The Ferrari California (Type F149) is a grand touring sports car produced by the Italian automotive manufacturer Ferrari. It is a two-door 2+2 hard top convertible. When originally unveiled, the California was powered by a front-mid mounted, rear wheel drive, naturally aspirated 4.3-litre V8. In 2012 a lighter, slightly more powerful variant, the California 30 was introduced. In 2014, Ferrari announced the second generation of the model, named California T powered by a new twin-turbo 3.9-litre V8.
The car revives the name used on the late-1950s Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California and the 1960s 365 California. The modern California (2008) was originally introduced as an entry level model, however, it included many new design innovations from Ferrari. The original base price of the California was similar to the base price of the F430, the company's V8 flagship model at the time of its introduction. In 2018, the California was succeeded by the Portofino.
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Grand tourer (S)|
|Body style||2-door, 2+2 retractable hardtop convertible|
|Layout||Front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Designer||Pininfarina under Ken Okuyama|
|Engine||4.3 L Ferrari F136 I V8|
|Wheelbase||2,670 mm (105.1 in)|
|Length||4,563 mm (179.6 in)|
|Width||1,902 mm (74.9 in)|
|Height||1,308 mm (51.5 in)|
|Successor||Ferrari California T|
The California was launched at the October 2008 Paris Motor Show. When introduced, the California represented a new fourth model range for Ferrari. The new model range (front-engine, eight cylinder grand touring sports car) joined the then current models: the mid-engine eight cylinder sports car, the front-engine twelve cylinder sports car, and the front-engine twelve cylinder grand touring car.
The California represented a radical new design by Pininfarina S.p.A. and was developed under the oversight of Ken Okuyama. The model was primarily intended to attract new Ferrari owners. The car's grand touring personality was emphasized with a slightly higher ride height compared to its more aggressive siblings. The chassis was designed and manufactured by Ferrari division Carrozzeria Scaglietti. Overall, it is considered a landmark car for Ferrari in that it represents a number of concepts being used for the first time in their road cars:
The engine displaces 4,297 cubic centimetres (262.2 cubic inches), and used a gasoline direct injection system produced by Bosch. It generates a maximum power output of 338 kW (460 PS; 453 hp) at 7,750 rpm; its maximum torque produced is 485 N⋅m (358 lbf⋅ft) at 5,000 rpm. The resulting 79 kW (106 hp) per litre of engine displacement is extremely high for a naturally aspirated engine, as other manufacturers have used forced induction to reach similar power levels. The engine makes use of a wet sump designed lubrication system. The body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting.
The California's mid-front engine layout and rear gear box configuration create a 47% front to 53% rear weight distribution.
The California is equipped with an exclusive Ferrari designed F1-Trac system. The system, originally introduced on the 599 GTB Fiorano, was updated for the model. The variable power distribution to the rear wheels allows greater stability and performance in roadway turns. The result is an average increase of 20% in acceleration when exiting curves (when compared to traditional traction control systems).
The grand touring California was available with two passenger seating configurations. The first option (2+2), included two rear seats that are limited in space and arguably only capable of accommodating small child safety seats. The second option (2+), did away with the rear seats replacing them with a bench storage area. This storage area could accommodate slightly more luggage or personal effects than the seats and included matching leather luggage tie-down belts.
The California was the first Ferrari road car to offer stop/start technology. What was an option package and called the HELE system (High Emotion / Low Emission) allowed the engine to shut off while at extended idle and start again immediately upon pushing the accelerator pedal. While this technology was not always well received by many of the Ferrari Tifosi, it did allow for substantial tax savings upon sale in certain governmental jurisdictions. Later Ferrari models also offered this technology.
The original California had a top speed of 310 km/h (193 mph) and it could accelerate from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in under four seconds. Although that model was 180 kilograms (397 lb) heavier and 22 kW (30 PS; 30 hp) less powerful than the mid-engined F430, the California reached 97 km/h (60 mph) in the same time as the F430 due to the dual-clutch transmission.
Ferrari spent over 1,000 hours in the wind tunnel with a one-third-scale model of the California perfecting its aerodynamics. With the top up, the California has greatly reduced wind resistance with a drag coefficient of Cd=0.32, making it the most aerodynamic Ferrari road car ever made until the introduction of the F12berlinetta.
The California was manufactured in a new, purpose built facility that was constructed adjacent to the existing factory at Maranello. The new facility was part of Ferrari's Formula Uomo programme that started in 1997 to improve production, safety and employee happiness. Overall, the Ferrari production line(s) make a total of about 27 cars per day, or between 6,000 and 8,000 cars per year.
Production of the California amounted to about 8,000 units spanning between 2008 and 2012. 1,219 cars were manufactured in calendar year 2013; 1,645 in calendar year 2014; and 2,638 in calendar year 2015. 2016 saw production of 2,247 vehicles, and about 1,600 were made in 2017.Total production of all variants was about 17,300 vehicles.
On 15 February 2012, Ferrari announced the California 30, an updated model that was lighter and more powerful. While the Pininfarina design remained, the changes included reducing body weight by 30 kg (66 lb); increased power output by 22 kW (30 PS; 30 hp) and 15 N⋅m (11 lbf⋅ft) of torque; acceleration time from 0–100 km/h (62 mph) reduced to 3.8 seconds; introduction of Handling Speciale (HS) package and elimination of the manual transmission option. The “30” has a published top speed of 312 km/h (194 mph)
The car was unveiled at the March 2012 Geneva Motor Show as a 2012 model in Europe and as a 2013 model in North America. Deliveries began in Europe first. It was produced in North American model years 2013 and 2014 only.
The updated engine continued with the naturally aspirated Ferrari/Maserati F136. Made entirely of aluminium, it retains many of the original features but generates a maximum power output of 360 kW (489 PS; 483 hp) at 7,750 rpm; its maximum torque produced is 505 Nm (372 ft-lbs) at 5,000 rpm. 75% of which is available at 2,250 rpm. The engine's sound - a feature that distinguishes every Ferrari - was engineered to enhance the vehicle's driving experience both with the top open and closed.
The California 30 can be differentiated from the base California by the VIN. In the 30 variant, the VIN's sixth digit (in North America) is “T” representing the F136ih engine. In the base model, the VIN's sixth digit (again in North America) is “L” representing the earlier generation F136ib engine.
The California 30 is the first Ferrari road car with a completely modular type chassis and was made entirely of new aluminum alloys. It is 30 kg (66 lb) lighter than the standard California chassis with no loss in structural capacity providing an extremely high torsional rigidity value. (Ferrari S.p.A. 2012 - California 30 technical literature).
To give the clients a more dynamic driving experience, an optional HS (Handling Speciale) package was developed as part of the update in 2012 (for the US 2013 model year). It can typically be recognized by a no cost option of a silver coloured grille and silver ventilation blisters behind the front wheel wells.
The HS package includes Delphi MagneRide magnetorheological dampers controlled by the ECU with 50% faster response time utilizing a patented Ferrari software, stiffer springs for more precise body control and a steering rack with a 9% quicker steering ratio (2.3 turns lock to lock as opposed to the standard rack's 2.5). Overall it does away with some driving comfort trading it for reduced body roll, higher-speed cornering, and better handling during aggressive vehicle operation.
Ferrari has historically been very open to working with customers to develop specific model variants or specialized features. In late 2011, this philosophy was taken up a step with the announcement of the Tailor Made programme. In the program, interested clients work with Ferrari's personal designers in Maranello to assist in decision making throughout the entire process The California 30 was one of the initial models to benefit from this service.
In May 2012, Ferrari recalled certain vehicles because the engine could freeze suddenly and possibly cause a crash. The F136 engines had crankshafts that were machined incorrectly. The auto maker learned of the problem when it happened during a review by car critics. Owners could choose from having a new engine installed by their dealer, having the engine removed and the work done by Ferrari North America or having a new crankshaft and bearings installed at the dealership. The recall was for a total of 200 vehicles worldwide that were produced in 2011 and 2012. Of those 200 affected vehicles, 74 were delivered to North America. The 200 recalled vehicles were from the California and 458 Italia model ranges.
|Ferrari California T|
|Designer||Ferrari Styling Centre in collaboration with Pininfarina|
|Engine||3.9 L Ferrari F154 BB twin-turbo V8|
|Wheelbase||2,670 mm (105.1 in)|
|Length||4,570 mm (179.9 in)|
|Width||1,910 mm (75.2 in)|
|Height||1,322 mm (52.0 in)|
The Ferrari California T (Type 149M) is an updated design of the California model featuring new sheetmetal and revised body features; a new interior, a revised chassis and a new turbocharged powertrain. It debuted in 2014 for the 2015 model year.
First unveiled on the web on February 12, 2014, subsequently, the car debuted at the Geneva Motor Show (March 6–16, 2014). The T in the moniker stands for Turbo, a technology Ferrari last used on the F40 roadcar. The car utilizes a new 3,855 cc (3.9 L; 235.2 cu in) twin-turbocharged V8 engine that produces 412 kW (560 PS; 553 hp) at 7,500 rpm and 755 N⋅m (557 lb⋅ft) at 4,750 rpm as well as a 7-speed dual clutch transmission with different gear ratios, a revised MagneRide adaptive suspension, as well as a new F1 Trac system. The car can accelerate from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 3.6 seconds and attain a top speed of 315 km/h (196 mph). The car also features a new front fascia that was influenced by the F12, a revised rear section and a revised interior. The revised rear end replaced the two sets of two vertically stacked exhaust pipes with four horizontally aligned pipes. Another improvement to the car is the reduction of emission pollution by 15% compared to its naturally aspirated predecessor. The car also utilises small turbo chargers and a variable boost management system to reduce turbo lag.
It is also the first Ferrari road car debuting the new Apple CarPlay functionality into its built-in infotainment system – Apple confirmed at the launch of the Geneva Motor Show that Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo would be among the first car manufacturers to bring CarPlay compatible models to the market.
Similarly to the previous generation, a Handling Speciale (HS) package was made available for the California T, providing sportier handling at the expense of a stiffer ride. The Handling Speciale includes stiffer springs front and aft, retuned magnetorheological dampers, faster gear shifts when in Sport mode, a reprogrammed F1-Trac stability control, and a new sport exhaust system. Visually, the HS package-equipped cars are distinguished by a matte grey grille and rear diffuser, matte black diffuser fences and matte black exhaust tips.
Through the Tailor Made programme, the California T was produced in several special editions and could also be customised to suit individual customers. For Ferrari's 70th anniversary in 2017, this included 70 liveries inspired by the company's iconic cars of the past such as the 250 GT Berlinetta SWB and Steve McQueen's 1963 250 GT Berlinetta lusso. The California T Tailor Made liveries were unveiled at the March 2016 Geneva Motor Show and also shown at other subsequent motor shows such as the October 2016 Paris Motor Show.
The California and California T have both been commemorated by Amalgam Collection in large 1:8 scale diecast replicas. These include hard top and convertible versions. MR Collection and BBR Models have also produced 1:18 and 1:43 scale replicas in hard top and convertible versions, including several different liveries. These replicas are all collectible investment pieces. Mass model manufacturers like Bburago, Maisto, Looksmart and Kyosho have also produced diecast models in 1:18, 1:24, 1:43, and 1:64 scale sizes. Hot Wheels manufactured at least six different California series in 1:18 and 1:43 scales.
The California was featured on the British TV show Top Gear (November 2009). The episode centered on a cross country challenge to determine the best grand touring vehicle. The California was matched against the Aston Martin DBS Volante and the Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder. The tour went through the Romanian countryside from the Black Sea to the Carpathian Mountains and across the acclaimed Transfăgărăşan Highway. The results of the challenge were inconclusive.
The 2008 Paris Motor Show took place from 4 October to 19 October 2008, in Paris expo Porte de Versailles.
This edition of the Paris Motor Show featured a high number of hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs), that led a blogger with The New York Times to ask, "Who killed the non-electric cars?".Andrew Diey
Andrew William Langmanis Diey (; born 31 October 1973, Islington, London) is an English electronic musician, sound designer and record producer. As a solo artist, he is best known as Black Faction, or his previous moniker Foreign Terrain.
Diey first came to prominence as a musician on the Skam Records Manchester, offshoot label MASK 300, under his Foreign Terrain moniker, and later afterwards he moved onto using the more known Black Faction name for various labels.
His career as a sound designer is also noteworthy: his works have appeared in many high-profile computer games and UK television broadcasts, and also on BBC radio.Diey is the owner and senior creative director at Radium Audio. He has designed the interior sounds of a Bentley Continental GT car. Designed the audio for Ferrari California launch site, and has worked on many high-profile adverts and digital projects.
Andrew Diey in 2011 announces his return to music with a new project Dalston Ponys a live production and dj set which is contains live interactive prototypes created by Radium Audio.Autobahn Country Club
Autobahn Country Club is an auto racing road course located in Joliet, Illinois, operated as a country club, while also hosting many outside events. The facility includes a configurable main track with a 1.50-mile (2.41 km) north track, a 2.06-mile (3.32 km) south track, a full track of 3.56 miles (5.73 km), skid pad, and a 0.8-mile (1.3 km) kart track. The kart track has a kart fleet, and hosts touring kart races in addition to in-house races. The club has a free test fleet of Cadillacs, Lexus cars, AMG Mercedes cars, Porsche 911, Ferrari California, Acura NSX, McLaren 570, and a Nismo Nissan 370Z. The club has a sanctioning body called Autobahn Member Racing, which hosts series for Spec Miatas, GT cars, Radical Sportscars, a discipline called Chase Racing similar to bracket racing, open wheel cars, as well as series for rallycross and autocross. The club requires a $35,000 membership fee to use the tracks and 'club house', which contains a bar and banquet hall. The club has a racing school with instructors including Super Vee champion and 1978 Indycar Rookie of the Year Tom Bagley and 1990 SCCA Formula Ford champion Tony Kester. There is also a public defensive driving school, that uses specially prepared BMW cars to teach safe driving skills. Many members purchase land to build garages and personal condos. Notable members include legendary racers Bobby Rahal, Graham Rahal, David Heinemeier Hansson, Cooper MacNeil, and Tom Bagley. The club is home to many exotic cars, including a Ferrari Dino, a Ford Mustang Boss 302, a Nash Healey, a Ferrari Challenge Stradale, an Allard K2, a Radical SR8, an Alfa Romeo Zagato, and a Williams Formula One car.
The facility is available for rent by private parties. It hosts events for various organizations including the SCCA, NASA, and various marque clubs.Brittny Gastineau
Brittny Gastineau (born November 11, 1982) is an American model, socialite, and reality television personality.Dual-clutch transmission
A dual-clutch transmission (DCT) (sometimes referred to as a twin-clutch transmission or double-clutch transmission) is an automated automotive transmission, closely related to a manual transmission. It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets. It can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions with their respective clutches contained within one housing, and working as one unit. Although usually operated in a fully automatic mode, many also have the ability to allow the driver to manually shift gears in semi-automatic mode, albeit still using the transmission's electrohydraulics.Ducati 899
The Ducati 899 Panigale is a 898 cc (54.8 cu in) sport bike from Ducati, released in 2013 to replace the 848. The motorcycle is named after the small manufacturing town of Borgo Panigale. It has a 148-horsepower (110 kW) version of the engine in the previously released 1199 Panigale. Claimed dry weight is 169 kilograms (373 lb). The 899 has a conventional two-sided swingarm, unlike the 1199 which has a single-sided swingarm. The unconventional decision to use a two-sided swingarm on a superbike from Ducati was made because of the substantial upgrades added to the bike including electronically adjustable anti-lock brakes, traction control, electronic braking control, and a quickshifter. This is the first medium-sized Ducati that uses the Superquadro engine.
The 899 surprised observers by topping sales charts for all motorcycles in the UK for December 2013, at a price five times higher than the number two seller, the Honda CBF125 — a situation compared by The Telegraph to the Ferrari California outselling the Ford Focus.For 2016, Ducati revised the 899, including enlarging the engine to 955 cc (58.3 cu in) (the 959 Panigale).Evo (magazine)
Evo is a British automobile magazine dedicated to performance cars, from hot hatches to supercars.Ferrari F136 engine
The F136, commonly known as Ferrari-Maserati engine, is a family of 90° V8 petrol engines jointly developed by Ferrari and Maserati and produced by Ferrari; these engines displace between 4.2 L and 4.7 L, and produce between 390 PS (287 kW; 385 hp) and 605 PS (445 kW; 597 hp). All engines are naturally aspirated, incorporate dual overhead camshafts, variable valve timing, and four valves per cylinder.
The architecture was produced in various configurations for Ferrari and Maserati automobiles, and the Alfa Romeo 8C. Production started in 2001 when Ferrari owned Maserati, Ferrari itself owned by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, formerly Fiat S.p.A. under whom the engine sharing program was organized. Ferrari was spun-off in January 2016 and has stated they will not renew the contract to supply engines to Maserati by 2022.Starting with the 2013 Maserati Quattroporte GTS, and following with the 2014 Ferrari California T, the F136 replaced by the twin turbocharged Ferrari F154 V8 engine.Ferrari F154 engine
The Ferrari F154 is a family of modular twin-turbocharged, direct injected V8 petrol engines designed and produced by Ferrari since 2013. It is a replacement for the naturally aspirated Ferrari/Maserati F136 V8 family on both Maserati and Ferrari cars.
They are the first turbocharged Ferrari road engines since the 1987 2.9-litre F120A V8 of the Ferrari F40.Ferrari FF
The Ferrari FF (FF meaning "Ferrari Four", for four seats and four-wheel drive)(Type F151) is a grand tourer presented by Ferrari on March 1, 2011 at the Geneva Motor Show as a successor to the 612 Scaglietti grand tourer. It is Ferrari's first production four-wheel drive model. The body style has been described as a shooting-brake, a type of sporting hatchback/estate car with two doors. The FF has a top speed of 335 km/h (208 mph) and it accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.7 seconds. Ferrari states that the FF was the world's fastest four-seat automobile upon its release to the public. The FF costs US$300,000, with 800 being produced during the first year.Ferrari Portofino
The Ferrari Portofino (Type F164) is a grand touring sports car produced by the Italian automotive manufacturer Ferrari. It is a two-door 2+2 hard top convertible. The car is named after the Italian Portofino village and also succeeds the company's previous V8 grand tourer, the California T. The car was unveiled at the 2017 Frankfurt Motor Show.Geneva Motor Show
The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, and is considered an important major international auto show.First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted almost all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars often steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition. The show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own.List of Ferrari engines
This is a list of internal combustion engines manufactured by Ferrari.List of coupé convertibles
List of coupé convertibles, also known as retractable hardtop, coupé cabriolet or roadster coupé.Michael 50
Michael 50 is an exhibition hosted by the Ferrari Museum near Modena, Italy. It opened on January 3, 2019; timed to coincide with Michael Schumacher's 50th birthday. The exhibition is a tribute to Schumacher's Formula One career, in which he attained 7 world titles, 91 victories and 155 podiums. It is organized in cooperation with "Keep Fighting Foundation", a non-profit foundation that celebrates Schumacher's life and attitude of never giving up. One part of the exhibition, The Hall of Victories, displays some of the most important Ferrari Formula One cars driven by Schumacher in his 11 years with the Scuderia Ferrari team:
Ferrari F310 (1996)
Ferrari F399 (1999)
Ferrari F1-2000 (2000)
Ferrari F2001 (2001)
Ferrari F2002 (2002)
Ferrari F2003-GA (2003)
Ferrari F2004 (2004)
Ferrari 248 F1 (2006)The exhibition features two road cars that Schumacher contributed to during their development:
Ferrari 430 Scuderia (2007)
Ferrari California (2008)Unfortunately the cars owned and sold by Michael not are in exhibition:
Ferrari Enzo Rosso Scuderia (with autographs)
Ferrari FXX black (number 30) 30th Ferrari FXXOn February 1, 2019, the exhibition was visited by Michael's son Mick Schumacher, who recently signed with the Ferrari Driver Academy.Supercar
A supercar — also called exotic car — is a loosely defined description of certain high-performance street-legal sportscars. Since the 1990s or 2000s, the term hypercar has come into use for the highest performing supercars.
In the United States, muscle cars were often referred to as "Supercars" during the 1960s.Top Gear (series 14)
The fourteenth series of Top Gear aired during 2009-10 on BBC Two and BBC HD, and consisted of 7 episodes, beginning on November 15, 2009, and concluding on January 3, 2010. The sixth episode was a special-edition entitled special from Bolivia, while the series was subsequently followed by four "Best Of Top Gear" specials, which aired within the initial months of 2010 during January and the beginning of February, and charted the best moments from Series 13 and 14.Transaxle
A transaxle is a single mechanical device which combines the functions of an automobile's transmission, axle, and differential into one integrated assembly. It can be produced in both manual and automatic versions.
« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 2000–present
|Challenge Stradale||430 Scuderia||458 Speciale||488 Pista|
|2+2 grand tourer||GTC4Lusso T|
|V12||Grand tourer||550 Maranello||575M Maranello||599 GTB Fiorano||F12berlinetta||812 Superfast|
|550 Barchetta||Superamerica||599 SA Aperta/599 GTO||F60 America/F12tdf|
|2+2 grand tourer||456M||612 Scaglietti||FF||GTC4Lusso|
|XX Programmes||FXX||599XX||599XX Evoluzione||FXX K||FXX K Evo|
|Ferrari Icona||Monza SP|