Ferrari America

Ferrari America is a series of top-end Ferrari models built in the 1950s and 1960s. They were large grand touring cars with the largest V12 engines and often had custom bodywork. All America models used a live axle in the rear, were front-engined, and had worm and sector steering.

Two of the series, the 410 and the 400, were called Superamerica. The final member of the America production family was called the 500 Superfast. The series also includes the 365 California.

Ferrari 340 America, 342 America, 375 America, 410 Superamerica, 400 Superamerica, 500 Superfast, 365 California
Overview
ManufacturerFerrari
Production1950–1967
Body and chassis
ClassGrand tourer
LayoutFront-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Powertrain
EngineV12

340 America

Ferrari 340 America
Ferrari 340 America Spyder Vignale at Mille Miglia 2012
Ferrari 340 America Spyder Vignale
Overview
Production1950–1952
23 made (two were converted from 275 S)
Body and chassis
Body style2-door coupé
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine4.1 L (4101.66 cc) Lampredi V12
Power output220 PS
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,420 mm (95.3 in)
Kerb weight900 kg (1,984 lb) (dry, berlinetta)

The first America cars were the 340, produced between 1950 and 1952. Using the new Lampredi V12 developed for Formula One racing, the 340 America could produce 220 PS (162 kW; 217 hp).[1] Originally only 23 copies were built: 11 by Vignale, eight by Touring, and four by Ghia.[2] Giovanni Michelotti designed Coupé and 2+2 Coupé for Ghia and Coupé and Spider for Vignale. First two Americas were converted from 275 S. In 1951, 340 America Vignale Berlinetta won Mille Miglia race driven by Luigi Villoresi. Three Touring barchettas were also entered that year but did not finish.[3]

The 340/342 America was replaced by its larger-engined brother, the 375 America.

1951 Ferrari 340 America (1)

Ferrari 340 America Touring Berlinetta

1951-04-28-Ferrari340-0082A-MilleMiglia-Villoresi

340 America that won 1951 Mille Miglia

342 America

Ferrari 342 America
Ferrari 1952 342 America Pinin Farina Front Right on Pebble Beach Tour d'Elegance 2011 -Moto@Club4AG
Ferrari 342 America Pinin Farina Coupé
Overview
Production1952
6 made
Body and chassis
Body style2-door coupé
2-door convertible
Powertrain
Engine4.1 L (4101.66 cc) Lampredi V12
Power output200 PS
Transmission4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,650 mm (104.3 in)
Kerb weight1,200 kg (2,646 lb)

Only six road cars were made: Vignale Cabriolet (designed by Giovanni Michelotti), two Pinin Farina Cabriolets and three Pinin Farina Coupés. Using the same Lampredi-designed engine as in 340 America with a different carburettor air filter arrangement and thus was detuned to 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp). Last example, the Pinin Farina Cabriolet s/n 0248AL presented at 1953 New York Auto show, was upgraded to 4.5 L engine.[4] Both 340/342 Americas used even chassis numbering of a race cars, while 375 America and later used odd chassis numbering of a road cars. A Black Pinin Farina Cabriolet was owned by King Leopold III of Belgium.

375 America

Ferrari 375 America
Ferrari 375 Vignale 1
Overview
Production1953–1954
12 made (two were converted from 250 Europas)
Body and chassis
Body style2-door coupé
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine4.5 L (4522.08 cc) Tipo 104 Lampredi V12
Power output300 PS
Transmission4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,800 mm (110.2 in)
Kerb weight1,150 kg (2,535 lb)

The 375 America was introduced in 1953 and a Pinin Farina bodied example was shown at that year's Paris Salon. Built as a successor to the 342 America, The 375 used the new 4.5 L (4,522 cc) "long block" Lampredi designed V12 engine that produced up to 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) at 6300 rpm, with three Weber 40DCF (or DCZ) carburettors, and allowed it do 0-60 mph in under seven seconds and reach a top speed of almost 160 mph (257.5 kmh).[5] The 375 and later used odd chassis numbering of a road cars, while the 340/342 Americas using even chassis numbering of a race cars. The 375 was expensive and exclusive and was only built from late 1953 through 1954. 12 cars were made, with ten being original 375s and two being 250 Europas that were subsequently converted to 375 specifications (the 250 Europa and 375 had a nearly identical wheelbase, chassis and mechanicals).[6] The majority of 375s had either three or five-window coupe bodies by Pinin Farina, though Vignale bodied around three Coupés and one convertible.

Ferrari 375 Vignale 2

1953 Ferrari 375 America with bodywork by Carrozzeria Vignale

DSC01112 (2686563940)

1955 Ferrari 375 America Coupé Speciale by Aldo Brovarone at Pinin Farina for Gianni Agnelli

410 Superamerica

Ferrari 410 Superamerica
1959 Ferrari 410 Superamerica
Series III 410 Superamerica Pinin Farina Coupé
Overview
Production1955–1959
35 made
Body and chassis
Body style2-door coupé
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine5.0 L (4962.96 cc) Tipo 126 Lampredi V12
Power output340 PS/360 PS
Transmission4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,800 mm (110.2 in)
2,600 mm (102.4 in)
Kerb weight1,200 kg (2,646 lb)

Ferrari produced another line of America cars, beginning with the 1955 410 Superamerica. The engine, based on a single plug 410 S powerplant, was now up to 5.0 L with 340 PS (250 kW; 335 hp) at 6,000 rpm produced thanks to triple Weber 40 DCF carburettors. A 1957 Superamerica series III had triple 46 DCF3 Weber carburetors for even more power (360 PS (265 kW; 355 hp)) and was also the final development for the 'long-block' Lampredi V12.[7]

Each 410 Superamerica had custom bodywork, with a few by Boano and Ghia but most by Ferrari stalwart, Pinin Farina. The price was extremely high—at US$16,800, the 410 Superamerica offered at the New York Auto Show by importer Luigi Chinetti was more than twice as expensive as the Mercedes-Benz 300SL "Gullwing" exhibited by Max Hoffman. Just 35 were built when the series ended in 1959.[8] First 2 series of Pinin Farina coupés were very similar with only 3rd series radically redesigned with non-panoramic rear window, different side-line, lower front grille and more recessed headlights, some covered. While most 3rd series PF coupés had 3 louvres behind side-windows, some have this space glassed over. Series III cars were introduced in 1958.

410 Superfast Pinin Farina Speciale

Also known as "Superfast I", made on 410 Superamerica chassis with 24-plug racing engine from 410 S, prominent tailfins and bi-coloured body. It was unveiled at the 1956 Paris Auto Show. Wheelbase was shorter at 2,600 mm.[9]

4.9 Superfast

Another show car based on 410 Superamerica chassis and engine was Ferrari 4.9 Superfast. First time presented in Paris, 1957, this car was an evolution of 410 Superfast but without the prominent rear fins. Also the colours were similar but with dark blue-green full body and white roof.

1956 Ferrari 410 Superamerica - fvr2

Ferrari 410 Superamerica Series I by Pinin Farina

1956 Ferrari 410 Superamerica Pininfarina (1)

Ferrari 410 Superfast by Pinin Farina

Ferrari 410 Superamerica

Ferrari 4.9 Superfast by Pinin Farina

400 Superamerica

Ferrari 400 Superamerica
1962 Ferrari 400 Superamerica Aerodinamico - Flickr - exfordy
Series I Ferrari 400 Superamerica Coupé Aerodinamico
Overview
Production1959—1964
47 made
DesignerAldo Brovarone at Pinin Farina (Coupé Aerodinamico)
Body and chassis
Body style2-door coupé
2-door roadster
Powertrain
Engine4.0 L (3967.44 cc) Tipo 163 Colombo V12
Power output340 PS
Transmission4-speed manual with overdrive
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,420 mm (95.3 in)(series I)
2,600 mm (102.4 in)(series II)
Kerb weight1,250 kg (2,756 lb) (dry, coupé)

The 400 Superamerica had a smaller 4.0 L Colombo engine, but produced as much power as its predecessor, 340 PS (250 kW; 335 hp) at 7,000 rpm. It debuted in 1959 as 410 production ended, and was available as a coupe, spider, or cabriolet with custom Pinin Farina bodywork. Four-wheel disc brakes were a new addition. 47 Ferrari 400s had been built, along 2 series, when the 400 stepped aside in 1964, of which 32 were coupé aerodinamico variant. Series I coupés aerodinamico had open hood air scoop while series II cars had covered scoop and slightly longer wheelbase.[10]

400 Superamerica Pinin Farina Coupé Speciale

Special one-off version of 400 Superamerica built in 1959 for Gianni Agnelli. This car was also the very first of 400 Superamericas. Worth note is the fact that very similar body was used on Maserati 5000 GT also built for Sig. Agnelli.

400 Superamerica Superfast II–IV

Originally built as series I Ferrari 400 Superamerica Aerodinamico Pinin Farina Coupé, chassis no. 2207SA, was bodied and presented as Superfast II at the Torino Motor Show in 1960 and 1961. It was used by Battista "Pinin" Farina as his personal car. In 1961 rebodied into Superfast III and presented at 1962 Geneva Motor Show. Same year redesigned another, final, time as Superfast IV. It was a styling concept for the upcoming 500 Superfast model. Currently this show car can be seen on various events with its first styling.

Ferrari 400 Superamerica fl

Ferrari 400 Superamerica Series II by Pinin Farina

1960 Ferrari 400 Superamerica

Ferrari 400 Superamerica Coupé Speciale by Pinin Farina for Gianni Agnelli

Ferrari Superfast II front

Ferrari Superfast II by Pinin Farina

1960 Ferrari 400 Superamerica Cabriolet (44702502321)

Ferrari 400 Superamerica Cabriolet by Pinin Farina

500 Superfast

Ferrari 500 Superfast
1964 Ferrari 500 Superfast fr
Overview
Production1964–1966
36 made
DesignerPininfarina
Body and chassis
Body style2-door coupé
Powertrain
Engine5.0 L (4962.96 cc) Tipo 208 Colombo V12
Power output400 PS
Transmission4-speed manual with overdrive
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,650 mm (104.3 in)
Length4,820 mm (189.8 in)
Width1,730 mm (68.1 in)
Height1,280 mm (50.4 in)
Kerb weight1,400 kg (3,086 lb)

The end of the top-line America series was the 500 Superfast, first shown on the Pininfarina stand at the March 1964 Geneva Motor Show.[11] During development these cars were to be called "Superamerica", but the decision was made at the last moment to use "Superfast" instead.

The engine was a unique 4,962.96 cc (303 cu in) Ferrari Colombo V12 engine,[12] which had the same dimensions as the Lampredi "long-block" engines of the 410 Superamerica, otherwise the design was based on the original Colombo "short block". Breathing through six twin-choke Weber 40 DCZ/6 carburettors, the V12 produced 400 PS (294 kW; 395 hp) at 6,500 rpm and could push the car to 280 kilometres per hour (174 mph).[12] The chassis was very similar in construction to the contemporary 330 GT 2+2, and bodywork was again done by Pininfarina. When leaving the factory the 500 Superfast originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato CN72 205 VR15 tyres. 36 cars were made from 1964 to 1966, including 12 improved models with a 5-speed transmission in place of the earlier 4-speed plus overdrive. This production total excludes a one-off 330 GT 2+2 produced with a Superfast-style body for Prince Bernhard of The Netherlands. Only coupés were made and no Superfast roadsters were available.

1965 Ferrari Superfast Coupe - blue - rvl

Rear three-quarters view of a 500 Superfast

365 California

Ferrari 365 California
Ferrari 1967 365 California (9062327023)
Overview
Production1966–1967
14 made
DesignerTom Tjaarda at Pininfarina[13]
Body and chassis
Body style2+2 convertible
RelatedFerrari 500 Superfast
Powertrain
Engine4.4 L (4390.35 cc) Tipo 217B Colombo V12
Power output320 PS
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,650 mm (104.3 in)
Length4,900 mm (192.9 in)
Width1,780 mm (70.1 in)
Height1,330 mm (52.4 in)
Kerb weight1,320 kg (2,910 lb) (dry)

The 365 California replaced the 500 Superfast for 1966. It was the first 365 model, with its 4,390 cc (268 cu in) V12 based on the 330's 4.0 L Colombo unit but with an 81 mm bore. The 365 California used the same chassis as the 500 Superfast but with an evolutionary cabriolet body by Pininfarina. Debuting at the Geneva Motor Show in 1966, just 14 examples were produced (including 2 in right hand drive) before production ended in 1967. Whilst the prototype was built on a 330 GT 2+2 type 571 chassis,[14] production cars featured type 598 chassis. Chassis' were sent to Pininfarina's Grugliasco plant to be bodied and trimmed which were later returned to Ferrari for fitment of the mechanical components.

Ferrari 1967 365 California (9062327161)

Ferrari 365 California

Notes

  1. ^ "Ferrari 340 America". ferrari.com. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  2. ^ Thorson, Thor (September 2008). "1951 Ferrari 340 America Coupe". Sports Car Market. 20 (9): 44.
  3. ^ "Mille Miglia 1951 Race Results". racingsportscars.com. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  4. ^ "Ferrari 342 America". ferrari.com. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  5. ^ "RM Sotheby's - r210 1953 Ferrari 375 America Coupe by Carrozzeria Vignale". RM Sotheby's. 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  6. ^ "Ferrari 375 America". ferrari.com. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  7. ^ "Ferrari 410 Superamerica". ferrari.com. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  8. ^ Ahlgrim, Steve (April 2012). "1957 Ferrari 410 Superamerica Coupe". Sports Car Market. 24 (4): 46–47.
  9. ^ "Ferrari 410 "Superfast I" PF Speciale". barchetta.cc. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  10. ^ "Ferrari 400 Superamerica". ferrari.com. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  11. ^ Bernabò, Ferruccio (12 March 1964). "Si apre oggi a Ginevra il Salone dell'Auto, primo grande confronto della produzione mondiale". La Stampa. p. 13. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Ferrari 500 Superfast". ferrari.com. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  13. ^ "Cars by Tom Tjaarda". tom-tjaarda.net. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Ferrari 365 California". ferrari.com. Retrieved 21 May 2019.

References

  • Buckley, Martin; Rees, Chris (1998). World Encyclopedia of Cars. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7.
History of the automobile

The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, and utility preferences.

In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot.In 1808, François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen.

In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built the first gasoline powered combustion engine, which he placed on a pushcart, building four progressively more sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced later cars. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine. The car's second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch and a brake.

The four-stroke petrol (gasoline) internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. The battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the electric motor, and Gaston Planté, who invented the lead–acid battery in 1859.In 1885, Karl Benz developed a petrol or gasoline powered automobile. This is also considered to be the first "production" vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered by a single cylinder four-stroke engine.

In 1913, the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company five years prior, became the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly line. By 1927, Ford had produced over 15,000,000 Model T automobiles.

List of foreign Liga MX players

This is a list of foreign players in Liga MX during the professional era which began in 1943. The following players:

have played at least one Primera División game for the respective club;

have not been capped for the Mexico national team at any level; or

have been born in Mexico and were capped by a foreign national team. This includes players who have dual citizenship with Mexico.Players are sorted by the State:

they played for in a national team at any level. For footballers that played for two or more national teams, they are listed with:

the one he played for at A level;

the national team representing his state of birth; or

If they never played for any national team at any level, the state of birth. For footballers born in dissolved states, they are listed in the state which now represents their place of birth (e.g.,: Yugoslavia -> Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, etc...).Stateless people are marked with an asterisk.

In bold: players that played at least one Primera División game in the current season.

Clubs are not allowed to play more than five foreign players in a Liga MX match. In March 2011, PRI lawmakers introduced a proposal to reduce the limit to three foreign players. FMF President Justino Compeán did not support the failed proposal because he believed it would not improve the quality of Mexican football players.As of 1 January 2009, Club América had employed the most foreign players of any club in the history of the Primera División, with more than 150 in the professional era. A total of 88 foreign players participated in the 2012 Apertura tournament, 29 originating from Argentina and 14 from Colombia.

Max Hoffman

Maximilian Edwin Hoffman (12 November 1904 in Vienna, Austria – 9 August 1981), was an Austrian-born, New York-based importer of luxury European automobiles into the United States during the 1950s.

Known equally for his acumen and influence, Hoffman was instrumental in development and refinement of several iconic luxury sports cars, including the Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing, Porsche 356 Speedster, and V-8 powered BMW 507 roadster.

Hoffman's contributions to both automobile development and sports car racing earned him induction into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 2003. Both his home in Rye, New York, and Park Avenue Jaguar showroom in Manhattan were designed by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright.

Cars
Engines
Other
Ferrari road car timeline, 1947–1969 — next »
Type 1940s 1950s 1960s
7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Sports 275 S 340 Mexico/MM 375 MM 375 Plus 410 S
125 S 166 S/166 MM 195 S 212 Export 225 S 250 MM 250 Monza 315 S 250 Testa Rossa 250 LM
159 S 250 S 290 MM 335 S 250  GTO
Berlinetta 250 GT "Tour de France" 250 GT "SWB" 250 GT Lusso 275 GTB 275 GTB/4 365 GTB/4
Coupé 166 Inter 195 Inter 212 Inter 250 Europa 250 Europa GT 250 GT Boano 250 GT Ellena 250 GT Coupé Pinin Farina 330 GTC 365 GTC
2+2 250 GT/E 330 GT 2+2 365 GT 2+2
Spider 250 GT Cabriolet 275 GTS 330 GTS 365 GTS
250 GT California Spyder
America 340/342 America 375 America 410 Superamerica 400 Superamerica 500 Superfast 365 California
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