The Ferrari 456 and 456M (Type F116) are front-engined grand tourers which were produced by Ferrari from 1992 to 2003. The 456 was a replacement for the front-engined 412 as the company's V12-powered four seater. The updated 456M, which was the last Ferrari model to use pop-up headlamps, was replaced in 2004 by the 612 Scaglietti.
Ferrari 456M GT
|Designer||Pietro Camardella under Lorenzo Ramaciotti at Pininfarina|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Grand tourer (S)|
|Body style||2-door 2+2 coupé|
|Engine||5.5 L Tipo F116B/C V12 (456)|
5.5 L Tipo F116C V12 (456M)
|Power output||442 PS (325 kW; 436 hp)|
|Wheelbase||2,600 mm (102.4 in)|
|Length||4,730 mm (186.2 in)|
4,763 mm (187.5 in) (456M)
|Width||1,920 mm (75.6 in)|
|Height||1,300 mm (51.2 in)|
|Kerb weight||1,690–1,770 kg (3,726–3,902 lb) (dry)|
|Successor||Ferrari 612 Scaglietti|
The original 456 grand tourer was designed by Pietro Camardella at Pininfarina which was available in GT and (from 1996) GTA forms. The difference in name signifies the transmission: the former has a six-speed manual and the latter has a four-speed automatic developed in partnership with FF Developments, in Livonia, MI (which was later purchased by Ricardo Engineering in the UK). This was the second and last hydraulic automatic transmission offered by Ferrari. (The previous offered in the 400/412 series.) The 5.5 L (5,473.91 cc) 65° V12 engine was derived from the Dino V6 rather than the more conventional 60° V12s used in the 412 and Daytona. It produces 442 PS (325 kW; 436 hp), with 4 valves per cylinder and Bosch Motronic M2.7 engine management. Ferrari claims it could push the 1,690 kg (3,726 lb) car and four passengers to a top speed of 187 mph (301 km/h) making it the world's second fastest production four-seater automobile behind the Porsche 959. Acceleration from 0-97 km/h (60 mph) takes 4.8 seconds, with a 13.3 second quarter-mile time. At the time of its development, it was the most powerful regular production road car ever developed by Ferrari. In 1996, the engine management system was changed to Motronic M5.2 management and the engine with the updated system was given the F116C code.
The name 456 is derived from the fact that each cylinder displaces 456 cubic centimeters. This was the last Ferrari to use this naming convention until the 488 GTB. Despite its exceptional performance, the 456 has a relatively unstressed engine, which has proven to be a very reliable unit. A further developed version of this engine was used in the front engined 550 Maranello grand tourer that was introduced in 1996 and which became the most powerful naturally aspirated Ferrari road car aside the 456.
The chassis is a tubular steel space-frame construction with a one-piece composite bonnet and body panels of aluminium. The body panels are welded to the chassis by using a special "sandwich filler" called feran that, when laid between, allows steel and aluminium to be welded. Pininfarina bodied 456 by 1996 when production was moved to Ferrari. Total number of bodies made by Pininfarina mounts up to 1435. All early 456s have Pininfarina script and badge, whilst all Modificatas will have only disegno Pininfarina scripts.
The Modificata 456M was unveiled in 1998, starting with chassis number 109589. Many changes were made to improve aerodynamics and cooling and the interior – still featuring Connolly Leather – was freshened with new seats and other conveniences (fewer gauges on dash, and a new Becker stereo fitted in front of the shifter rather than behind as in the very shallow and special Sony head unit in the 456 GT). The 456 had a smaller grille with fog lights outside the grille. The undercarriage spoiler on the 456M is fixed, where the older 456 had a motorized spoiler that began its deployment above 65 mph (105 km/h). The hood was the first commercial application of carbon fiber, the previous being a composite material. Power output remained unchanged on the Modificata using Bosch Motronic M5.2 engine management at 442 PS (325 kW; 436 hp); the cylinder firing order was changed for smoother running and the torque remained the same for later versions of the 456 GT.
In the final year of production 2002/3, customers could specify their vehicle using the Carrozzeria Scaglietti Program. Launched at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show using Michael Schumacher's own 456M GT as an example, customers could work with Ferrari personnel to create a highly individual car. Schumacher's car had a two colour paint scheme, custom leather interior, re-worked instruments, an uprated handling pack and cross-drilled Brembo brakes. Such cars would be thus designated as a Tipo 456M GT(A) Scaglietti. The car is also calls the 456M GT "Schumacher Edition" as Schumacher was the first to commission the car. A total of 30 cars were produced, with only 10 being made with the 6-speed manual transmission.
The total production of the 456 amounted to 3,289 units. These consisted of the following versions:
According to manufacturer the 456 GT has top speed of over 300 km/h (186 mph) and acceleration 0-100 km/h (0-62 mph) in 5.2 seconds. GTA has slower acceleration at 5.5 s. Modificatas had the same performance statistics as their respective predecessors.
While the 456 2+2 coupé was the only version offered to the general public, four other body styles exist made on special request of specific customers:
The 5.5 L V12 engine used in the 456 won the "over 4 litre" class of the International Engine of the Year award for 2000 and 2001.
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|8 cylinder||Mid-engine berlinetta||308||308 i||308 QV||328||348||360|
|208||208 Turbo||GTB/GTS Turbo||F355|
|Mid-engine 2+2||308 GT4||Mondial 8||Mondial QV||Mondial 3.2||Mondial t|
|12 cylinder||Boxer berlinetta||365 BB||512 BB||512i BB||Testarossa (F110)||512TR||F512 M|
|Grand tourer||250||275||365 GTB/4
|2+2 grand tourer||250 GT/E||330 GT 2+2||365 GT 2+2||365
|365 GT4 2+2||400||400 i||412||456||456M|
|Supercar||250 GTO||250 LM||288
|Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline Sold under the|
« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 2000–present
|Challenge Stradale||430 Scuderia||458 Speciale||488 Pista|
|2+2 grand tourer||GTC4Lusso T|
|V12||Grand tourer||550 Maranello||575M Maranello||599 GTB Fiorano||F12berlinetta||812 Superfast|
|550 Barchetta||Superamerica||599 SA Aperta/599 GTO||F60 America/F12tdf|
|2+2 grand tourer||456M||612 Scaglietti||FF||GTC4Lusso|
|XX Programmes||FXX||599XX||599XX Evoluzione||FXX K||FXX K Evo|
|Ferrari Icona||Monza SP|