The Ferrari 348 (Type F119) is a mid-engine V8-powered 2-seat sports car produced by Italian automaker Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 model developed under the direction of Enzo Ferrari before his death, commissioned to production posthumously.
|Designer||Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina |
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car (S)|
|Layout||Longitudinal, rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive|
|Related||Ferrari Mondial T|
|Engine||3.4 L Tipo F119 V8|
|Wheelbase||2,450 mm (96.5 in)|
|Length||4,230 mm (167 in)|
|Width||1,894 mm (74.6 in)|
|Height||1,170 mm (46.1 in)|
|Kerb weight||1,500 kg (3,300 lb)|
The 348, badged 348 TB for the coupé (Transversale Berlinetta) and 348 TS for targa (Transversale Spider), featured a naturally aspirated 3.4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the model number was derived from this configuration, with the first two digits being the displacement of the engine and the third being the number of cylinders. The engine, which had a power output of 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp), was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a transverse manual gearbox, like the Mondial T with which the 348 shared many components. The "T" in the model name 348 TB and TS refers to the transverse position of the gearbox. Overall, 2,894 examples of the 348 TB and 4,228 of the 348 TS were produced.
The 348's styling differed from previous models with straked side air intakes and rectangular taillights resembling the Testarossa, stylistic themes reminiscent of the F40, the world’s fastest production car at the time, and other prestigious Ferrari models of the past. The model was also the final design overseen by chief stylist Leonardo Fioravanti, known for such designs as the F40, Daytona, 512 Berlinetta Boxer, 288 GTO P5, P6 and others. The F355 that succeeded the 348 returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops.
The 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, and self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems. Late versions (1993 and beyond) have Japanese starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, as well as the battery located within the front left fender for better weight distribution.
U.S. spec 348's have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, which is needed to activate this troubleshooting feature.
Similar to the Testarossa but departing from the 512 BB and 308/328, the oil and coolant radiators were relocated from the nose to the sides, widening the side of the car substantially, but making the cabin much easier to cool since hoses routing warm water no longer ran underneath the cabin as in the older front-radiator cars. This also had the side effect of making the doors very wide.
The 348 was equipped with a dry-sump oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds and during hard cornering. The oil level could only be accurately checked on the dipstick when the engine was running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable ride-height suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance.
Between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 limited edition units of 348 Serie Speciale of its TB and TS versions. It was only made for the US market.
The main technical modifications consisted in a revised engine which produced 316 PS (232 kW; 312 hp) at 7,200 rpm, a wider rear track (50mm), a free flow exhaust system, a shorter ratio final drive and Pirelli P Zero tyres. Ferrari indicated a 0-97 km/h acceleration time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds.
Several modifications were made to the exterior as well: new front spoiler to optimize aerodynamics similar to the F40, new front grille with chrome prancing horse, bumpers and rocker panels in body colour, engine cover in body colour, modified taillight assembly and new rear grille with chrome prancing horse.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather with the regular seats included as an option. The door panels were also modified and made of leather. Each car was numbered (1 to 100), with a 348 Serie Speciale plaque on the passenger's side door-post.
The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348; the series debuted in 1993 and included the Italian and European series. The engine used in the participating cars was similar to the road car with the only noticeable changes being the slick tyres, new body kit, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts. In 1994 the G-spec engined cars had to be modified with the H-spec cylinder heads and injection system. The car's final season was in 1995 and was replaced subsequently by the F355 Challenge.
In late 1993, the 348 was revised, featuring subtle styling changes (front grille, rear chrome Cavallino and removable seat cushions) and more power, this time 312 hp (U.S) and 320 PS (Europe) from the same 3.4-litre engine, with an improved engine management system - Bosch Motronic 2.7 and a new exhaust system (single muffler).
The revised cars are called 348 GTB (252 made) and GTS (137 made) and were presented to the public as the 348 GT versions, equipped with the F119H engine (as opposed to the original F119D and US F119G). The F119H engine had an increased 10.8:1 compression ratio as compared to the F119D & F119G's 10.4:1 compression ratio, taller intake plenums, a larger intake compensation valve, fuel pressure raised from 3.4 bar to 3.8 bar, and different camshaft timing.
For these models, both the engine cover and lower body skirts were body-coloured instead of black, and the rear track was one inch wider due to the mounting area, on the inside, of the rear wheels being thicker. The suspension geometry was revised which greatly enhanced its handling, ride and body control. The fuel tank was also smaller (88L) in order to reduce overall weight and provide space to improve chassis rigidity.
The 348 Spider (convertible) variant was also introduced, in-line with the phasing out of the Mondial Cabriolet. 1,090 units of the Spider were produced.
In 1993, Ferrari presented a light weight 348 GT Competizione variant as a homologation version for competing in the GT Championship. Safety equipment such as a tool kit was carried over from the 348 Challenge. The braking system was derived from the F40 Evoluzione model. The cars also had modified racing suspension and exhaust system. The engine had a power output of 320 PS (235 kW; 316 hp) at 7,000 rpm and 324 N⋅m (239 lb⋅ft) of torque at 5,000 rpm, consistent to standard late 348 production with the F119H engine. Only 50 were made, including 8 Right Hand Drive models. Special features included a specially trimmed steering wheel indicating the number sequence in the production of the 50 cars, 5-spoke 18-inch Speedline competizione wheels and cloth trim seats with kevlar structure for weight reduction. Aiding further in the weight reduction was the carbon kevlar composite material used for the front and rear bumpers as well as the doors and a light weight polycarbonate rear window. Additional interior trim pieces such as door sills featured carbon kevlar and creature comforts such as air conditioning and sound proofing materials were removed. These changes resulted in a dry weight of 1,180 kg (2,601 lb). The final drive in the gear box was changed to 25/27 ratio for improved performance.
Between 1991 and 1992, Italian coach builder Zagato announced the Zagato Elaborazione package for the Ferrari 348 TB. The changes were all cosmetic and the engine and other mechanical components remained identical to the donor car.
At the front of the car a new bumper removed the original’s fake central grille and also replaced the Ferrari prancing horse emblem. The side intake cooling ducts were enlarged with the strakes removed and the engine cover was replaced with a glass engine cover showing off the V8 engine. A new round triple tail-light arrangement and an electronically controlled rear spoiler were added. A double bubble roof replaced the original, the idea being that Zagato could lower the roofline of a car, but retain enough headroom for each occupant. Other modifications included custom OZ Racing alloy wheels, external fuel filler caps and a completely reworked interior including a three-inch rear view screen and suede upholstery. Zagato initially announced a production run of 22 examples, but only 10 cars were made.
The Ferrari 348 Barchetta Competizione is a one-off special created for car collector Guy Audebert from his crashed Ferrari 348. The car, which has a true open top barchetta body style features heavily modified body work that includes a deeper chin spoiler, removal of the pop-up headlamps with the headlamps integrated in the fog light assembly, quick release bonnet, minimalist racing interior; featuring a detachable steering wheel, Sparco racing bucket seats with six-point harness and a roll bar for the driver's safety, a large air scoop reminiscent to that used in Ferrari F1 cars, racing wing mirrors, replacement of the straked side air intakes with larger air intakes along with two additional vents, tail lights from the Ferrari 328, perforated rear grille, 18-inch BBS racing alloy wheels and a large rear wing inspired by the Ferrari F40 LM. Details of the coach builder that carried out this conversion, the materials used for the body work and the car's technical specifications remain unknown due to the car being mostly kept private but the weight was revealed to be 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).
In 1991, 348 chassis number 82881 was delivered to Ecurie Francorchamps for the purposes of evaluating the 348’s suitability for competition use, and its development set the stage for the 348 GT Competizione production models to come near the end of the model run. Outfitted with composite doors, polycarbonate competition windows, and experimental exterior and underbody aerodynamic treatments, the development mule was designated as 348 tb/f, with the f designating the car’s creator, Francorchamps, and weighed a total of 1,165 kg (2,569 lbs). The car was frequently run at Spa Ferrari race events, but did not campaign formally within any major series.
For 1993, Michelotto, then known as Ferrari’s unofficial race preparation specialist based upon their work in developing the 288 GTO Evoluzione, F40 LM, and 333SP, was commissioned to prepare 11 examples of the 348 CSAI-GT model for competition in such prestigious events as the 24 Hours of Le Mans and Daytona races. Sold with the intention of being campaigned by privateer teams, only 2 of the cars ever saw true competition use, with the remaining 9 disappearing into private collections. Italian race team Jolly Club campaigned one of the 348s alongside their Michelotto-prepared F40 LM, achieving significant success in the Super Car GT series, with the 348 winning sequential outright titles in 1993 and 1994, along with 3 category titles.
Michelotto built a further 2 cars in 1994, designated as 348 GTC-LM for competition within the GT2 class, campaigned by Team Repsol and Ferrari Club Italia. Team Repsol placed 4th in the GT2 class for the 1994 24 Hours of Le Mans, following a trio of Porsche 911 GTs, and 11th overall. The 348 GTC-LMs also placed 2nd and 6th at Vallelunga 6hr and 4hr races, and 5th at Spa 4 hours for the season, along with another Michelotto 348 taking 7th in the GT2 class for the Daytona 24 hours.
Two Ferrari 348s were used as two of the three test mules for the Ferrari Enzo namely M1 and M3 respectively. Details about the M1 remain unknown but some images surfaced online show that it was painted black and had stretched body work  while the M3 featured heavily modified body work to accommodate the V12 engine and gearbox which were intended to be used in the production car along with many components from its successors, the F355 and the F430 respectively. The engine in the test mule produced 679 PS (499 kW; 670 hp), 20 PS (15 kW; 20 hp) more than that of the production car. The car was not kept by Ferrari and was auctioned off in 2005 to a private collector at a price of €190,000; making its presence known to the public. The car was famous as "the Frankenstein Ferrari" due to it being a by product of many Ferrari models. Due to this fact and a lack of model name and safety features, it was deemed not road legal.
The Ferrari 348 made its debut in September 1989 at the Frankfurt Auto Show to positive review, cited as "Best in Show" by Road & Track and AutoWeek coverage. In a later 1991 comparison against the NSX, Road & Track inquired, “Has Honda bettered Ferrari?” The magazine concluded the Ferrari 348 was “the better exotic” and would later name it “one of the ten best cars in the world.” Auto journalists described the 348 as, "something quite special," and the engine being the formative element in defining the car's character, rising in an, "operatic crescendo," having the, "power to raise goose bumps as Pavarotti climbing to that note in Nessun Dorma."
Gavin Green reviewed the 348 against contemporaries in Car Magazine, Oct 1990: “There is nothing like it. It communicates so richly, involves you so completely. And, when you have finished driving it – cocooned in that exquisite cockpit – you can get out and feast your eyes on one of the loveliest cars ever designed.”
LA Times staff writer Paul Dean described the car in July 1990: “Ferrari builds motor cars in much the same way Claude Monet painted landscapes—not to please the populace, but more to satisfy self, a technique and a coterie,” with the 348 as a “better looking, stronger, faster” successor to the “enormously successful” 308/328 series, and “thoroughly irresistible.” Revising the longitudinal V8 layout in the way of the 288 GTO and F40, with a dry sump and transversely mounted “new gearbox and transmission (actually a carry-over from a Ferrari Formula 1 racing car),” the center of gravity is lower “by about 2 inches. Ergo flatter handling, and better steering response.”
Autocar Magazine featured a comparison of the 348tb, Honda NSX, Porsche 911 Turbo, and Lotus Esprit in the July 1993 article, “Lord of the Fliers,” by Stephen Sutcliffe. Through the road test that extended from Paris to Le Mans, the 348 was lauded for its styling and presence, “Crawling out of Paris in the thick of the densest French traffic jam any of us can ever recall, three things about our convoy were already becoming apparent. The First – how much more attention and affection the French public had in reserve for the Ferrari – was perhaps predictable, especially since the 348 had already blown the others into the water at Dover when it came to impressing the locals. Even so, the crowds that gathered like bees to honey wherever and whenever we parked it, and the comparative lack of enthusiasm for the other three, still came as something of a shock.” On the Le Mans race circuit, the 348s control and steering garnered praise over the NSX, “It's the Honda's body control and its meaty yet beautifully positive steering that allows it to feel so natural through the Esses of Le Mans; both seem peerless. Until you try the Ferrari. In the 348 you've got the same degree of body control, the same iron tautness through the corners, but the steering – lighter than the Honda's but with much more feedback – lifts it clear of even the mighty NSX at La Sarthe.” Critique found the 348 difficult in traffic due to heavy steering and controls, though transformative on open road, “the further we traveled and the harder we drove in France, the more special, the more unique the Ferrari felt. We argued long and hard over which of the two made the best noise under full throttle, although no one disputed the fact that the NSX was more refined overall and had vastly superior gearchange. But ultimately this is as much the Honda's problem as it is its strength. Because it is so well honed as an all-rounder, so easy to live with, it misses out on that last 10 per cent of pure, raw thoroughbred sports car appeal that makes the Ferrari such a deliciously rich experience. Partly it is the steering; the NSX's is very good, the 348's exquisite. And partly it is the extra sharpness of the Ferrari's chassis, which is that crucial fraction more responsive to your inputs than not only the NSX but also any other supercar this side of £100,000 we can think of.”
In a 2015 retrospective, EVO Magazine compared the 458 Italia against its 308, 348, F355, 360 and F430 ancestors, where Henry Catchpole noted the primary highlight of the day being the 348’s steering, describing it as, “instantly obvious this car has some of the best steering, possibly the best, that I have ever sat behind.” He expounded on the car’s analog character, describing the steering as, “coming alive in my hands. It literally starts wriggling around, talking excitedly about all the bumps in the road and sometimes making a bigger gesture as a camber attracts its attention. Despite the lack of assistance and the wheel’s relatively small diameter, it’s not heavy in any way, there’s just perfect weight and no slack to add to the constant communication.”
Some areas of critique focused around the long-established topic of Ferrari gearboxes, typically stiff and balky when cold. The 348 did not break from tradition in this area, requiring careful adjustment and lubricating considerations, as well as full warm up, and was found to perform best with quick and aggressive driving. "It's only when you allow the engine full voice that the 348's drivetrain really works," mentioned Mike McCarthy of May 1994's Wheels Magazine. "Only then does this drivetrain achieve harmony," with the gear lever "moving fast and fluidly," leaving "no surprise to anyone who knows why Ferrari has the reputation it does," summarizing it to be, "very much like what you imagine a Ferrari might be." Paul Dean described, “Gears are given up smoothly only when the moment, the engine, the clutch and shift are in concert. But finding that moment, being the conductor of a coordinated downshift, earning some respect from a benchmark machine that rises above the best of our abilities . . . ah, there's the defiance but also the satisfaction of Ferrari.” Though lauded for its capability on a race circuit, oversteer characteristics at the limit in early 348s became a point of concern for the buying public due to the sensitive nature of the chassis setup, leading to updated mounting points in the rear combined with revised alignment specifications in later cars.
The 12 Hours at the Point was an endurance race for sports cars and sedans hosted by the Washington, D.C. Region of the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA). The initial event was staged in June 1999 at Summit Point Motorsports Park in Summit Point, West Virginia. With the exception of 2006, the race has been held on the weekend closest to June 1. It is the oldest perennial SCCA-sanctioned endurance race.It was one of three events that comprised the Triple Crown of SCCA amateur endurance racing. The second event in the Triple Crown was The Longest Day of Nelson, held at Nelson Ledges Road Course in Ohio. The final member of the crown was disputed and was either the Charge of the Headlight Brigade, held at Virginia International Raceway in Virginia or the Tropical 12 Hour, held at Homestead-Miami Speedway in Florida.
2009 was the last year the 12 Hours at the Point was conducted.1993 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1993 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 61st Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 19 and 20 June 1993.
The race was won by Peugeot Talbot Sport, with drivers Geoff Brabham, and Le Mans rookies Éric Hélary and Christophe Bouchut completing 375 laps in their Peugeot 905 Evo 1B. Brabham became just the third Australian to win the French classic after Bernard Rubin in 1928, and Vern Schuppan in 1983.
A class for Grand Touring (GT) style cars was included for the first time since the 1986 race. With the extra class, the entry list expanded from 30 cars in 1992 to 48 in 1993.1994 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1994 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 62nd Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 18 and 19 June 1994.
The 1994 race was won by a car that had its roots in a 10-year-old design. Porsche exploited an unusual quirk in the GT regulations at the time, using German fashion magnate Jochen Dauer in a plan to have a street-legal version of the outdated Porsche 962 built. Using this road car design, Porsche entered two racing modified Dauer 962s in the GT category. With factory support, the Dauer 962 was able to take the win, the other 962 coming in a close third. Toyota, having themselves dusted off a pair of Group C chassis after its 3.5-litre engined TS010 was no longer eligible, suffered transmission problems with 90 minutes to go, leaving Eddie Irvine to finish 2nd in his 94C-V.2017 Belgian Grand Prix
The 2017 Belgian Grand Prix (formally known as the 2017 Formula 1 Pirelli Belgian Grand Prix) was a Formula One motor race that was held on 27 August 2017 at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps in Stavelot, Belgium. The race, scheduled to be contested over forty-four laps, was the twelfth round of the 2017 FIA Formula One World Championship, and marked the seventy-third running of the Belgian Grand Prix and the sixtieth time the race was held at Spa-Francorchamps.
Ferrari driver Sebastian Vettel entered the round with a fourteen-point lead over Lewis Hamilton in the World Drivers' Championship with Valtteri Bottas a further nineteen points behind in third. In the World Constructors' Championship, Mercedes led Ferrari by thirty-nine points before the race.
In his 200th Grand Prix, Hamilton started the race from pole position for the 68th time in his career, equaling the record of Michael Schumacher for most poles, and went on to win the race. In doing so, he closed to within seven points of Vettel's championship lead.
Television and Motorsport personality Guy Martin was present as part of the Williams pit team as part of filming for an episode of his 'Speed' series.Dyson Racing
Dyson Racing is a professional sports car racing team based in Poughkeepsie, New York in the United States. Founded by Rob Dyson in 1974, the team competed successfully in North American sports car racing series, including the IMSA GT Championship and American Le Mans Series.Emil Assentato
Emil Assentato (born May 21, 1949) is an American racing driver born in New York City.
His career has seen him competing in the SCCA Formula Ford competition from 1973-1976 in local as well as National events. In that time he had four podium finishes and won the 1974 New York Region Formula Ford class. After 19 years of reluctant retirement after a death defying accident at Lime Rock Park Labor Day 1976, interspersed with occasional go-karting events, Emil re-entered competition in 1995 in the Ferrari Challenge Series campaigning a Ferrari 348 Challenge for most of the 1995 and 1996 events in North America.
In 1996 he compiled 3 wins and a second and third in five starts in that series. He debuted a Ford Mustang Cobra R in Motorola Cup competition in 1996 with teammate Nick Longhi and competed part-time with that car in the 1997 and 1998 seasons. Entered a full-time program with the same car in 2001 in Grand-Am Cup competition.
He and Nick Longhi won their first major event in this series in November 2001 at the Daytona Finale and nearly won the GS II championship with it in 2002, losing that Championship chase by 7 points because of a DNF in the final race. He also competed in the Rolex GT Series in 2000 with Spencer Pumpelly in five races in which their best finish was sixth. Competed in several Rolex races in 2001, 2002 and 2003, and campaigned full-time in 2004 (Maserati) and 2005 (Porsche 911 GT3 Cup).
Starting in 2008 Emil joins the Mazda backed Speedsource Group competing in the #69 SpeedSource Mazda RX-8 in the Rolex Sports Car Series GT-class for the next five years. The team captured their first class win in the 6 hour race at Watkins Glen International with teammates Longhi and Jeff Segal.
Emil Assentato with his teammate Jeff Segal captured the 2010 Rolex GT Class Championship in #69 Fxdd Mazda RX-8, winning three races as well as finishing in the top five at almost all the events. After one more season in the #69 Fxdd Mazda RX-8, both Jeff and Emil moved on to Ferrari 458 Italia Grand Am for the 2012 season.
In that historic 2012 season (as it marked the return of Ferrari to Grand Am competition after a ten-year hiatus) Emil captured a second Rolex GT Class Championship with teammate Jeff Segal. Again winning three races and finishing in the top five positions in 90% of events.
In Emil's last season he teamed up with Anthony Lazzaro in which they placed fourth in the Championship and proved to be a car to contend with at all events they competed in. After the last race Emil decided to retire from competitive racing.
Below are listed some final results over the years.
Podium finishes in the Rolex GT Series included: 3rd in the 6 Hours of Watkins Glen, 2002: 3rd, Six hours of Mont Tremblant, 2004: 3rd, Virginia International Raceway, 2004; 2nd GT Class, Rolex 24 Hours of Daytona 2005. Competed in several events in the American Le Mans Series in a BMW M3 E46 in 2002. 2008 - Rolex GT Watkins Glen 6 Hour 1st place 2009 - Rolex GT Watkins Glen 2 Hour 1st place, Rolex GT Montreal 3rd place.Ferrari 328
The Ferrari 328 GTB and GTS (Type F106) are mid-engine V8, two seat sports cars produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Ferrari. It was the successor to the Ferrari 308 GTB and GTS. While mechanically still based on the 308, small modifications were made to the body style and engine, most notably an increase in engine displacement to 3.2 L for increased power and torque output. The 328 is still considered by some enthusiasts to be one of the most reliable and functional Ferraris; unlike other models, much of its maintenance can be performed without lowering the engine from the vehicle. In 1989, the 328 was succeeded by the 348.
The GTB referred to the Gran Turismo Berlinetta (coupé) (fixed roof) body while the GTS was a Gran Turismo Spider (targa top). In 1985, the 328 retailed from $58,400-$62,500 ($130,388 - $139,542 in 2016 dollars) in the United States.
The "328" numbers in the model title referred to the total cubic capacity of the engine, 3.2 litres, and 8 for the number of cylinders. The new model was introduced at the 1985 Frankfurt Salon alongside the Mondial 3.2 series.Ferrari Challenge
The Ferrari Challenge is a single-marque motorsport championship that was created in 1993 for owners of the 348 Berlinetta who wanted to become involved in racing. It now encompasses three official championships in the United States, Asia-Pacific, and Europe. Competitors from each series are brought together at the annual World Finals (Finali Mondiali) event. From 2007-10, the Ferrari Challenge exclusively used the Ferrari F430 model. 2011 saw the introduction of the 458 Challenge with the 458 Challenge Evoluzione following in 2014. In 2018 Ferrari introduced the 488 Challenge.Ferrari F355
The Ferrari F355 (Type F129) is a sports car manufactured by Italian car manufacturer Ferrari produced from May 1994 to 1999. The car is a heavily revised Ferrari 348 with notable exterior and performance changes. The F355 was succeeded by the all-new Ferrari 360.
Design emphasis for the F355 was placed on significantly improved performance, as well as drivability across a wider range of speeds and in different environments (such as low-speed city traffic.)Hidden headlamp
Hidden headlamps, also commonly known as pop-up headlamps, hideaway headlights, are a form of automotive lighting and an automotive styling feature that conceals an automobile's headlamps when they are not in use.
Depending on the design, the headlamps may be mounted in a housing that rotates so as to sit flush with the front end as on the Porsche 928, may retract into the hood and/or fenders as on the 1963–2004 Chevrolet Corvette, or may be concealed behind retractable or rotating grille panels as on the Dodge Charger, Mercury Cyclone, or the 1960s Buick Riviera, which pioneered the feature.Joël Gouhier
Joël Gouhier (born 22 October 1949) is a French former racing driver. He raced in the 24 Hours of Le Mans from 1983 until 1986, where he returned to the series in 1993 and retiring in 1994. He also raced in the 24 Hours of Spa.Koenig Specials
Koenig Specials GmbH (known widely as Koenig) is a German tuning house based in Munich that specialised in modifications to European luxury cars but gained notability in the 1980s and 1990s for their performance modifications to Ferraris. Some of its most notable works included a twin-turbo Ferrari Testarossa (known as the Koenig Competition) that produced 1,000 bhp, a highly unusual output for cars at the time, as well as the 850 bhp Ferrari F50. Koenig also entered into automobile production with its road-going version of the Porsche 962 known as the Koenig C62, therefore becoming the first road-legal Group C-based car.
Many of its cars have been featured in non-German mainstream publications such as Road & Track, Top Gear and Sports Car International. Car magazine described its Competition Evolution as "the most famous modified supercar of the 1980s".Leonardo Fioravanti (engineer)
Leonardo Fioravanti (born 1938) is an Italian automobile designer and CEO of Fioravanti Srl.Marco Fainello
Marco Fainello (born 12 September 1964) is an Italian engineer.Oscar Larrauri
Oscar Rubén Larrauri (born August 19, 1954) is a racing driver from Argentina. He participated in 21 Formula One Grands Prix, all with the EuroBrun team, debuting at the 1988 Brazilian Grand Prix. He scored no championship points, only qualifying 8 times.
He was for many years part of Brun Motorsport in sports car racing, and involved in the World Sportscar Championship, IMSA GT Championship, Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft, and All Japan Sports Prototype Championship during his career.Phil Burgan
Phil Burgan (born 6 December 1951) is the founder and CEO of Maria Mallaband Care Group Ltd, a care home company he named after his late grandmother. Burgan is a former racing driver who maintains a significant interest in motorsport, specifically in nurturing the next generation of British racing talent.Targa top
Targa top, or targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats. The term was first used on the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, and it remains a registered trademark of Porsche AG.The rear window is normally fixed, but on some targa models, it is removable or foldable, making it a convertible-type vehicle. Any piece of normally fixed metal or trim which rises up from one side, over the roof and down the other side is sometimes called a targa band, targa bar, or a wrapover band.
Targa tops are different from T-tops, which have a solid, non-removable bar running between the top of the windscreen and the rear roll-bar, and generally have two separate roof panels above the seats that fit between the window and central t-bar.Zagato
Zagato is an independent coachbuilding company and total design centre located northwest of Milan in the Terrazzano frazione of Rho, Lombardy, Italy. The company's premises occupy an area of 23,000 square metres (250,000 sq ft), of which 11,000 square metres (120,000 sq ft) are covered.
« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–1990s — next »
|8 cylinder||Mid-engine berlinetta||308||308 i||308 QV||328||348||360|
|208||208 Turbo||GTB/GTS Turbo||F355|
|Mid-engine 2+2||308 GT4||Mondial 8||Mondial QV||Mondial 3.2||Mondial t|
|12 cylinder||Boxer berlinetta||365 BB||512 BB||512i BB||Testarossa (F110)||512TR||F512 M|
|Grand tourer||250||275||365 GTB/4
|2+2 grand tourer||250 GT/E||330 GT 2+2||365 GT 2+2||365
|365 GT4 2+2||400||400 i||412||456||456M|
|Supercar||250 GTO||250 LM||288
|Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline Sold under the|