The Ferrari Colombo Engine was a petrol fueled, water cooled, carburetted 60° V12 engine designed by Gioacchino Colombo and produced in numerous iterations by Italian automaker Ferrari between 1947 and 1988. The design team also included Giuseppe Busso and Luigi Bazzi.
Colombo had formerly designed Alfa Romeos for Enzo Ferrari. These V12 powerplants ranged from the diminutive 1,497 cc (1.5 L; 91.4 cu in) unit fitted to the 125S to the 4,943 cc (4.9 L; 301.6 cu in) unit in the 1986 412i. Colombo designed bore centres at 90 mm apart. Significant updates were made in 1963 for the 330 series featuring a redesigned block with wider, 94 mm, bore spacing.
Enzo Ferrari had long admired the V12 engines of Packard, Auto Union, and Alfa Romeo (where he was long employed), but his first car, the 1940 Auto Avio Costruzioni 815, used a Fiat straight-8. Ferrari's first homegrown engine was a V12 designed by Colombo, with development continuing long after original designer Colombo had been replaced by Aurelio Lampredi as the company's marquee engine designer. Although Lampredi's engines were a real force for the company, it was Colombo's V12 which would be the primary motivator for the company's consumer products through the 1950s and 1960s.
Colombo engine in a 1961 250TR Spider
|Compression ratio||7.5:1 - 9.8:1|
(in some versions)
|Fuel system||Weber carburetor|
Bosch K-Jetronic FI
|Oil system||Wet sump|
|Cooling system||Water cooled|
|Successor||Ferrari flat-12 engine|
The first homegrown Ferrari engine was the 125. First appearing May 11, 1947 under the hood of Ferrari's 125 S sports racer, the engine allowed the company to claim six victories in 14 races that year. The 125 S sported tiny 55 mm (2.17 in) by 52.5 mm (2.07 in) cylinders, the resulting 124.73 cc (7.6 cu in) of each cylinder rounded up to give the engine, and the car, its name. Overall, the engine displaced exactly 1,496.77 cc (1.5 L; 91.3 cu in). It had a single overhead camshaft on each cylinder bank with a 60° angle between the two banks. The engine had two valves per cylinder fed through three 30DCF Weber carburetors. A 7.5:1 compression ratio yielded 118 PS (116 hp; 87 kW) at 6800 rpm.
Colombo and Ferrari had designed the engine with Formula One regulations in mind, and introduced it the next year in the company's first F1 car, the 125 F1. This time, it was supercharged, in accordance with F1 dictates, for a total output of 230 PS (227 hp; 169 kW) at 7,000 rpm. However, the single-stage Roots-type supercharger was incapable of producing the high-end power required to compete with the strong eight-cylinder Alfa Romeo 158 and four-cylinder Maserati 4CLT. Nevertheless, strong driving and a nimble chassis allowed the company to place third in its first outing, at the Valentino Grand Prix on September 5, 1948 and the company persevered in racing.
For 1949, the engine was further modified with dual overhead camshafts (though still two valves per cylinder) and a two-stage supercharger. This combination gave the car better top-end performance and the resulting 280 PS (276 hp; 206 kW) gave it five Grand Prix wins. Development continued the following year, but the problematic superchargers were dropped in favor of larger displacement and Lampredi's 275 engine superseded the original Ferrari engine.
The early 166, 195, and 212 cars used Colombo V12s of varying sizes. All shared the same 58.8 mm (2.31 in) stroke, with 60, 65, and 68 mm (2.68 in) bores giving displacements of 1,995 cc (2.0 L; 121.7 cu in) in the 166, 2,341 cc (2.3 L; 142.9 cu in) in the 195 and 2,563 cc (2.6 L; 156.4 cu in) in the 212, respectively. Output ranged from 105 PS (104 hp; 77 kW) to 165 PS (163 hp; 121 kW).
One of the most common Colombo engines is the 250. It bowed in 1952 in the 250S and lasted through the 1963 330 America. It used a 73 mm (2.87 in) bore with the common Colombo stroke of 58.8 mm (2.31 in) for a total of 2,953 cc (3.0 L).
The final 58.8 mm (2.31 in) Colombo Ferrari was the 275. It used a 3,286 cc (3.3 L; 200.5 cu in) variant of the V12 with a wide 77 mm (3.03 in) bore for up to 300 PS (296 hp; 221 kW).
The 1960 400 Superamerica replaced the previous model's Lampredi engine with a 3,967 cc (4.0 L; 242.1 cu in) Colombo. It diverged from the standard 58.8 mm (2.31 in) stroke with a 71 mm (2.80 in) stroke and 77 mm (3.03 in) bore. Output was 340 to 400 PS (335 to 395 hp; 250 to 294 kW) with triple Weber carburetors.
Although the 1963 330 series also used a 3,967 cc (4.0 L; 242.1 cu in) engine with the same bore and stroke as the 400 Superamerica, this engine was quite different. It used a wider bore spacing, paving the way for future displacement increases. The spark plugs were moved and a new water pump was used. The dynamo on the prior versions was replaced by a true alternator. In the end, 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) was on tap.
The Colombo V12 was substantially reworked for 1967's 275 GTB/4. It still used two valves per cylinder, but dual overhead cams were now used as well. In a departure from previous Ferrari designs, the valve angle was reduced three degrees to 54° for a more-compact head. The dual camshafts also allowed the valves to be aligned "correctly" (perpendicular to the camshaft) instead of offset as in SOHC Ferraris. It was a dry-sump design with a huge 16 L (17 US qt) capacity. The engine retained the bore and stroke dimensions of the 275 model for 3,286 cc (3 L; 201 cu in) of displacement. Output was 330 PS (325 hp; 243 kW) at 8000 rpm and 240 lb⋅ft (325 N⋅m) of torque at 6000 rpm with six 40 DCN 9 Weber carburetors.
The 330 Colombo engine was enlarged with an 81 mm (3.19 in) bore to 4,390 cc (4.4 L; 267.9 cu in) for 1966's 365 California, retaining single overhead cams and wet sump lubrication. A reworked engine with four camshafts was used in the GT/4 models. The 365 GTB/4 Daytona was the only 365 engined car featuring dry sump lubrication.
The wet sump, four-cam, 365 Colombo engine was enlarged again to 4,823 cc (4.8 L; 294.3 cu in) for 1976's 400 with the same 81 mm (3.19 in) bore and a 78 mm (3.07 in) stroke. The carburetors were replaced with Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection in 1979. In 1986 the engine was bored to 82 mm (3.23 in) giving a displacement of 4,943 cc (4.9 L; 301.6 cu in).
Ferrari engines might refer to:
List of Ferrari engines
Ferrari Lampredi engine
Ferrari Dino engine
Ferrari Colombo engineFerrari flat-12 engine
The Ferrari flat-12 engine family is a series of 180° V12 DOHC petrol engines produced by Ferrari from 1973 to 1996. Introduced with the 365 GT4/BB, this engine shared its construction with the flat-12 race-engines used in the 312B and 312 PB, but its displacement, bore & stroke, rods and pistons were the same as the Tipo 251 60° V12 Colombo engine powering the Daytona it replaced.Design and development of the new engine was overseen by Ferrari engineers Giuliano de Angelis and Angelo Bellei.The engine was the first flat-12 cylinder configuration fitted in a Ferrari road car and had factory type reference F102A. It had two valves per cylinder and twin overhead camshafts per bank, although these were now belt driven, instead of by chain as on earlier Ferrari 12-cylinder engines. It was fitted with two banks of two triple-choke Weber 40IF3C carburettors and an electronic ignition system. The block and cylinder heads were constructed from light alloy and featured wet sump lubrication.
In 1976 Ferrari launched a revised version of the BB, the 512 BB, with a flat-12 engine enlarged to 4943cc. Named F102B, it featured a dry sump lubrication system to help the car scavenge oil.In 1981 the 512 BBi replaced the outgoing model’s four triple-choke carburettors with a Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection. The new engine got factory type reference F110A but otherwise it was mechanically identical to its predecessor.With the debut of Testarossa in 1984, the evolution of the flat-12 engine saw it equipped with four valves per cylinder: with 390 PS (287 kW; 385 hp) it was the most powerful engine mounted on a production sports car at the time of its launch. It maintained the same cubic capacity of 4943cc of the 512 BBi model, and had factory type reference number F113A. It was fitted with a Marelli Microplex MED120 electronic ignition system and Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection. Export versions for United States, Canada and Japan had catalytic converter and KE-Jetronic fuel injection. European versions got those features in 1986 and the revised engine was known as F113B.The 1991 512 TR had an upgraded version of the engine used in the Testarossa, maintaining the same cubic capacity of 4.9 L, and had factory type reference number F113D. Changes were made to the porting, with redesigned inlet plenums and larger valves providing more efficient fuel/air mix ingress, whilst the fuel injection and ignition system were changed to a combined Bosch Motronic M2.7 system.For the 1994 F512M the engine was further upgraded with a lightened crankshaft, titanium alloy connecting rods, new pistons and a stainless steel low backpressure exhaust system.The flat-12 production ceased with the F512M, being replaced by the front-engined 550 Maranello which featured the new 65° V12 F133 engine.Gioacchino Colombo
Gioachino Colombo (1903–1988) was an Italian automobile engine designer. Colombo was born in Legnano. He began work as an apprentice to Vittorio Jano at Alfa Romeo.
In 1937, Colombo designed the 158 engine for the Alfetta and caught the attention of Enzo Ferrari. Ferrari asked Colombo to design a small V12 for use in the new Ferrari marque's racing and road cars. The first Ferrari-Colombo engine appeared on 11 May 1947. Colombo's great work for Ferrari was a tiny 1.5 litre V12, first used in the Tipo 125, 159, and then 166 sports cars. This engine, known in Ferrari circles as the "Colombo engine", was produced for road cars and endurance racing cars for more than 40 years in displacements up to 4.8 L. These included the 3.0 litre Ferrari 250 racing, sports, and GT cars.
Colombo's engine was not as successful in Formula One racing. After stunning early success in the 166, the engine was supercharged for use in Formula One but failed to perform well. Ferrari hedged his bets, as he often did, by bringing on competing designer Aurelio Lampredi to create a large naturally aspirated V12, which replaced Colombo's. Later, Colombo's former mentor, Vittorio Jano, came to Ferrari and displaced the work of both men.
Colombo left Ferrari in 1950 and returned to Alfa Romeo. Where, he oversaw the company's racing efforts, including the success that year of Nino Farina and, in 1951, Juan-Manuel Fangio. In 1953, Colombo turned to Maserati and created the 250F Grand Prix car. Two years later, Colombo headed to newly restarted Bugatti to work on the 251. He then worked for MV Agusta in 1957-1970.Colombo died in Milan in 1988.