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 2016-01-11.
  3. ^ "365 GTB4". Official Ferrari website. Ferrari. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  4. ^ "WSPR, World Championship 1967". wspr.ic.cz. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  5. ^ "Ferrari.com". Official Ferrari Website. 25 February 2017.
  6. ^ a b Willson, Quentin (1995). The Ultimate Classic Car Book. DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-0159-2.
  7. ^ Ahlgrim, Steve (June 2014). "Amelia Island 1972 Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytonas". Sports Car Market. 26 (6): 67.
  8. ^ Lamm, John (2008). Exotic cars. MBI Publishing company. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7603-3261-0.
  9. ^ Maranello Concessionaires LTD, classic Guide
  10. ^ Braden, Pat; Roush, Gerald (1982). The Ferrari 365GTB/4 Daytona. Osprey. ISBN 978-0850454123.
  11. ^ The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide. "Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Competition". How Stuff Works. Ferrari. Retrieved 21 February 2010.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  12. ^ "Miami Vice Daytona Found". Jim Suva's Blog. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
  • Buckley, Martin; Rees, Chris (1998). World Encyclopedia of Cars. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7.
  • 365gtc4.com
1979 World Sportscar Championship

The 1979 World Sportscar Championship season was the 27th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship racing. It featured the 1979 World Championship for Makes which was open to Group 1 and 2 Touring Cars, Group 3 and 4 Grand Touring cars, and Group 5 Special Production Cars . The championship ran from 3 February 1979 to 16 September 1979 and consisted of nine rounds. It was contested in two engine capacity divisions, Over 2 Litres and Under 2 Litres.

Aston Martin V8 Vantage (1977)

See also Aston Martin V8 Vantage (disambiguation) for other models sharing this name

The Aston Martin V8 Vantage was hailed at its 1977 introduction as "Britain's First Supercar" (sometimes nicknamed "British Muscle car") for its 170 mph (270 km/h) top speed. Its engine was shared with the Lagonda, but it used high-performance camshafts, increased compression ratio, larger inlet valves and bigger carburettors mounted on new manifolds for increased output. Straight-line performance was the best of the day, with acceleration from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 5.3 seconds, one-tenth of a second quicker than the Ferrari Daytona.The first series equipped with four 48IDF2/100 Weber carburetors produced 390 bhp (395 PS; 291 kW) (estimated) at 5800 rpm and 406 lb⋅ft (550 N⋅m) at 4500 rpm of torque, and series specific details such as a blanked bonnet vent and a separate rear spoiler. 38 of these were built (plus 13 "Cosmetics" for the US). The Oscar India (for 1 October, the date of introduction) version, introduced in late 1978, featured an integrated tea-tray spoiler and smoother bonnet bulge. Inside, a black leather-covered dash replaced the previous walnut. The wooden dashboard did find its way back into the Vantage during the eighties, giving a more luxurious appearance. The Oscar India version also received a slight increase in power, to 390 bhp (291 kW). This line was produced, with some running changes, until 1989. From 1986 the engine had 403 bhp (301 kW).

One of the most noticeable features was the closed-off hood bulge rather than the open scoop found on the normal V8. The grille area was also closed off, with twin driving lights inserted and a spoiler added to the bootlid.

The 1986–1989 580 'X-Pack' was a further upgrade, with Cosworth pistons and Nimrod racing-type heads producing 403 hp. A 'big bore' after-market option was also available from Works Service, with 50 mm carbs (instead of 48 mm) and straight-through exhaust system giving 432 hp (the same engine as fitted to the limited-edition V8 Zagato. 16-inch wheels were also now fitted. If this wasn't enough, a 450 hp (336 kW) 6.3-litre version was also available from Aston Martin, and independents offered a 7-litre version.304 Series 2 Vantage coupés were built - including 131 X-Packs - and 192 Volantes (in spite of only having been officially introduced in 1986, near the end of production). Of the 'Cosmetic' Vantage (for the US Swiss and Japanese markets, with fuel injection instead of Weber carburettors), 14 Series 2 coupés and 56 Volantes were built. Cosmetic Vantages lacked the powerful Vantage engine but retained the Vantage name and most of its body alterations - though the lack of carburettors allowed a flattened hood. From 1980 they featured DOT-approved 5 mph (8 km/h) safety bumpers front and rear. Most of these cars have since been retrofitted with full power, European spec engines.Although the full spec (carburettor) Vantage models were not imported into the USA when new, they now qualify for entry under the DOT's 'Show and Display' rules in most US States. Federal requirements are also less strict for cars over 25 years old (as most Vantages now are).

Brother's Keeper (Miami Vice)

"Brother's Keeper" is the pilot episode of the first season of the American television series Miami Vice. The episode premiered on September 16, 1984 with a two-hour (including commercials) season premiere. The episode was received well critically, winning two out of three Emmy Awards for which it was nominated.NBC would rebroadcast the episode in 2006 during the opening weekend for executive producer/director Michael Mann's theatrical reboot starring Colin Farrell and Jamie Foxx.

Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash

The Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash, widely known as the Cannonball Baker or Cannonball Run, was an unofficial, unsanctioned automobile race run five times in the 1970s from New York City and Darien, Connecticut, on the East Coast of the United States to the Portofino Inn in Redondo Beach, California.

Conceived by car magazine writer and auto racer Brock Yates and fellow Car and Driver editor Steve Smith, the first run was not a competitive race as only one team was running. The run was intended both as a celebration of the United States Interstate Highway System and as a protest against strict traffic laws coming into effect at the time. Another motivation was the fun involved, which showed in the tongue-in-cheek reports in Car and Driver and other auto publications worldwide. The initial cross-country run was made by Yates; his son, Brock Yates, Jr.; Steve Smith; and friend Jim Williams beginning on May 3, 1971, in a 1971 Dodge Custom Sportsman van called the "Moon Trash II."The race was run four more times: November 15, 1971; November 13, 1972; April 23, 1975; and April 1, 1979.Car and Driver magazine detailed the November 1971 running in its March 1972 issue. That article was reprinted to represent the 1970s on the magazine's 50th anniversary in 2005. A remarkable effort was made by American racing legend Dan Gurney, winner of the 1967 24 hours of Le Mans. He won the second Cannonball in a Ferrari Daytona. Gurney said, "At no time did we exceed 175 mph [280 km/h]." He and Brock Yates as co-driver took 35 hours and 54 minutes to travel 2,863 miles (4,608 km) at an average of approximately 80 mph (130 km/h) while collecting one fine. Snow in the Rocky Mountains slowed them down considerably.In 1972 the team of Steve "Yogi" Behr, Bill Canfield, and Fred Owens won in a Cadillac Coupe deVille, the first American car to win a Cannonball.On April 23–25, 1975, Jack May and Rick Cline drove a Ferrari Dino (05984) from the Red Ball Garage in New York City in a world record time of 35 hours and 53 minutes, averaging 83 mph (134 km/h).The record for official Cannonballs is 32 hours and 51 minutes (about 87 mph or 140 km/h), set in the final run from Darien, Connecticut, to Los Angeles by Dave Heinz and Dave Yarborough in a Jaguar XJS in April 1979.This New York area to Los Angeles 1979 record was broken in 2006 by Alex Roy and David Maher, setting a time of 31 hours 4 minutes, as documented in the film 32 Hours 7 minutes.On October 19, 2013, Ed Bolian and his team, co-driver Dave Black and passenger Dan Huang, made the trip in a Mercedes CL-55 in 28 hours and 50 minutes.The 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limit imposed as an energy-conservation measure by the 1974 National Maximum Speed Law and in effect for the last two Cannonballs was faster than Erwin George "Cannon Ball" Baker's highest point-to-point average speeds in the first half of the 20th century. In 1933, Baker drove coast to coast in a Graham-Paige model 57 Blue Streak 8, averaging greater than 50 mph (80 km/h), setting a record of 53 hours 30 minutes that stood for nearly 40 years.

After the original Cannonball races, Car and Driver sponsored legitimate closed-course tours, the One Lap of America. Outlaw successors in the United States, Europe, and Australia continue to use the Cannonball name without Yates's approval.

Cars in Miami Vice

The cars in Miami Vice mainly involve the Ferrari Daytona Spyder and the Ferrari Testarossa, but also include other automobiles driven by the characters on the show. Currently one Daytona (Car #4) is in a private collection and the other (Car #1) is on display at the Volo Auto Museum; the Ferrari Testarossa stunt car resides in Kingsport, Tennessee and is owned by Carl Roberts of Carl Roberts Motor Group. Today, the hero car (Ferrari Testarossa chassis #63631) is part of The Witvoet collection owned by Bastiaan Witvoet in Belgium.

Daytona Coupe

Daytona Coupe may refer to:

Shelby Cobra Daytona Coupe, one of six race cars designed by Peter Brock and made by Carroll Shelby during the 1960s.

Superformance Shelby Cobra Daytona Coupe (SPF Coupe), designed by Peter Brock, also known as the "Brock Coupe" (no relation to the Australian race driver of the same name). The Brock Coupe is the only Shelby-licensed continuation of the original Shelby Daytona.

Borland Racing's Daytona Sportscar, sometimes referred to as a "Daytona Coupe", is an Australian-made lookalike of the original Shelby Daytona. The Daytona Sportscar is notable for being the car that Australian motoracing driver, Peter Brock, died in.

Ferrari Daytona, (correctly named the 365 GTB/4) a Ferrari GT produced between 1968 and 1973.

Ferrari 365

See also Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 & Ferrari 365 GTC/4 for later 2+2 models, and Ferrari Daytona for the 365 GTB/4 & GTS/4The Ferrari 365 was Ferrari's large front-engine, rear-wheel-drive 2- and 2+2-seater grand tourer line. Introduced at the 1966 Geneva Motor Show, it replaced the 330 and 500 Superfast.

Fioravanti (automotive)

Fioravanti is an Italian automotive design studio in Moncalieri outside the city of Turin. The company began in 1987 as an architectural practice working on projects in Japan, and since 1991, it has focused its activities on automotive design.

Fioravanti was founded by C.E.O. Leonardo Fioravanti, who worked twenty-four years with Pininfarina on such vehicles as the Ferrari Daytona, Ferrari Dino, Ferrari 512 Berlinetta Boxer, the Ferrari 308 GTB, Ferrari 288 GTO and the Ferrari F40.

Herb Chambers

Herbert G. Chambers (born November 15, 1940) is an American billionaire businessman, owner and president of The Herb Chambers Companies, a group of 56 car dealerships in the greater Boston, Massachusetts area. In 2015, at the age of 74, he was named as one of the 400 richest Americans, ranking number 392, with an estimated $1.7 billion, by Forbes magazine.

McBurnie Coachcraft

McBurnie Coachcraft was a US bodywork company mostly known for their replicas of Ferrari Daytona Spyder. McBurnie also manufactured a Ferrari 250 GTO replica in the style of the Alpha One GTO, and the Velo Rossa.

The Daytona replicas are base on the Chevrolet Corvette C3 and became very popular because they were featured in the TV series Miami Vice where the main character Sonny Crockett drives a black Daytona Spyder. Ferrari took legal action to stop McBurnie and other replica manufacturers from producing those replicas, under the legal principle of trade dress.

An arson fire at McBurnie's shop on April 28, 1989 (less than a year after the case was decided) caused significant damage to the building and vehicles inside.Tom McBurnie went on to manufacture a hot rod kit called ″34 Lightning,″ as well as replicas of the Porsche 550 and Porsche 356 Speedster under the company name Thunder Ranch. McBurnie also produced the RIOT car as seen on the television series Baywatch. Tom partnered with San Diego State University to make an electric RIOT car with hybrid technology. The rights to the RIOT were sold to Nathan Wratislaw.In 2012 McBurnie sold his company to Carrera Coachwerks partners Theo Hanson and Alan Cassell. Anticipating a dispute with Porsche, the name was changed to Custom Coachwerks in 2013 or 2014. However, the El Cajon, CA shop was subsequently closed and assets divided by the partners.

Miami Vice

Miami Vice is an American television crime drama series created by Anthony Yerkovich and executive produced by Michael Mann for NBC. The series starred Don Johnson as James "Sonny" Crockett and Philip Michael Thomas as Ricardo "Rico" Tubbs, two Metro-Dade Police Department detectives working undercover in Miami. The series ran for five seasons on NBC from 1984 to 1989. The USA Network began airing reruns in 1988, and broadcast an originally unaired episode during its syndication run of the series on January 25, 1990.

Unlike standard police procedurals, the show drew heavily upon 1980s New Wave culture and music. The show became noted for its integration of music and visual effects. It has been called one of the "Top 50 TV Shows". People magazine stated that Miami Vice was the "first show to look really new and different since color TV was invented".Michael Mann directed a film adaptation of the series, which was released July 28, 2006.

Portofino

Portofino (Italian pronunciation: [ˌpɔrtoˈfiːno]; Ligurian: Portofin [ˌpɔɾtuˈfiŋ]) is an Italian fishing village and holiday resort famous for its picturesque harbour and historical association with celebrity and artistic visitors. It is a comune located in the Metropolitan City of Genoa on the Italian Riviera. The town is clustered around its small harbour, and is known for the colourfully painted buildings that line the shore.

Robin Hood Engineering

Robin Hood Engineering Ltd was a British kit car manufacturer based in Mansfield Woodhouse, Nottinghamshire. The factory covered 30,000 square feet (2,800 m2) and was on a one and a half acre site.

The company was founded in 1980 in Sherwood, Nottinghamshire and started by making Ferrari Daytona replicas based on the Rover SD1 and the Super Seven after the production by Lotus ended.

In 1989, a Triumph TR7 based Robin Hood was introduced with the affordable price tag of £995 + VAT. Motoring enthusiasts showed their support and several kits were sold. Development of the new product was continual and feedback from customers showed that a range of engine sizes were needed, so that more people could afford to run such a vehicle. The Triumph Dolomite superseded the TR7 as donor vehicle, a popular choice with engines ranging from 1100 cc to 2000 cc.

High Court action from Caterham Cars almost stopped production, however legal advice gave a remedy to the problem. Robin Hood Engineering were careful not to deviate from the strict guidelines set down as a result of the action.

The Monocoque style chassis (a structure formed from sheet steel without tubes) was manufactured using the Triumph Dolomite, Ford Cortina and Ford Sierra as donor vehicle. Although the donor vehicles and basic designs may have altered throughout the years, the main policy to supply value for money kits remained. Whilst other manufacturers had customers trawling scrap yards for an assortment of components to build cars, the Robin Hood policy of "One kit + one donor vehicle = car on the road" was a valuable selling point.

During 1996 and 1997 sales of Robin Hoods peaked at over 500 kits per year, and larger premises and new machinery were purchased to maintain production. In 1998, with the introduction of the Single Vehicle Approval test, the public were not so keen to embark on a build, preferring to wait and see what was going to happen. Implementation dates were put off several times by the Government and the whole of the kit car industry suffered.

This slack period enabled the owner to look carefully at Robin Hood Engineering's operations, and now in his fifties, ideally would have liked to have sold the business to allow him to concentrate on other interests. But with no offers forthcoming, the licence to manufacture Monocoque chassis about to expire and the recent heavy investment in new CNC machinery, the only option was to carry on with a brand new model.

With the assistance of a team of expert chassis designers, a revolutionary new chassis was conceived. Manufactured mainly from 38 mm o/d round tube, the chassis, even to the novice, is a very impressive engineering achievement. The tubes in the chassis take approximately five minutes to bend and then assembly and welding perhaps a further hour, the perfect recipe for a new budget kit.

The new style chassis was affectionately called the 'tubey' by staff and the 'Project 2B' (a reference to the affectionate nickname) was adopted as the kit name. Between the bulk collection dates of 21 August and 11 December 1999, exactly 205 kits were collected. Bulk collections have always been successful at Robin Hood Engineering, the record being one collection day in 1997 totalling 125 comprehensive kits.

On 25 September 2006 the assets of Robin Hood Engineering were bought by Great British Sports Cars Ltd.

The Gumball Rally

The Gumball Rally is a 1976 American comedy film directed and co-written by Charles Bail, a former stunt coordinator also known as Chuck Bail, about an illicit coast-to-coast road race. It was inspired by the Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash run by Brock Yates, which inspired several other films, including Cannonball (1976), Cannonball Run (1981), and Speed Zone (1989), as well as an actual event, the American Gumball Rally and Gumball 3000 international race.

Top Gear (series 12)

The twelfth series of Top Gear aired during 2008 and consisted of 7 episodes, beginning on 2 November and concluding on 14 December. It was subsequently followed by the "Top Gear: Vietnam Special" two weeks later, on 28 December as part of the BBC's 2008 Christmas line-up, and was later followed in 2009 with four "Best Of Top Gear" specials throughout January and the beginning of February.

Top Gear Races

In Top Gear, a BBC motoring show, one of the show's regular features since 2002 is various forms of racing the presenters undertake, either against each other or against invited guests. The show has featured a number of epic races, where one of the presenters — Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond, James May, and occasionally The Stig — drives a car in a race against the others in another form of transport. These races typically involve Clarkson driving the car while Hammond and May take the same journey by combinations of plane, train, or ferry. May has said that the races are planned to be as close as possible. Of the long distance races so far, the car has won the vast majority of the races, with the exceptions of the cross-London epic, in which the car was beaten by a bicycle, a boat on the Thames and public transport; Ferrari Daytona vs. Powerboat, in which the boat won; and Shelby Mustang GT500 vs. High Speed Train, in which the train won.

Tour de France Automobile

Tour de France Automobile was a sports car race held on roads around France regularly –mostly annually– between 1899 and 1986.

The first edition was held in 1899 at speeds of 30 mph (50 km/h). The first event was won by René de Knyff driving a Panhard et Levassor. Organized by Le Matin, under the control of the Automobile Club de France, held July 16 to 24, in seven stages: Paris-Nancy; Nancy-Aix-les-Bains; Aix-les-Bains-Vichy; Vichy-Périgueux; Périgueux-Nantes; Nantes-Cabourg; Cabourg-Paris. Out of 49 starters, 21 vehicles finished. The 1908 event was won by Clément-Bayard.The competition is reborn in 1951, thanks to Automobile Club de Nice and the event was won by Pagnibon-Barracquet in a 2.6-litre Ferrari. The event visited La Turbie Hill Climb, near Nice. In 1954 the event was won by the 2.5 litre Gordini of Jacques Pollet and M. Gauthier, running on the traditional Nice to Nice route. The 1956 event was won by de Portago/Nelson in a Ferrari 250 2.9 with Moss/Houel (Mercedes 300 SL) in second place.The 1960 Tour de France took place between September 15 and 23 that year. Starting at Nice it visited Mont Ventoux, Nurburgring, Spa, Montlhéry, Rouen and Le Mans with the finish at Clermont Ferrand. The event was won overall by the Ferrari 250 G.T. of Willy Mairesse/Georges Berger. The Jaguar 3.8 litre Mk. II of Bernard Consten/J. Renel won the Touring category with the BMW 700 coupé of Metternich/Hohenlohe winning the Index of Performance.The 1964 event was won by Lucien Bianchi/Georges Berger in a Ferrari GTO, entered by Ecurie Nationale Belge. The event started at Lille, visiting Reims, Rouen, Le Mans, Clermont-Ferrand, Monza and Pau. The Touring car category was won by Peter Procter/Andrew Cowan in a Ford Mustang, entered by Alan Mann Racing. The A.C. Shelby Cobras of Maurice Trintignant, Bob Bondurant and André Simon all retired.

The 1980s saw the event incorporated into the European Rally Championship which saw an influx of new competitors. The last event was held in 1986. Also known as Tour Auto, it was revived in 1992 for historic cars, with both a competition and a regularity class. The format is a 5-day event combining about 2,500 km of roads, 4 or 5 circuit races and 6 to 8 hillclimbs. Patrick Peter of Agence Peter is the organiser. The start of the International event with some 300 entrants is in Paris; the finish alternates between various cities like Cannes, St. Tropez and Biarritz.

The winning cars over the years (since 1996 only pre '66 cars can win overall, even though cars up to 1974 are allowed): Ford Shelby Mustang 350GT, Ford GT40, AC Cobra 289, Lotus Elan, Ferrari Daytona Gr IV.

Trade restriction

A trade restriction is an artificial restriction on the trade of goods and/or services between two or more countries. It is the byproduct of protectionism. However, the term is controversial because what one part may see as a trade restriction another may see as a way to protect consumers from inferior, harmful or dangerous products. For instance Germany required the production of beer to adhere to its purity law. The law, originally implemented in Bavaria in 1516 and eventually becoming law for newly unified Germany in 1871, made many foreign beers unable to be sold in Germany as "beer". This law was struck down in 1987 by the European Court of Justice, but is still voluntarily followed by many German breweries.

« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–1990s — next »
Type 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
8 cylinder Mid-engine berlinetta 308 308 i 308 QV 328 348 360
208 208 Turbo GTB/GTS Turbo F355
Mid-engine 2+2 308 GT4 Mondial 8 Mondial QV Mondial 3.2 Mondial t
208 GT4
12 cylinder Boxer berlinetta 365 BB 512 BB 512i BB Testarossa (F110) 512TR F512 M
Grand tourer 250 275 365 GTB/4"Daytona" 550 Maranello
America 330 365
2+2 grand tourer 250 GT/E 330 GT 2+2 365 GT 2+2 365
GTC/4
365 GT4 2+2 400 400 i 412 456 456M
Supercar 250 GTO 250 LM 288
GTO
F40 F50
     Sold under the Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline
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