Ferrari 328

The Ferrari 328 GTB and GTS (Type F106) are mid-engine V8, two seat sports cars produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Ferrari. It was the successor to the Ferrari 308 GTB and GTS. While mechanically still based on the 308, small modifications were made to the body style and engine, most notably an increase in engine displacement to 3.2 L for increased power and torque output. The 328 is still considered by some enthusiasts to be one of the most reliable and functional Ferraris; unlike other models, much of its maintenance can be performed without lowering the engine from the vehicle.[1] In 1989, the 328 was succeeded by the 348.

The GTB referred to the Gran Turismo Berlinetta (coupé) (fixed roof) body while the GTS was a Gran Turismo Spider (targa top). In 1985, the 328 retailed from $58,400-$62,500 ($130,388 - $139,542 in 2016 dollars) in the United States.

The "328" numbers in the model title referred to the total cubic capacity of the engine, 3.2 litres, and 8 for the number of cylinders. The new model was introduced at the 1985 Frankfurt Salon alongside the Mondial 3.2 series.

Ferrari 328 GTB & GTS
Ferrari 328 GTS - Flickr - Alexandre Prévot (4) (cropped)
Overview
ManufacturerFerrari
Production1985-1989
Model years1986-1989
AssemblyMaranello, Italy
DesignerLeonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina
Body and chassis
ClassSports car
Body styleBerlinetta
Targa
LayoutTransverse, rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive
RelatedFerrari 3.2 Mondial
Ferrari 208 GTB & GTS
Powertrain
Engine3.2 L Tipo F105CB V8
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,350 mm (92.5 in)
Length4,255 mm (167.5 in)
Width1,730 mm (68.1 in)
Height1,128 mm (44.4 in)
Curb weight1,263 kg (2,784 lb)
Chronology
PredecessorFerrari 308 QV
SuccessorFerrari 348

Overview

Scusii
1987 328 GTS, with original concave wheel design.
Ferrari 328 GTB - Flickr - Alexandre Prévot (cropped)
1989 328 GTB, equipped with ABS and convex wheel design.

The 308 and 328 are considered a family of Ferrari road cars as they share similar (but not identical) body designs and appearances, chassis, and engine designs. Essentially the new 328 model was a revised and updated version of the 308, which had survived for eight years without any radical change to the overall shape, albeit with various changes to the 3-litre engine.[2]

The 328 was the final evolution of the transversely mid-mounted, conventionally aspirated 90 degree V8 Dino engine.[3] The transversely mounted engine is a popular way to save space on the rear-mid, rear wheel drive layout.

The 328 has been described as one of the most useable classic Ferraris because of its durable road record, history of appreciating value, and classical aesthetics.[4]

Design

The original Pininfarina design was carried over from its predecessor but included subtle changes from the carrozzeria. The effect was both aesthetic and an improvement in overall aerodynamic characteristics. The car's body was still largely built by hand coming from the coach builder Scaglietti works.[3]

The revised body presented a softening of the wedge profile of its predecessor, with a redesigned nose that had a more rounded shape, which was complemented by similar treatment to the tail valance panel. The revised nose and tail sections featured body colour bumpers integral with the valance panels, which reflected the work done concurrently with the Mondial 3.2 models, with which they also shared a similar radiator grille and front light assembly layout. Thus all the eight-cylinder cars in the range shared fairly unified front and rear aspects, providing a homogeneous family image. The exhaust air louvres behind the retractable headlight pods on the 308 series disappeared, coupled with an increase in the size of the front lid radiator exhaust air louvre, which had been introduced on the 308 Quattrovalvole models, while a new style and position of exterior door catch was also provided.[2]

The interior trim also received a thorough overhaul, with new designs for the seat panel upholstery and stitching along with revised door panels and pulls. Cockpit switches were completely updated and modernized. The new back lit orange on black dashboard gauges were borrowed from Ferrari’s 1984 GTO supercar. The main instrument panel, seen through the anatomical Momo (Morreti-Monza) steering wheel, presented the driver with information from the large tachometer and speedometer.[5]

Optional equipment available was air conditioning, a leather dashboard, leather headlining to the removable roof panel plus rear window surround, metallic paint, Pirelli P7 tyres, and a rear aerofoil (standard on some market models).[2][6]

One minor problem was the design of the oil hose from the lower part of the engine to the oil cooler. This proved to be too short. The hose, being under constant pressure along with the motion of the running engine, would eventually separate from the oil cooler. The separation would in time cause the oil cooler to crack. One fix was to connect the oil hoses for the oil cooler (to and from the engine) "up side down". This configuration provided more slack for the lower hose (itself now connected to the top of the oil cooler).

1988 Update

Ferrari gave the 328 its only major mechanical update late in the 1988 model year. This mostly “analog” car became a bit more “digital” with the fitting of an anti-lock braking system (ABS) to its ventilated disc brakes.[3] This necessitated a redesign of the suspension geometry to provide negative offset. The overall upgrade required the incorporation of convex hub 16-inch alloy wheels replacing the previous concave versions. Thus the original flat spoke "star" wheels became a convex design, in the style as fitted to the 3.2 Mondial models. The update began with chassis number 76626 (February 1988) and the improved suspension and convex wheels were used whether the car was fitted with ABS or not. In Europe, ABS was an option for all mid-1988 and 1989 models. In the US, mid-1988 models did not have ABS while all MY 1989’s did.[7] The mid-1988 models are often referred to as MY 1988 1/2. The wheel changes are a visual differentiator for the later models. In 1988 and 1989, the side view door mirrors also wore small Cavallino Rampante emblems.[3]

Production

The 328 model remained in production for four years (1985 to 1989). By the time it was replaced by the 348 in the Autumn of 1989, a total of 7,412 vehicles had been made. GTS production totaled 6,068 vehicles in the chassis number range of 59301 to 83136[2]. GTS production outnumbered the GTB version almost five to one. GTB production totaled 1,344 vehicles in the chassis range of 58735 to 83017[6]. The early part of each series were numbered in the Ferrari odd number road car chassis sequence, and later examples (post chassis number 75000) in the continuous number sequence.[2][6]

History

The 308/328 family was, at the time, one of the most commercially successful for Ferrari with nearly 20,000 produced.

The very first developmental prototype for the 328 model was manufactured in the summer of 1984. Chassis number 49543 was certified, road-registered and extensively tested through the spring of 1985. Interestingly, the original prototype was manufactured as a full soft top cabriolet convertible.[8]

The story is that while the technical departments were pleased with the performance of the prototype, the marketing influence feared that as a convertible, it would compete with the Mondial Cabriolet model. It was subsequently produced, like its predecessor, only in Berlinetta (GTB - coupe) and removable hard top Spyder (GTS - targa) variants. As of 2018, cabriolet chassis number 49543 was still in existence and registered for road use in Italy.[8]

The last production year for the 328 GTB/GTS was September 1988 to Sept/Oct 1989 (model year 1989). 1338 total vehicles were manufactured that year. With Enzo Ferrari’s death in August 1988, many of these last cars were purchased either as a tribute or with speculation in mind. Decades later, it is still not unheard of to occasionally find a 328 for sale from the last production year that was never registered for road use.[8]

Specifications

Engine

The 328 uses the Ferrari Dino engine produced from the late 1950's to the early 2000's. It is essentially the same engine design as that used in the 308 Quattrovalvole model. It has a naturally aspirated 3.2-litre (3185 cc), 4-valve-per-cylinder (quattro valve), transverse mounted, rear mid-engine V8 layout (Tipo F105 CB 000). It has a bore and stroke of 83 mm (3.3 in) x 73.6 mm (2.9 in). The engine retained the Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection system of its predecessor, but was fitted with a Marelli MED 806 A electronic ignition system. It produces 270 hp (201 kW) and 231 lb⋅ft (313 N⋅m) of torque. Its top speed is 166 mph (267 km/h) and reaches 60 mph (97 km/h) in 5.5 seconds and 100 mph (160 km/h) in 13.0 seconds. As with the preceding 308 models the engine was mounted in unit with the all synchromesh five speed manual transmission assembly, which was below and to the rear of the engine's wet sump. The manual gear shifter was the traditional Ferrari gated design. The transition from a cable-operated clutch to a hydraulically operated one was an upgrade in pedal actuation ease.

Chassis

The 328’s chassis designation is F106 AS (or AB) / R (or PB). The AS or AB difference is Spyder vs. Berlinetta. The R or PB difference is R = before mid-1988; and PB = after mid-1988. The main European market chassis designation is F106 MS (or MB) 100. [2][6]

The 328’s frame is constructed of oval shaped tubular steel giving it race car rigidity without significant weight penalty.[5] The body is formed largely from steel with an aluminum front hood and a fiberglass sandwiched steel floorpan. The adaption of galvanized steel was a key improvement from previous models which drastically retarding corrosion. The exterior and structural design substantially reduced the cars weight compared to its predecessor.[2][5]

The front and rear independent suspension is based on the traditional unequal length double wishbone design. It included coil springs and hydraulic telescopic Koni shock absorbers. It featured front and rear anti roll bars. The brakes were large vented discs with twin piston calipers actuated, as on the 308, by a hydraulic system offering security through redundancy. The anti-lock braking system was a late model addition with updated suspension geometry to further reduce squat and dive. The steering is unassisted rack and pinion slightly quicker than its predecessor at 3.25 turns, lock to lock.[2][6]

Performance

For the 328 GTB:

  • 0–60 mph 5.5 seconds approx.
  • Top speed 166 mph (267 km/h)

For the 328 GTS:

  • 0–60 mph 5.9 seconds
  • Top speed 163 mph (262 km/h)

GTB/GTS Turbo

Ferrari GTB Turbo
Ferrari GTS Turbo
Ferrari GTS Turbo Legend Cars 2015 01
1987 Ferrari GTS Turbo
Overview
ManufacturerFerrari
Production1986–1989
Body and chassis
Body styleBerlinetta
Targa
LayoutTransverse rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine2.0 L Tipo F106 N turbocharged V8
Transmission5-speed manual
Dimensions
Kerb weight1,265–1,275 kg (2,789–2,811 lb) (dry)[9][10]
Chronology
PredecessorFerrari 208 GTB/GTS Turbo
SuccessorNone

In 1986 Ferrari launched a two-litre, turbocharged and intercooled variant of the 328, designated simply GTB Turbo and GTS Turbo—replacing the previous 308-based, non-intercooled, Ferrari 208 GTB/GTS Turbo. This version was developed specifically for the domestic Italian market, where cars with a displacement of over 2-litre like the 328 were subject to a 38% value added tax, up from the normal 18%.[11]

The turbocharged Tipo F106 N 000[9] V8 was evolved from the 208 Turbo's engine, chiefly by adding an intercooler and adopting a new turbocharger. Displacement was unchanged, at 1991 cc with a bore and stroke of 66.8 mm × 71 mm (2.6 in × 2.8 in); there were four overhead camshafts driving two valves per cylinder; Bosch K-jetronic mechanical fuel injection was carried over from the 208. Whereas 208 Turbos had used a KKK turbocharger, these new 328-based cars used a water-cooled IHI unit running at 1.05 bar (15.2 psi) of boost.[11] Charge air was cooled by a Behr air-to-air intercooler mounted on top of the engine. Output was 254 PS (187 kW; 251 bhp) at 6,500 rpm and 328 N⋅m (242 lb⋅ft) at 4,100 rpm;[9][11] maximum torque was reached at engine speeds 700 rpm lower than on the 208 Turbo, making the engine more flexible.

Other than the engine, differences between the two-litre Turbo and the regular 328 were minimal. Accommodating the top-mounted intercooler required a redesigned engine cover, as well as ducting and NACA intakes (positioned just forwards of each rear wheel arch) to feed it with fresh air The rear bumper sported five ventilation holes. A black roof spoiler, optional on the 328, was standard; inside a boost pressure gauge was added to the instrument cluster.

According to the manufacturer top speed was 253 km/h (157 mph) and 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) took 6.3 seconds.[9] In June 1986 Italian automobile magazine Quattroruote published a comparison test between a 328 GTS and a GTS Turbo. Despite the differences between the former's more powerful 32-valve atmospheric engine and the latter's torquier but peakier turbocharged 16-valve engine, performance was found to be quite similar in both acceleration and top speed. The Turbo sprinted from 0 to 100 km/h in 6.6 seconds (a tenth of a second behind the 328) and covered the standing kilometre in 24.6 seconds, two tenths behind the 328.[11] Quattroruote recorded a top speed of 251 km/h (156 mph).[11]

During the production period between 1986 and 1989, Ferrari made a total of 308 GTB Turbos[9] and 828 GTS Turbos.[10]

Notes

  1. ^ "An '80s Ferrari Icon". Forbes. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Ferrari 328 GTS". Ferrari N.V. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  3. ^ a b c d "The Last Analog Ferrari". Hemmings. Retrieved 2019-04-05.
  4. ^ "The Ferrari 328 GTS Is a Sound Investment And a Surprising Sensible Classic". City A.M. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  5. ^ a b c "Conceptcarz.com Ferrari 328". Retrieved 2019-06-26.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Ferrari 328 GTB". Ferrari N.V. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  7. ^ "Ferrari 308/328 Registry". Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  8. ^ a b c "Ferrari 308/328 Family History". Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  9. ^ a b c d e "GTB Turbo". ferrari.com, Past models. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  10. ^ a b "GTS Turbo". ferrari.com, Past models. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Ferrari "328" e "208": normale o turbo?". Quattroruote (in Italian) (368). June 1986.

References

Chris Rea

Christopher Anton Rea ( REE-ə; born 4 March 1951) is a British rock and blues singer-songwriter and guitarist, recognisable for his distinctive, husky-gravel voice and slide guitar playing. The book Guinness Rockopedia described him as a "gravel-voiced guitar stalwart". The British Hit Singles & Albums stated that Rea was "one of the most popular UK singer-songwriters of the late 1980s. He was already a major European star by the time he finally cracked the UK Top 10 with his 18th chart entry "The Road to Hell (Part 2)". Two of his studio albums, The Road to Hell and Auberge, topped the UK Albums Chart. Rea was nominated three times for the Brit Award for Best British Male Artist: in 1988, 1989 and 1990. As of 2009, he has sold more than 30 million albums worldwide.In the US he is best known for the 1978 hit song "Fool (If You Think It's Over)" that reached No. 12 on the Billboard Hot 100 and spent three weeks at No. 1 on the Adult Contemporary chart. This success earned him a Grammy nomination as Best New Artist in 1979. His other hit songs include, "I Can Hear Your Heartbeat", "Stainsby Girls", "Josephine", "On the Beach" (Adult Contemporary No. 9), "Let's Dance", "Driving Home for Christmas", "Working on It" (Mainstream Rock No. 1), "Tell Me There's a Heaven", "Auberge", "Looking for the Summer", "Winter Song", "Nothing to Fear", "Julia", and "If You Were Me", a duet with Elton John.

Dennis Fong

Dennis Fong (traditional Chinese: 方鏞欽; simplified Chinese: 方镛钦; pinyin: Fāng Yōngqīn; Jyutping: fong1 jung4 jam1), better known by his online alias Thresh, is an American businessman and retired professional player of the first-person shooter video games Quake and Doom. He is a co-founder of Xfire, an instant messenger and social networking site for gamers, which was acquired by Viacom for US$102 million in April 2006. He also co-founded Lithium Technologies, a social customer relationship management (CRM) company. In his playing career his highest profile victory came in 1997 at the Red Annihilation Quake tournament, where he placed first and won id Software CEO John D. Carmack's Ferrari 328. Fong is recognized by the Guinness World Records as the first professional gamer.

Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS

The Ferrari 308 GTB berlinetta and targa topped 308 GTS are V8 mid-engined, two-seater sports cars manufactured by the Italian company Ferrari from 1975 to 1985. The 308 replaced the Dino 246 GT and GTS in 1975 and was updated as the 328 in 1985. The similar 208 GTB and GTS were equipped with a smaller initially naturally aspirated, later turbocharged two-litre engine, and sold mostly in Italy.

Ferrari 348

The Ferrari 348 (Type F119) is a mid-engine V8-powered 2-seat sports car produced by Italian automaker Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 model developed under the direction of Enzo Ferrari before his death, commissioned to production posthumously.

Ferrari Mondial

The Ferrari Mondial (Type F108) is a mid-engined, V8-powered grand tourer which was produced by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1980 and 1993. Offered with coupé and cabriolet bodystyles, it replaced the Ferrari 308/208 GT4 coupé and remains the last V8, rear mid-engined, 2+2 model Ferrari produced.

The Mondial name (French for world or global) originated from Ferrari's motor racing history — the 500 Mondial was a successful lightweight sports racer of the early 1950s which was named to celebrate Ferrari's consecutive Formula 1 World Championships in 1952 and 1953. The name was revived as Ferrari won the Formula 1 World Constructors Championships in 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1979. The Mondial name was also chosen as it was an equivoque, the car designed to meet global safety and emission standards for 1980, compared to previous offerings. Conceived as a 'practical' Ferrari, the Mondial is a genuine long-distance four-seater, with sufficient rear head- and leg-room for children and smaller adults. It affords easy access via the long single doors, and has surprisingly good all-round visibility for a mid-engined car. The vehicle has a slightly higher roofline and greater all-round dimensions compared to its two-seater stable mates, resulting in a comparative weight penalty of around ten percent.The Mondial cabriolets are the only production vehicles manufactured to a four-seater, rear mid-engined, full-convertible design.

Fiorano Circuit

The Fiorano Circuit is a private racetrack owned by Ferrari for development and testing purposes. It is located in Fiorano Modenese, near the Italian town of Maranello.

Built in 1972, it was originally 8.4 metres (27.6 ft) wide and 3000 metres (1.86 miles) long. In 1992, a chicane was added making it 3021 metres (1.88 miles) long, then in 1996 a new renovated track was introduced (a fast bend to replace a sharp corner at the end of the pit straight) which shortened the total length by 24 metres (0.02 miles). The average F1 lap speed is over 160 km/h (99 mph) and the F1 top speed is 290 km/h (180 mph). As Fiorano is a testing track, it has a wide range of corner types, with corner diameters between 370 metres (1,213.9 ft) and 13.71 metres (45.0 ft). Thus Ferrari is able to simulate corner and track types of other Grand Prix circuits.

The track is equipped with telemetry sensors and a large skidpad for tyre testing. In 2001 an irrigation system using rain collected in eight cisterns was installed to simulate wet track conditions. When Scuderia Ferrari are testing a F1 car at the track, it is common to see Tifosi watching the test from the roadside, which is the closest point from which the track is viewable to the public.

Ferrari customers are allowed to test drive new cars at the Fiorano circuit. The Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano is named after this track.

In the 16 years from the time the track opened until his death in 1988, Enzo Ferrari would either sit in his house which was located at the circuit and listen to, or actually sit track side and watch his beloved scarlet Formula One cars testing. Legend has it that this was actually the real reason that the "old man" had the circuit built, so he could enjoy his cars and his drivers without the presence of other F1 cars or the press. In reality Ferrari made the decision of building his own testing track when he realised that the Modena Autodrome could no longer serve this purpose.

Hasegawa Corporation

The Hasegawa Corporation (株式会社ハセガワ, Kabushiki Gaisha Hasegawa) is a company that manufactures plastic model kits of a variety of vehicles, including model aircraft, model cars, model ships, model armor, model space craft and science fiction kits. Based in Shizuoka, Japan, Hasegawa competes against its neighbor, Tamiya, though it does not have as large a line of products.

Hidden headlamp

Hidden headlamps, also commonly known as pop-up headlamps, hideaway headlights, are a form of automotive lighting and an automotive styling feature that conceals an automobile's headlamps when they are not in use.

Depending on the design, the headlamps may be mounted in a housing that rotates so as to sit flush with the front end as on the Porsche 928, may retract into the hood and/or fenders as on the 1963–2004 Chevrolet Corvette, or may be concealed behind retractable or rotating grille panels as on the Dodge Charger, Mercury Cyclone, or the 1960s Buick Riviera, which pioneered the feature.

International Motor Show Germany

The International Motor Show Germany or simply International Motor Show, in German known as the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung (IAA - International Automobile Exhibition), is the world's largest motor show. It is held annually, with passenger vehicles (including some motorcycles) being displayed in odd-numbered years in Frankfurt am Main, and commercial vehicles in even-numbered years in Hanover, Germany. Before 1991 the show was held solely in Frankfurt.

The IAA is organized by the Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA – Association of the German Automotive Industry) and is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles. Currently, the show in Frankfurt occupies twelve buildings.

Lamborghini Jalpa

The Lamborghini Jalpa (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxalpa]) is an entry level sports car produced by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini from 1981 to 1988. it debuted at the 1981 Geneva Motor Show alongside the Lamborghini LM001 concept off-road vehicle.

Leonardo Fioravanti (engineer)

Leonardo Fioravanti (born 1938) is an Italian automobile designer and CEO of Fioravanti Srl.

List of Ferrari road cars

The following is a list of road cars manufactured by Italian sports car manufacturer dating back to the 1950s Ferrari.

Manta, Manta

Manta, Manta is a 1991 German language action comedy film directed by Wolfgang Büld. The film features Til Schweiger, Tina Ruland, Stefan Gebelhoff, Lena Sabine Berg and Michael Kessler in the lead roles. Singer/songwriter Sylkie Monoff makes a small appearance. It was released in Germany on October 3, 1991 and in Hungary on April 17, 1992. The English title of the film was Racin' in the Street. Four weeks before the film was released Manta – Der Film was shown in theaters, which also focused on Opel Manta in a comedic way, see "Manta jokes".

Actors Til Schweiger and Michael Kessler started their film acting career with Manta, Manta. Tina Ruland also started her film acting career with this film.

Pauline Goodwin-Squires

Pauline Mary Joan Goodwin (née Squires, born 28 May 1946) is a British retired slalom and sprint canoeist who competed in the 1960s and the 1970s. She finished 21st in the K-1 event at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Four years later in Montreal, Goodwin was eliminated in the semifinals of the K-2 500 m event but set a new British record with Hilary Bosher (née Peacock).

She is the first woman to canoe 225 miles of the Colorardo River, Grand Canyon, United States in July 1971. She is also the only British paddler (man or woman) to have competed in the British Teams in all four categories of canoeing i.e. Sprint, Marathon, Wild Water Racing and Slalom. She took part in Slalom and Sprinting at 1972 and 1976 Olympic Games respectively. Goodwin remains competitive as a hill climber and circuit racing driver in a Ferrari 328 since 2005.

Rad Racer

Rad Racer, originally released in Japan as Highway Star (ハイウェイスター, Haiuei Sutā), is a racing game developed and published by Square for the Family Computer in 1987. In this game, players drive a Ferrari 328 or a generic Formula One racing machine through a race course.

The game was released for the Nintendo Entertainment System in North America and Europe months after its debut on Family Computer. The game was part of an attempt by Square to make 3-D games, and was followed by several other games using the same technology.

The game sold almost 2 million copies, and is considered one of the best racing games on the NES, but was also criticized as being derivative of other racing games from the period.

Red Annihilation

Red Annihilation was a Quake competitive eSport event held in May 1997 that was one of the first nationwide video game competition held in the United States. In the final match of the tournament, Dennis "Thresh" Fong defeated Tom "Entropy" Kimzey of Impulse 9 on the map Castle of the Damned. For winning the event, Fong was awarded John D. Carmack's 1987 Ferrari 328 GTS cabriolet as the grand prize.The tournament was created first as Kings of Capture Quake Tournament started by Michael "Hawthorne" Shearon, after contacting Intergraph for possible sponsorship the tournament was folded into what became Red Annihilation.

The tournament was then developed and organized by Rob Esterling, executive director overseeing Intergraph Computer Systems's commercial and consumer graphics group, and his Intergraph team including Jim Terzian, the tournament's director and Victor Johnson, the team's Art Director.In 1996, Microsoft's DirectX group hosted game competitions, first at the Computer Game Developers Conference, then as a separate event, selecting the players and flying them in to compete.

When a further Microsoft DirectX-organized event, intended to be held at Naval Air Station Alameda, was cancelled, Intergraph announced it would host a tournament that would be an open, national computer game competition and chose Quake as the game to be played.

Intergraph brought in Quake developer id Software, 3D computer graphics chipset maker Rendition, and online gaming company Mpath Interactive as partners in Red Annihilation. Will Bryant and Frank Cabanski of the Quake ClanRing were selected to operate the game competition because of their prior pioneering experience running large scale gaming tournaments.The initial phase of the tournament was held on Mpath's MPlayer network with over 2000 participants from across the United States competing online in one-on-one matches.

The top 16 players were flown to Atlanta, Georgia for the concluding phase of the tournament, where they competed inside the World Congress Center in a gaming arena Intergraph built on the floor of the Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3). This phase of the competition used vQuake, the hardware accelerated version of the game, played on Intergraph PC computers equipped with Rendition V1000-based Intense3D graphics accelerators. Players were able to use their own keyboards, mice and other pointing devices if they wished.

As E3 was at the time an industry exhibition open to the trade only, most spectators watched the final competitions online via in-game cameras orchestrated by Bryant and Cabanski. The final morning of the tournament was also covered from the show floor by NBC's Today and The Wall Street Journal.It was discovered during the award ceremony that tournament winner Fong, a student at De Anza College, would not be able to drive his prize as he was not insured for such a vehicle. Carmack agreed to underwrite Fong's insurance for a year so the latter could enjoy his new car.

Red Line (1996 film)

Red Line is a 1996 American action film directed by John Sjogren and written by him, Rolfe Kanefsky, and Scott Ziehl. It stars Chad McQueen, Dom DeLuise, Michael Madsen, Roxana Zal, Jan-Michael Vincent, and Corey Feldman. The film also includes small roles and cameos by Julie Strain, Robert Z'Dar, Chuck Zito, Joe Estevez, and Ron Jeremy.

Immediately prior to filming, Jan-Michael Vincent was in a severe car accident that left his face badly scarred. He can be seen still wearing his hospital ID wrist bracelet in the movie.

Sergio Pininfarina

Sergio Pininfarina, born Sergio Farina, (8 September 1926 – 3 July 2012) was an Italian automobile designer and Senator for life.

Targa top

Targa top, or targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats. The term was first used on the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, and it remains a registered trademark of Porsche AG.The rear window is normally fixed, but on some targa models, it is removable or foldable, making it a convertible-type vehicle. Any piece of normally fixed metal or trim which rises up from one side, over the roof and down the other side is sometimes called a targa band, targa bar, or a wrapover band.

Targa tops are different from T-tops, which have a solid, non-removable bar running between the top of the windscreen and the rear roll-bar, and generally have two separate roof panels above the seats that fit between the window and central t-bar.

« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–1990s — next »
Type 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
8 cylinder Mid-engine berlinetta 308 308 i 308 QV 328 348 360
208 208 Turbo GTB/GTS Turbo F355
Mid-engine 2+2 308 GT4 Mondial 8 Mondial QV Mondial 3.2 Mondial t
208 GT4
12 cylinder Boxer berlinetta 365 BB 512 BB 512i BB Testarossa (F110) 512TR F512 M
Grand tourer 250 275 365 GTB/4
"Daytona"
550 Maranello
America 330 365
2+2 grand tourer 250 GT/E 330 GT 2+2 365 GT 2+2 365
GTC/4
365 GT4 2+2 400 400 i 412 456 456M
Supercar 250 GTO 250 LM 288
GTO
F40 F50
     Sold under the Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline
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Other

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