The Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer (BB) is an automobile that was produced by Ferrari in Italy between 1973 and 1984. Replacing the front engined Daytona, it was the first in a series of Ferraris to use a mid-mounted flat-12 engine. The Boxer was designed by Leonardo Fioravanti and was the first mid-engined road-car to bear the Ferrari name and the Cavallino Rampante (prancing horse) logo. It was replaced by the Testarossa, which continued to use the Flat-12 engine.
The BB was not officially imported into the United States by the Ferrari company, as Enzo Ferrari believed that emerging environmental and safety regulations and a 55 MPH national speed limit suggested the company's 8 cylinder cars would suffice in the US market. Instead, dealers in the United States contracted with independent third parties that made the necessary EPA and US DOT modifications such as the installation of catalytic converters, and many of them are now in the United States.
|Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer|
|Designer||Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door berlinetta|
|Layout||Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive|
|Wheelbase||2,500 mm (98.4 in)|
|Length||4,400 mm (173.2 in)|
|Width||1,830 mm (72.0 in)|
|Height||1,120 mm (44.1 in)|
|Predecessor||Ferrari 365 GTB/4|
Production of the BB was a major step for Enzo Ferrari. He felt that a mid-engined road car would be too difficult for his buyers to handle, and it took many years for his engineers to convince him to adopt the layout. This attitude began to change as the marque lost its racing dominance in the late 1950s to mid-engined competitors. The mid-engined 6- and 8-cylinder Dino racing cars were the result, and Ferrari later allowed for the production Dino road cars to use the layout as well. The company also moved its V12 engines to the rear with its P and LM racing cars, but the Daytona was launched in 1968 with its engine in front. The BB was the first mid-engined 12-cylinder road car to be launched by Ferrari.
|365 GT4 BB|
|Engine||4.4 L F-12|
The first "Boxer" was the 365 GT4 BB shown at the 1971 Turin Motor Show. Designed to rival the Lamborghini Miura and the newly developed Lamborghini Countach, it was finally released for sale in 1973 at the Paris Motor Show. 387 were built, of which 88 were right-hand drive (of which 58 for the UK market), making it the rarest of all Berlinetta Boxers. The Pininfarina-designed body followed the P6 show car with popup headlights.
Though it shared its numerical designation with the Daytona, the Boxer was radically different. It was a mid-engined car like the Dino, and the now flat-12 engine was mounted longitudinally rather than transversely (as it was mounted in the Dino; the Daytona was a conventional front-engine, longitudinal design). The engine produced 380 hp (283 kW), slightly more than the Daytona.
The engine shared its internal dimensions with the V12 from the Daytona, but was spread out to 180° as on Ferrari's 1970 Formula One car and was mounted above a five-speed manual transmission. One major difference in this engine was its use of timing belts rather than chains. Although referred to as a Boxer, the 180° V12 was not a true boxer engine, but rather a flat engine.
|Engine||4.9 L F-12|
The 365 GT4 BB was updated as the BB 512 in 1976, resurrecting the name of the earlier Ferrari 512 racer. The name 512 referred to the car's 5 litre, 12 cylinder engine; a deviation from Ferrari's established practice of naming 12-cylinder road cars (as the 365 BB) after their cylinder displacement. The engine was enlarged to 4943 cc, with an increased compression ratio of 9.2:1. Power was slightly down to 360 hp, while a dual plate clutch handled the added torque and eased the pedal effort. Dry sump lubrication prevented oil starvation in hard cornering. The chassis remained unaltered, but wider rear tires (in place of the 365's equally sized on all four corners) meant the rear track grew 63 mm.
External differentiators included a new chin spoiler upfront, incorporated in the bumper. A NACA duct on the side provided cooling for the exhaust system. At the rear there were now twin tail lights and exhaust pipes each side, instead of triple units as on the 365 GT4 BB.
929 BB 512 models were produced.
|Engine||4.9 L FI F-12|
The Bosch K-Jetronic CIS fuel injected BB 512i introduced in 1981 was the last of the series. The fuel injected motor produced cleaner emissions and offered a better balance of performance and driveability.
External differentiators from the BB 512 besides badging include a change to metric sized wheels and the Michelin TRX metric tyre system, small white running lights in the nose (grill), and red rear fog lamps outboard of the exhaust pipes in the rear valance.
1,007 BB 512i models were produced.
Measurements are notoriously variable, inaccurate, and definitionally vague even from Ferrari-issued sources of the same period. For example, the workshop manual documents maximum speed (typically speed at redline), whereas the owner's manual documents attainable speed, which appears to be speed at maximum HP per RPM not exceeding redline; for the 512 and 512i, this is likely not the maximum speed. Also, the workshop manual does not consistently distinguish measurements between the carbureted (512) and injected (512i) engines except with respect to the fuel delivery system, even though it is common knowledge that differences exist.
|Power||344 PS (253 kW; 339 hp) @ 7200 rpm||340 PS (250 kW; 335 hp) @ 6200 rpm||340 PS (250 kW; 335 hp) @ 6000 rpm|
|Torque||41.7 kg⋅m (302 lb⋅ft; 409 N⋅m) @ 3900 rpm||46 kg⋅m (333 lb⋅ft; 451 N⋅m) @ 4600 rpm||46 kg⋅m (333 lb⋅ft; 451 N⋅m) @ 4200 rpm|
|Redline||7000 rpm||6800 rpm||6600 rpm|
|Attainable speed||302 km/h (188 mph) @ 7000 rpm||272 km/h (169 mph) @ 6200 rpm||257 km/h (160 mph) @ 6000 rpm|
|0–100 km/h (0-62 mph)||5.4 secs||n/a||n/a|
|Dry weight||1,235 kg (2,723 lb)||1,596 kg (3,519 lb)||n/a|
|Kerb weight||n/a||n/a||1,580 kg (3,483 lb)|
|Workshop Manual||365||512 & 512i|
|Power||344 hp (257 kW) @7200 rpm||360 hp (268 kW) @6200 rpm|
|Torque||41.7 kg⋅m (409 N⋅m; 302 lb⋅ft) @ 3900 rpm||46 kg⋅m (451 N⋅m; 333 lb⋅ft) @ 4600 rpm|
|Redline||7000 rpm||6600 rpm|
|Maximum speed||302 km/h (188 mph)||288 km/h (179 mph)|
|0–100 km/h (0-62 mph)||5.4 secs||5.4 secs|
|Dry weight||1,235 kg (2,723 lb)||1,515 kg (3,340 lb)|
In 1974, Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) developed a racing variant of the 365 GT4 BB to replace the team's Daytonas for use in sports car racing. NART's car debuted at the 24 Hours of Daytona in 1975 before earning a sixth-place finish at the 12 Hours of Sebring two months later. NART continued to use the car into 1978, by which time Ferrari had begun their own development of a racing variant of the updated 512 BB. Ferrari's Customer Assistance Department extensively modified four 512s in 1978, adding wider wheel arches, a roof-mounted aerofoil, and reusing rear wings from Ferrari 312T2 Formula One cars. Power from the flat-12 was increased to 440 hp (328 kW) while the cars' weight was decreased to approximately 1,200 kg (2,646 lb). The four cars, termed BB LM by Ferrari, were entered by Charles Pozzi, Ecurie Francorchamps, and NART in the 1978 24 Hours of Le Mans, but none was able to complete the race.
After the failure of the first batch, Ferrari worked on fixing the BB LM with a second development program in late 1978. The flat-12's carburetors were replaced with an electronic fuel injection system to increase power to 470 hp (350 kW), a system later adapted to the 512 BBi. The production-based bodywork of the first BB/LMs was replaced by a new design developed by Pininfarina which was 16 in (41 cm) longer and carried over none of the original styling cues. The pop-up headlights were now replaced by fixed units integrated into the fascia, while the tail was lengthened to the maximum allowed by regulations. Nine of these revised BB LMs were built by Ferrari in 1979, while a further refined series of sixteen were built from 1980 to 1982. Amongst the BB LM's best finishes was a fifth overall and first in the GTX class at the 1981 24 Hours of Le Mans.
Engineer Mauro Forghieri confirmed during an interview with Davide Cironi that they knew the car was not equipped with a Boxer engine. He explained the meaning of the acronym (Berlinetta Boxer) was fabricated by journalists, in reality it means Berlinetta Bialbero (dual camshaft).
The Car Designer of the Century was an international award given to the most influential car designer of the 20th century. The election process was overseen by the Global Automotive Elections Foundation.
The winner, Giorgetto Giugiaro, was announced at an awards gala on December 18, 1999 in Las Vegas.Charles Pozzi
Charles Pozzi (27 August 1909 – 28 February 2001) was a French racing driver who participated in one World Championship Formula One race in 1950, the year of its inception.Dome Zero
The Dome Zero (童夢-零, Dōmu Zero) was a prototype sports car from DOME Co. Ltd that was exhibited at the 48th Geneva Auto Show in 1978. The Dome project was started by Minoru Hayashi in 1975, with the goal of producing sports cars using knowledge gained from auto racing. The Zero was to be their first production road car and Dome planned to produce a limited number for sale in Japan. Despite multiple prototypes and homologation efforts, the Zero was never approved by regulatory bodies for sale in Japan or overseas. As a result, the project was not commercially viable and the Zero never entered series production.Ferrari Testarossa
The Ferrari Testarossa (Type F110) is a 12-cylinder mid-engine sports car manufactured by Ferrari, which went into production in 1984 as the successor to the Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer. The Pininfarina-designed car was originally produced from 1984 to 1991, with two model revisions following the end of Testarossa production called the 512 TR and F512 M, which were produced from 1992 to 1996. Including revised variations, almost 10,000 cars in total were produced, making it one of the most mass-produced Ferrari models.The Testarossa is a two-door coupé that premiered at the 1984 Paris Auto Show. All versions of the Testarossa were available with a rear-mounted, five-speed manual transmission. The rear mid-engine design (engine between the axles but behind the cabin) keeps the centre of gravity in the middle of the car, which increases stability and improves the car's cornering ability, and thus results in a standing weight distribution of 40% front: 60% rear. The original Testarossa was re-engineered for the 1992 model year and was introduced as the 512 TR (TR meaning TestaRossa), at the Los Angeles Auto Show, effectively as a completely new car, and an improved weight distribution of 41% front, 59% rear. Another new variant called the F512 M was introduced at the 1994 Paris Auto Show. The car dropped the TR initials and added the M which in Italian stood for modificata, or translated to modified, and was the final version of the Testarossa, which continued its predecessor's weight distribution improvement of 42% front, 58% rear. The F512 M was Ferrari's last mid-engine 12-cylinder car (apart from the flagship F50, Enzo and LaFerrari models), and it featured the company's last flat-12 engine. The Testarossa was replaced in 1996 by the front-engine 550 Maranello grand tourer.Headlamp
A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to illuminate the road ahead. Headlamps are also often called headlights, but in the most precise usage, headlamp is the term for the device itself and headlight is the term for the beam of light produced and distributed by the device.
Headlamp performance has steadily improved throughout the automobile age, spurred by the great disparity between daytime and nighttime traffic fatalities: the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration states that nearly half of all traffic-related fatalities occur in the dark, despite only 25% of traffic travelling during darkness.Other vehicles, such as trains and aircraft, are required to have headlamps. Bicycle headlamps are often used on bicycles, and are required in some jurisdictions. They can be powered by a battery or a small generator mechanically integrated into the workings of the bicycles.Hidden headlamp
Hidden headlamps, also commonly known as pop-up headlamps, hideaway headlights, are a form of automotive lighting and an automotive styling feature that conceals an automobile's headlamps when they are not in use.
Depending on the design, the headlamps may be mounted in a housing that rotates so as to sit flush with the front end as on the Porsche 928, may retract into the hood and/or fenders as on the 1963–2004 Chevrolet Corvette, or may be concealed behind retractable or rotating grille panels as on the Dodge Charger, Mercury Cyclone, or the 1960s Buick Riviera, which pioneered the feature.Koenig Specials
Koenig Specials GmbH (known widely as Koenig) is a German tuning house based in Munich that specialised in modifications to European luxury cars but gained notability in the 1980s and 1990s for their performance modifications to Ferraris. Some of its most notable works included a twin-turbo Ferrari Testarossa (known as the Koenig Competition) that produced 1,000 bhp, a highly unusual output for cars at the time, as well as the 850 bhp Ferrari F50. Koenig also entered into automobile production with its road-going version of the Porsche 962 known as the Koenig C62, therefore becoming the first road-legal Group C-based car.
Many of its cars have been featured in non-German mainstream publications such as Road & Track, Top Gear and Sports Car International. Car magazine described its Competition Evolution as "the most famous modified supercar of the 1980s".List of people who died in traffic collisions
This list contains notable people who have been killed in traffic collisions. This list does not include those who were killed competing on closed road events whether in motorsport or in competitive cycling events. Passengers of a vehicle are indicated in parentheses on the "mode of transport" field.
This list can be expanded with entries from the Talk pageTurin Auto Show
The Turin Motor Show (Italian: Salone dell'Automobile di Torino) was an auto show held annually in Turin, Italy. The first official show took place between 21 and 24 April 1900, at the Castle of Valentino, becoming a permanent fixture in Turin from 1938 having shared it with Milan and Rome until that time. From 1972, the show was held biannually and in 1984, it moved into Fiat's shuttered Lingotto factory.The event was last held in Turin in June 2000, and cancelled from 2002, resulting in the Bologna Motor Show taking over the role of Italy's International Motor Show. Since 2015, Turin again now holds a Motor Show, albeit as an open air festival to keep exhibitors' costs down and provide free access to the public. It is held in the precinct of the Parco del Valentino.
« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–1990s — next »
|8 cylinder||Mid-engine berlinetta||308||308 i||308 QV||328||348||360|
|208||208 Turbo||GTB/GTS Turbo||F355|
|Mid-engine 2+2||308 GT4||Mondial 8||Mondial QV||Mondial 3.2||Mondial t|
|12 cylinder||Boxer berlinetta||365 BB||512 BB||512i BB||Testarossa (F110)||512TR||F512 M|
|Grand tourer||250||275||365 GTB/4
|2+2 grand tourer||250 GT/E||330 GT 2+2||365 GT 2+2||365
|365 GT4 2+2||400||400 i||412||456||456M|
|Supercar||250 GTO||250 LM||288
|Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline Sold under the|