Ferrari 275

The Ferrari 275 is a series of front-engined V12-powered grand touring automobiles with two-seater coupé and spider bodies produced by Ferrari between 1964 and 1968. The first 275 series cars were powered by a 3.3 L (3286 cc) dual overhead camshaft Colombo 60° V12 engine producing 260–320 hp (190–240 kW). An updated 275 GTB/4 was introduced in 1966, with a revised four overhead camshaft engine producing 300 hp (220 kW). The 275 series were the first road-going Ferraris equipped with a transaxle and independent rear suspension.[1][2]

Pininfarina designed the 275 coupé and spider bodies,[1] while Scaglietti designed the 275 GTS/4 NART Spyder, of which only 10 were made.[3]

Motor Trend Classic named the 275 GTB coupé/GTS spider as number three in their list of the ten "Greatest Ferraris of all time"[4], and the 275 GTB/4 was named number seven on Sports Car International's 2004 list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. In a September 1967 road test, Road & Track described the NART Spyder as "the most satisfying sports car in the world."[5][6]

Ferrari 275
GTB, GTS, GTB/4, NART Spider
1966 Ferrari 275 GTB sn 08549, front left (Greenwich 2019)
1966 Ferrari 275 GTB Series II
Overview
ManufacturerFerrari
Production
  • 1964–1966 (275 GTB, GTS)
  • 1966–1968 (275 GTB/4)
  • 1967 (275 GTS/4 NART Spyder)
Designer
Body and chassis
ClassGrand tourer
Body style
LayoutFront-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission5-speed manual transaxle with synchromesh
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,400 mm (94.5 in)
Curb weight
  • 1,300 kg (2,866 lb) (steel bodied 275 GTB/4)
  • 1,112 kg (2,452 lb) (alloy-bodied 275 GTB/C)
Chronology
PredecessorFerrari 250
Successor

Two-cam models

All 275 coupé and spider models build from 1964 until the 275 GTB/4's introduction in 1966 were equipped with an overhead cam 3.3 litre V-12 engine (one camshaft for each cylinder bank). These early models are often called "two-cam" cars to distinguish them from later 275 models.

275 GTB

1965 Ferrari 275 GTB by Scaglietti
1965 275 GTB, Series I "short nose"

The 275 GTB was a two-seat grand touring coupé produced between 1964 and 1966. The name of this model was derived from the engine's per-cylinder displacement of 275 cc and the Italian designation Gran Turismo Berlinetta.

The 275 GTB used a double overhead cam 3.3 litre Colombo-designed 60º V-12 engine[7][8] designated Tipo 213.[9] This engine was the final development of the Colombo V12, with a stroke of 58.8 mm and a bore of 77 mm. The internal parts of the engine were derived from those used in other Ferrari models including the 250 GTE 2+2, 250 Lusso and 250 GTO. Three twin-choke Weber 40 DCZ 6 or 40 DFI 1 carburetors were equipped as standard.[9] Power was claimed to be 280 horsepower (210 kW) at 7600 rpm, but provided closer to 240-250 hp (190 kW) in actual use.[10] A factory option of six twin-choke Weber 40 DCN carburetors was also available, which Ferrari claimed provided 320 hp (240 kW) at 7500 rpm[2] although the actual increase in power over the three-Weber setup was likely only 20-25 hp.[10] The rear wheels were driven by a 5-speed manual transaxle with Porsche-style syncromesh and a limited-slip differential. This was the first time a transaxle was used on a Ferrari production road car, although they were used on some earlier Ferrari competition models such as the 250 Testa Rossa.[2][10]

The 275 chassis was a conventional ladder frame design fabricated from oval-section steel tube. Mike Parkes had a major role in developing the 275's suspension, which employed many technologies tested in earlier Ferrari racing cars such as the 250 TR and 250 LM. Double wishbone independent suspension was used at all four wheels along with Koni shock absorbers and coil springs. The 275's four-wheel independent suspension was a first for Ferrari road cars, which were previously equipped with live rear axles. Dunlop disc brakes were equipped at all four wheels, although even during the mid 1960s they were considered inadequate due to small size, lack of ventilated discs, and an underpowered servo and caliper. Cast magnesium 14 inch diameter wheels were standard equipment, with Borrani wire wheels available as a factory option.[2][11]

The coupé body was designed by Pininfarina and manufactured by Scaglietti. The standard 275 GTB body was fabricated in steel with aluminum alloy doors, hood and trunk lid. At least 72 cars[10] were built with a lightweight all-aluminum body, which was an extra-cost option from the factory. [2]

Paris - RM Sotheby’s 2018 - Ferrari 275 GTB Alloy - 1965 - 002
275 GTB, Series II "long nose" with optional aluminum alloy bodywork

A series two, or "long-nose" version of the 275 GTB was introduced in 1966. The second series 275 GTB incorporated a number of mechanical and cosmetic changes. A torque tube was installed between the engine and transaxle in order to relieve stress on the drive shaft and central support bearing. The engine and transaxle mounts were also revised to use two chassis attachment points each, rather than the four found on earlier cars. The front bodywork was lowered and lengthened and the front air intake was reduced in size, which improved aerodynamic characteristics and reduced high-speed instability. This was the most visible change between the two series, resulting in the common informal designation of series I cars as "short nose" and series II as "long nose." The rear window was enlarged to improve visibility. In order to improve luggage space, the fuel filler, fuel tanks and spare tire were relocated and the trunk hinges were changed from internal to externally-mounted.[1][2][10]

442 275 GTB road cars were produced between fall 1964 and summer 1966, including both 236 series one "short-nose" and 206 series two "long-nose" cars.[10]

Competition versions

From 1964 to 1966, Ferrari developed competition versions of the 275 GTB for use in Grand Touring-class sports car racing. Initial development of a 275 GTB-based racing car was motivated by a specific set of circumstances around Ferrari's racing activities during 1964. The 1962–1963 250 GTO was extremely successful in GT-class racing but was nearing obsolescence in 1964. The 250 GTO's planned successor, the 250 LM, was introduced to the public in November 1963, but the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) refused to homologate it for GT-class racing. In response, Ferrari decided to prepare for the 1964 season by developing in parallel both an updated 250 GTO (called the series II or GTO64) and a competition version of the 275 GTB. Between 1964 and 1966, Ferrari created three distinct series of 275 GTB-based competition cars, the purpose-built 1964/65 275 GTB Competizione Speciale (also known as the 275 GTB/C Speciale), a 1965 group of modified production 275 GTB "customer competition" cars for independent racing teams, and the final development, the purpose-built 1966 275 GTB/C.[12]

275 GTB Competizione Speciale

The first racing version of the 275 was the 275 GTB Competizione Speciale (or 275 GTB/C Speciale). Designed under the supervision of Mauro Forghieri,[13] this model was intended to succeed the 250 GTO as Ferrari's GT-class entry during the 1965 racing season. Ferrari constructed four cars of this type, three of which were manufactured between late 1964 and early 1965, while the fourth was completed in 1966.[14] These cars were equipped with Tipo 213 engines tuned to 250 LM specification, producing approximately 290-305 bhp (227 kW). The extra-thin-gauge alloy bodywork (designed by Pininfarina and built by Scaglietti) was significantly different from the production 275 GTB, with a more streamlined shape similar to the 250 GTO and the 330 LMB.[12] All four cars had slightly differing hand-built bodywork, possibly due to ongoing aerodynamic experimentation by Ferrari engineers.[15] The chassis was a lightweight version of the production Tipo 563 chassis using smaller diameter tubing. Additional weight reduction was accomplished by drilling holes in interior panels, Plexiglas windows, and the use of magnesium castings for parts of the engine and transaxle.[12][16] The owner of one 275 GTB/C Speciale (chassis 6885) estimated the curb weight as approximately 1,900 pounds (860 kg).[13]

The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) at first refused to homologate the model for the GT class but settled on a compromise when Enzo Ferrari threatened to abandon competing in the GT class.[17] Due to this delay, only one 275 GTB/C Speciale (chassis 6885) raced during the 1965 season. This car competed at the 1965 Targa Florio, where was driven by Bruno Deserti and Giampiero Biscaldi but failed to finish. The car placed 13th overall at the 1965 1000km Nürburgring, driven by Biscaldi and Giancarlo Baghetti. It finished 3rd overall at the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans, where it was driven by Willy Mairesse and Jean Blaton (under the name "Beurlys") for Ecurie Francorchamps. Following Le Mans, the car placed 11th overall at the 1965 500 km of Bridgehampton and won the 1965 Nassau Tourist Trophy.[12][18][19][16][13]

Due to its role as a 250 GTO successor and its visual similarities with that model, the 275 GTB/C Speciale is sometimes referred to as the "GTO '65", although this was never an official factory designation.[12][16][13]

275 GTB customer competition cars

Paris - Retromobile 2012 - Ferrari 275 GTB C - 1965 - 002
1965 275 GTB customer competition version, chassis 07437

Following the creation of the 275 GTB/C Speciale and the subsequent homologation struggles, Ferrari decided to create a less-radical competition 275 GTB to be sold to private racing teams. Ten cars of this type were produced. These customer competition (or in Italian "competizione clienti") cars were very similar to the production 275 GTB, differing only in the alloy bodywork, extra venting, added exterior fuel fillers and expanded capacity fuel tanks. The engine was a Tipo 213 unit with 6 carburetors, the same as fitted to production road-going 275 GTBs. These customer-competition 275 GTBs were created both to test the market for this type of GT racing car and as a gesture of compliance to the FIA, in hope of positively influencing the homologation process.[12][20][21]

275 GTB/C

1966 275 GTB/C, chassis 09079

Paris - Retromobile 2013 - Ferrari 275 GTB C - 1966 - 003
Paris - Retromobile 2013 - Ferrari 275 GTB C - 1966 - 004

For the 1966 season, Ferrari built a new series of 12 lightweight 275 GTB/C racing cars. Even though they outwardly resembled the road-going 275 GTB, the 275 GTB/C was thoroughly revised by Mauro Forghieri and his Scuderia Ferrari engineering team and differed from both the 275 GTB production car and earlier 275 GTB competition cars. Every panel of the body was altered and substantial mechanical changes were made. All 12 were constructed in 1966 between the end of the 275 GTB (two cam) production run and the start of the 275 GTB/4 (four cam) production run.[12]

Mauro Forghieri designed a special super-lightweight steel and aluminium version of the 275 GTB chassis, designated Tipo 590 A. The 4-wheel independent suspension was the same design as on the production 275 GTB, but used different shock absorber valving and stiffer springs. The disc brakes were also the same as those used on the production 275 GTB, but with quick-change racing brake pads.[12]

The body appeared superficially very similar to that of the production 275 GTB series II "long nose", but in fact was a completely new lightweight version constructed by Scaglietti. All body panels were changed, including wider front and rear fenders and a slightly shorter nose. The body was constructed from .028 in (0.71 mm) thick aluminum panels joined with rivets. This method of construction allowed easy replacement of body panels after an accident. The body panels were approximately half as thick as the ones used on the 250 GTO and the Shelby Cobra. This made the body lightweight but extremely fragile—even leaning on a 275 GTB/C would dent it. The entire rear section was reinforced by fiberglass to prevent it from flexing at the slightest impact. The 275 GTB/C was equipped with bumpers visually similar to those on the road version, but they were made of much thinner material. The rear bumper lacked an internal supporting subframe and was simply fastened to the bodywork sheetmetal. Other weight-saving measures included removal of cooling fans, holes drilled in many internal panels and frames, plexiglass side and rear windows, thin fiberglass floor panels, and magnesium-framed seats. A 275 GTB/C fully equipped with fluids, spare tire and tool kit weighs 2,452 lb (1,112 kg). In race trim without spare and tool kit, it can weigh less than 2,350 lb (1,070 kg), a savings of over 150 kg (331 lb) compared to the alloy bodied road cars.[12][20]

Similar to the four 'Competizione Speciales', the 275 GTB/C was powered by a Tipo 213 V12 tuned to 250 LM specification with a special crankshaft, piston, camshaft connecting rods and sodium-filled Nimonic valves. Many engine castings were made from the lightweight magnesium alloy Elektron. Due to an apparent clerical error, Ferrari did not report to the FIA that the production 275 GTB had a six carburetor option, so only a three carburetor engine could be homologated. In order to make up the loss of power from using only 3 carburetors, Weber constructed the 40 DF13 carburetor. These replaced the six Weber 38 DCN carburetors used on the 250 LM and were unique to the 275 GTB/C. A dry sump lubrication system was also added, allowing the engine to sit lower in the chassis.The Tipo 213 engine in this competition specification produced 275-282 hp (210 kW) at 7500 rpm.[12][20]

The 275 GTB/C did not use the torque tube driveshaft configuration introduced with the 275 GTB series II, instead using a series I-style open driveshaft which made clutch changes easier during endurance races.The clutch itself was strengthened for the added stresses of racing. The transaxle was a similar design to the road version, but used a lightweight magnesium case, close ratio gears, a strengthened ZF limited slip differential and needle bearings (instead of plain bearings) between the gears and the main shaft.[12]

The 275 GTB/C was fitted with specially-made Borrani wire wheels, sized 7" x 15" in front and 7.5" x 15" in the rear. These wheels were shod with Dunlop's latest "M series" racing tires. It was this combination that would prove to be the weak spot of the 275 GTB/C; the tires had so much grip that they could overstress and break the spokes on the wheels. This resulted in several crashes during competition. After the 275 GTB/C, no competition Ferrari would be fitted with wire wheels again. Two of the twelve 275 GTB/Cs built were sold for street use. Unlike the race cars, these street cars were fitted with standard 275 GTB-style alloy wheels with Pirelli tires.[12]

After its introduction in 1966, the 275 GTB/C was raced by several independent racing teams with varying degrees of Ferrari factory support, including NART, Maranello Concessionaires, Scuderia Filipinetti, and Ecurie Francorchamps. Three 275 GTB/Cs were entered in the 1966 24 Hours of Le Mans, two of which finished. The Maranello Concessionaires-entered 275 GTB/C (chassis 09035) driven by Roy Pike and Piers Courage finished 8th overall and 1st in class, while the Ecurie Francorchamps 275 GTB/C (chassis 09027) driven by Claude Dubois and Pierre Noblet finished 10th overall and 2nd in class.[12][20][22][23] Other notable victories include a 1st in class at the 1967 Targa Florio, driven by Tullio Sergio Marchesi. Marchesi went on to win the 1966 and 1967 Italian GT Championships driving 275 GTB/C chassis 09007.[12][24]

275 GTS

Ferrari 275 GTS - front right 1 (Argyle Place, Carlton, VIC, Australia, 3 March 2007)
275 GTS

The 275 GTS was a two-seat grand touring spider produced from 1964 to 1966. The 275 GTS was introduced at the same time as the 275 GTB and was mechanically almost identical, sharing the 3.3 liter V12, transaxle, chassis and fully independent suspension. Ferrari reported that the engine fitted to the 275 GTS produced 260 bhp (190 kW). This was less than the reported 280 bhp produced by the 275 GTB, although there was likely no difference in engines between the models. The 275 GTS was never equipped with a torque tube, unlike the 275 GTB series II. [25][26] & fitted 205Vr15 Pirelli Cinturato CN72 tyres on its Borrani wheels.

The all steel 275 GTS body was designed and manufactured by Pininfarina. Its appearance was entirely different than that of the 275 GTB coupé, with a shorter front hood, smaller uncovered headlights, and overall balanced proportions suggesting earlier 250 Pininfarina Cabriolet models. All 275 GTS were equipped with a folding cloth convertible top and an additional removable hard top was a factory option.[25][26]

Ferrari produced a total of 200 275 GTS between late 1964 and early 1966, including 19 in right hand drive.[25] The 275 GTS was replaced in 1966 by the 330 GTS, leaving no 3.3 L spider in the range until the creation of the 275 GTB/4 NART Spider.

Four-cam models

Ferrari 275 1967 3
Ferrari 275 1967 2

The 275 GTB/4 and GTS/4 NART spyder models made up the final production run of the 275 series, between 1966 and 1968. They were equipped with a four overhead cam 3.3 litre V-12 engine, a development of the double overhead cam 275 engine used from 1964–1966. The later 275 models are often called "four-cam" cars to distinguish them from earlier 275 models.

275 GTB/4

Introduced at the Paris Motor Show in October 1966,[7] the 275 GTB/4 (or 4-cam) used the same basic platform as the early 275 GTB with mostly mechanical improvements. The Scaglietti-built bodywork was largely the same as the series II "long-nose" 275 GTB, with the most visible difference being an added hood bulge with creased edges. Campagnolo magnesium alloy wheels sized 14x7 were standard equipment, while traditional Borrani wire wheels were a special-order option.[27]

The engine was the Tipo 226 3285.72 cc Colombo V12, derived from the earlier Tipo 213 275 engine with two valves per cylinder, but now upgraded with four overhead camshafts and six Weber 40 DCN carburetors as standard. This engine produced a claimed 300 hp (220 kW).[9][27] In a departure from previous Ferrari designs, the valve angle was reduced three degrees to 54° for a more-compact head. The dual camshafts also allowed the valves to be aligned perpendicular to the camshaft instead of offset as in SOHC engines. The engine used a dry-sump lubrication system with a large 17 qt (16 L) capacity.[27]

Improvements from the series II 275 GTB were carried over to the 275 GTB/4, including the torque tube connecting the engine and transmission. In addition to the upgraded engine, the 275 GTB/4 had several minor improvements to the cooling system, exhaust and suspension.[27]

The 275 GTB/4 had a claimed top speed of 268 km/h (166.5 mph).[8] A total of 330 were produced from 1966 to 1968.[8][27]

In 2004, Sports Car International named the 275 GTB/4 number seven on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.

275 GTS/4 NART Spyder

Ferrari 275 GTS-4 Nart Spyder
275 GTB4 NART Spyder

The 275 GTS/4 NART Spyder was a 2-seater spider version of the 275 GTB/4, 10 of which were built in 1967. Production of this car was initiated by Ferrari's North American dealer, Luigi Chinetti, who wanted a successor to the earlier 250 California Spyder series.[3] He asked Sergio Scaglietti and Enzo Ferrari to build a spider version of the 275 GTB/4, which Chinetti bought for approximately $8,000 each. These cars were informally named NART Spyders, referring to Chinetti's North American Racing Team. While the name "NART" was never part of this model's official designation from the factory, a cloisonné badge with the team's logo was installed on the rear of each car.[3]

Chinetti intended to order 25 NART Spyders from Scaglietti, but because of low sales[2] just 10 were built in 1967 and 1968, making this one of the rarest 275 models.[3][28] The ten NART Spyders used chassis numbers 09437, 09751, 10139, 10219, 10249, 10453, 10691, 10709, 10749, and 11057.[29] List price for a new NART spyder in 1967 was $14,400.[6]

The magazine Road & Track published a road test of a then-new NART Spyder in their September 1967 issue, where they described it as "the most satisfying sports car in the world." This test recorded a 0-60 mph (97 km/h) time of 6.7 seconds, a 14 mile (0.40 km) drag strip time of 14.7 seconds. and a top speed of 155 mph (249 km/h).[6]

The first produced 275 GTS/4 (chassis 09437) was entered in the 1967 12 Hours of Sebring, driven by Denise McCluggage and Marianne Rollo. They finished 17th overall, and 2nd in the 5-litre GT class. Following this race, the car was repainted from its original "Giallo solare" yellow to a burgundy color for an appearance in the 1968 film The Thomas Crown Affair, where it was driven by Faye Dunaway's character.[3][5] The same car was subsequently tested by Road & Track for their September 1967 road test article. In August 2005, 09437 sold for $3.96 million at Gooding & Co.'s Pebble Beach auction.[30]

In August 2013, a 1967 275 GTS/4 NART spyder (chassis 10709) sold for US$25 million at RM Sotheby's Monterey, California auction. At the time of the auction, this was a one-owner car, previously owned by Eddie Smith of Lexington, North Carolina. Mr. Smith purchased it new in 1968 and drove it regularly until his death in 2007. Subsequently, the car remained in possession of his family until the 2013 auction sale.[31][32]

References

  1. ^ a b c Merritt, Richard F.; Fitzgerald, Warren W.; Thompson, Jonathan (1976). Ferrari : the Sports and Gran Turismo Cars (3rd ed.). CBS Publications. pp. 170–177. ISBN 0878800190. OCLC 946498945.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Webb, Ian (1981). Ferrari 275GTB & GTS : 2-cam, 4-cam; 'Competizione'; Spider. London: Osprey. ISBN 0850454026. OCLC 16549966.
  3. ^ a b c d e Wetmore, Dustin (October 2018). "The NART Spyder". Cavallino. 227: 36–46.
  4. ^ Goodfellow, Winston (21 November 2005). "A Perfect 10: The Greatest Ferraris Of All Time". Motor Trend. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  5. ^ a b Goodfellow, Winston (2 December 2006). "Drive: 1967 Ferrari 275 GTB/4 NART Spyder – Scene Stealer". Motor Trend. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  6. ^ a b c "Ferrari 275 GTS/4 NART". Road & Track. 19 (1): 54–57. September 1967.
  7. ^ a b "Design Analysed: Ferrari 275 GTB4". Autocar. 126. Vol. (nbr 3703). 2 February 1967. pp. 4–8.
  8. ^ a b c "Ferrari 275 GTB4". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  9. ^ a b c Reggiani, Francesco; Bluemel, Keith (2018). Ferrari Engines Enthusiast's Manual. Sparkford, Yeovil, Somerset U.K.: Haynes. pp. 76–89. ISBN 978 1 78521 208 6. OCLC 1023488164.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Ridgely, Dyke W. (January 1980). "275 GTB". Cavallino. 9: 24–29.
  11. ^ "Ferrari 275 GTB (1964) - Ferrari.com". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Ridgley, Dyke (December 1988). "The 275 GTB/C - A History". Cavallino. 48: 26–33.
  13. ^ a b c d Rosetti, Giancarlo (May 2005). "Legend of the GTO 65". Forza. 61: 36–42.
  14. ^ Bluemel, Keith (April 1999). "275 GTB/C Speciale 06701 GT". Cavallino. 110: 22–28.
  15. ^ Simmons, Clem (September 1999). "Lettere". Cavallino. 112: 6–7.
  16. ^ a b c "1965 Ferrari 275 GTB/C - Speciale - RM Sotheby's". www.classicdriver.com. Classic Driver. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  17. ^ Owen, Richard Michael. "Ferrari 275 GTB/C Speciale". Supercars.net. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
  18. ^ "275 GTB/C 06885". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  19. ^ "1965 Le Mans 24 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 13 June 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d "1966 Ferrari 275 GTB/C - Berlinetta Competizione - RM Sotheby's". www.classicdriver.com. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  21. ^ "1965 Ferrari 275 GTB - Competizione Clienti - Rick Cole Auctions". www.classicdriver.com. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  22. ^ "275 GTB/C 09035". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  23. ^ "275 GTB/C 09027". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  24. ^ "275 GTB/C 09007". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  25. ^ a b c Ridgley, Dyke. "275 GTS". Cavallino. 13: 28–34.
  26. ^ a b "Ferrari 275 GTS (1964) - Ferrari.com". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  27. ^ a b c d e Ridgley, Dyke W. (August 1986). "The Four-Cam". Cavallino. 35: 16–26.
  28. ^ "Ferrari 275 GTB/4". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  29. ^ "Barchetta Register". September 2017.
  30. ^ "275 GTB/4 NART Spyder 9437". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  31. ^ Metro.co.uk, Metro News Reporter for (18 August 2013). "One careful owner, this Ferrari is yours for just £17.6m". Metro. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  32. ^ "1967 Ferrari 275 GTB/4*S N.A.R.T. Spider by Scaglietti | Monterey 2013". RM Auctions. August 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
1950 Belgian Grand Prix

The 1950 Belgian Grand Prix, formally titled the Grand Prix Automobile de Belgique, was a Formula One motor race held on 18 June 1950 at Spa-Francorchamps. It was race five of seven in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers. The 35-lap race was won by Alfa Romeo driver Juan Manuel Fangio after he started from second position. His teammate Luigi Fagioli finished second and Talbot-Lago driver Louis Rosier came in third.

1950 French Grand Prix

The 1950 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 2 July 1950 at Reims-Gueux. It was race 6 of 7 in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers. The 64-lap race was won by Alfa Romeo driver Juan Manuel Fangio after he started from pole position. His teammate Luigi Fagioli finished second and Peter Whitehead took third in a privateer Ferrari.

1965 24 Hours of Le Mans

The 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 33rd Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 19 and 20 June 1965. It was also the twelfth round of the World Sportscar Championship.

After the disappointing results of the previous year's race, Ford returned with an improved version of its GT. There were 11 Fords or Ford-engined cars in the field. To meet that challenge Ferrari had no less than 12 of their cars. Porsche dominated the medium-engined category with seven cars and Alpine-Renault likewise dominated the small-engine categories with six entries.

Despite a strong start, in the end the Fords’ unreliability let them down again and it was an easy victory for Ferrari for the sixth successive year. After the failure of the works team, the winners were Masten Gregory and Jochen Rindt in the North American Racing Team (NART) car – the first non-works team to win since Ecurie Ecosse in 1957. It was also the first international race victory for Goodyear tyres. Perhaps surprisingly given their domination of the race it would prove to be, to date, the last Ferrari victory at Le Mans.

1965 World Sportscar Championship

The 1965 World Sportscar Championship season was the 13th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship racing. It featured the 1965 International Championship for GT Manufacturers and the 1965 International Trophy for GT Prototypes. The season ran from 28 February 1965 to 19 September 1965 and comprised 20 races.

The International Championship for GT Manufacturers was contested by Grand Touring Cars in three engine capacity divisions. The Over 2000cc division was won by Shelby ahead of Ferrari, while Porsche prevailed in the 2000cc division and Abarth-Simca took the 1300cc division. The International Trophy for GT Prototypes was won by Ferrari, ahead of Porsche and Ford.

1967 24 Hours of Le Mans

The 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 35th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 10 and 11 June 1967. It was also the seventh round of the World Sportscar Championship.

Dan Gurney and A.J. Foyt won the race after leading from the second hour, becoming the first (and to date, only) all-American victors - car, team and drivers - of the race. Ferrari were second and third, and these top-three cars all broke the 5000 km mark in total distance covered for the first time. All overall records were broken – fastest, furthest, a new lap record and biggest engine to win, along with a number of class records.

Alberto Ascari

Alberto Ascari (Italian pronunciation: [alˈbɛrto ˈaskari]; 13 July 1918 – 26 May 1955) was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a multitalented racer who competed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. Ascari won consecutive world titles in 1952 and 1953 for Scuderia Ferrari. He was the team's first World Champion and the last Italian to date to win the title. This was sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952. Ascari also won the Mille Miglia in 1954. Ascari was noted for the careful precision and finely-judged accuracy that made him one of the safest drivers in a most dangerous era. Ascari remains along with Michael Schumacher Ferrari's only back-to-back World Champions, and he is also Ferrari's sole Italian champion.

When Alberto was a young child, his father, Antonio, who was also a famous racing driver, died in an accident at the 1925 French Grand Prix. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become extremely close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza. Ascari was notoriously superstitious and took great pains to avoid tempting fate. His unexplained fatal accident – at the same age as his father's, on the same day of the month and in eerily similar circumstances – remains one of Formula One racing's great tragic coincidences.

Carrozzeria Scaglietti

Carrozzeria Scaglietti (Italian pronunciation: [karrottseˈriːa skaʎˈʎetti]) was an Italian automobile design and coachbuilding company active in the 1950s. It was founded by Sergio Scaglietti in 1951 as an automobile repair concern, but was located across the road from Ferrari in Maranello outside Modena, Italy.

Scaglietti gained Enzo Ferrari's trust and respect both through his bodywork and design skills and for providing a retreat for young Dino Ferrari. Their professional relationship began when Ferrari asked Scaglietti to repair and modify race car bodywork in the late 1940s, which was soon followed by orders for full car bodies in the early 1950s. Scaglietti and Dino Ferrari designed a 166MM, Prototipo 0050M, the first Ferrari to have a "headrest" bump. This feature was subsequently used on most racing Ferraris of the 1950s and 1960s. The idea was initially despised by Enzo but championed by Dino, and 0050M's design became an overall success.

In the mid-1950s, Scaglietti became the Carrozzeria of choice for Ferrari's racing efforts. Many sports racing prototypes were designed and manufactured at their facility. All those exclusively designed by Scaglietti carried the Scaglietti & C. badge while cars built to outside designs did not. The company's 1958 250 Testa Rossa, with its Formula One-inspired pontoon fenders, is one of the most famous Scaglietti designs. Several of Ferrari's most coveted models such as the 250 California Spyder, 250 GTO and 250 Tour de France were built by Scaglietti to a Pinin Farina design.Today, the former Scaglietti works is owned by Ferrari and used to produce Ferrari's current line of aluminium bodied cars, including the 488 and F12, using both modern and traditional techniques. In 2002, a special edition of the 456, the 456M GT Scaglietti was named in honor of Scaglietti. This was followed by the 2004 introduction of the 612 Scaglietti, a 2+2 GT car produced until 2010. Despite names honoring Scaglietti, both the 456 and 612 were designed by Pininfarina.

Sergio Scaglietti died at his Modena home on 20 November 2011 at the age of 91.

Claude Haldi

Claude Haldi (28 November 1942 – 25 December 2017) was a Swiss racing driver.

Darryl Greenamyer

Darryl Greenamyer (August 13, 1936 – October 4, 2018) was an American aviator. He started his flying career in the US Air Force Reserve. After leaving the Air Force, he then began to work at Lockheed where he eventually became an SR-71 test pilot at Skunk works. While working at Lockheed he met many of the engineers who would later help him make modifications to future race planes. He won his first victory in the Unlimited Class at the Reno Air Races in 1965. He is the third most successful competitor in Reno Air Race history.

Ecurie Francorchamps

Ecurie Francorchamps was a Belgian motor racing team. They are principally known for running privateer cars in Formula One and sports car racing during the 1950s and 1970s. The team was founded by racing driver Jacques Swaters. Between 1952 and 1954 Ecurie Francorchamps raced in Formula One, and raced in sports cars into the 1970s.

Ferrari 125 F1

See also the 125 S, a sports racer sharing the same engineThe 125 F1 was Ferrari's first Formula One car. It shared its engine with the 125 S sports racer which preceded it by a year, but was developed at the same time by Enzo Ferrari, Valerio Colotti and designer, Gioacchino Colombo.

Ferrari 250 GT Lusso

The Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Lusso is a GT car which was manufactured by Italian automaker Ferrari from 1963 to 1964. Sometimes known as the GTL, GT/L or just Lusso, it is larger and more luxurious than the 250 GT Berlinetta. The 250 GT Lusso, which was not intended to compete in sports car racing, is considered to be one of the most elegant Ferraris.Keeping in line with the Ferrari "tradition" of that time, the 250 GT Lusso was designed by the Turinese coachbuilder Pininfarina, and bodied by Carrozzeria Scaglietti. Although the interior was more spacious than that of the 250 GT, the 250 GT Lusso remained a two-seat GT coupe, unlike the 250 GTE. The car was manufactured for only eighteen months, from early 1963 to mid 1964, and was the last model of Ferrari 250 GT generation.

Auto shows often provide an opportunity for manufacturers to introduce new designs publicly. Ferrari did so at the 1962 Paris Motor Show to unveil, as a prototype, the 250 GT Lusso. The prototype was almost identical to the production version, and only minor details changed thereafter.The new model was a way for Ferrari to fill a void left between the sporty 250 GT SWB and the luxurious 250 GTE 2+2, the Lusso met the new demands of the 1960s. Indeed, fans of sporting driving of the time became as fond of civilized designs, that is, comfortable and spacious, as they were of radical sports cars. Ferrari did not skimp on details in the GTL, which shows on the scales; weight ranged from 1,020 to 1,310 kg (2,250 to 2,890 lb), depending on equipment.Unusually brief for a Ferrari model, GTL's production began January 1963 and ended August 1964. According to a longstanding American expert on Ferrari, Peter Coltrin, the construction of the 250 GT Lusso must have begun soon after the presentation of the prototype of the Paris Motor Show.Although it was not intended to compete, the 250 GT Lusso made a few appearances in several sporting events in 1964 and 1965, such as the Targa Florio and the Tour de France. The final iteration of the 250 GT series, 351 copies of GT Lusso were produced before being replaced by the Ferrari 275 GTB. (Note nomenclature change due to increase in engine cylinder capacity.) Originally sold for $13,375, the GTL saw sales in 2010 between $400,000 and $500,000, and in 2013 values approached 4 times this figure.

Ferrari 275 S

Ferrari 275 S was a sports racing car produced by Ferrari in 1950. It was the first Ferrari powered by a new Aurelio Lampredi-designed V12 engine, created as a large displacement alternative to the initial 1,5 L Colombo V12, used in supercharged form in Ferrari 125 F1. Formula One regulations allowed for up to 4.5 L in naturally aspirated form.

Ferrari 375 F1

See also the 340 and 375 road cars sharing the same engineAfter finding only modest success with the supercharged 125 F1 car in Formula One, Ferrari decided to switch for 1950 to the naturally aspirated 4.5-litre formula for the series. Calling in Aurelio Lampredi to replace Gioacchino Colombo as technical director, Enzo Ferrari directed that the company work in stages to grow and develop an entirely new large-displacement V12 engine for racing.

The first outcome of Lampredi's work was the experimental 275 S. Just two of these racing barchettas were built, based on the 166 MM but using the experimental 3.3-litre V12. These were raced at the Mille Miglia of 1950 on April 23. Although one car held the overall lead for a time, both were forced to retire with mechanical failure before the end.

The 275 F1 made its debut at the Grand Prix of Belgium on June 18, sporting the same 3.3-litre (3322 cc/202 in³) version of Lampredi's new engine. With three Weber 42DCF carburetors, a single overhead camshaft for each bank of cylinders, and two valves per cylinder, the engine produced a capable 300 hp (224 kW) at 7200 rpm. Alberto Ascari drove the car to fifth place, marking the end of the 3.3-litre engine.

The 275 was replaced at the Grand Prix of Nations at Geneva on July 30, 1950 by the 340 F1. As the name suggests, the car sported a larger 4.1-litre (4101.66 cc/250 in³) version of Lampredi's V12. Other changes included a new de Dion tube rear suspension based on that in the 166 F2 car and four-speed gearbox. It had a longer 2,420 mm (95 in) wheelbase, but other dimensions remained the same. With 335 hp (250 kW), Ascari was able to keep up with the Alfa Romeo 158 of Juan Manuel Fangio but retired with engine trouble. Although the 340 proved itself capable, it was only the middle step in Ferrari's 1950 car development.

Ferrari achieved the 4.5-litre goal of the formula with the 375 F1, two of which debuted at Monza on September 3, 1950. This 4.5-litre (4493.73 cc/274 in³) engine produced roughly the same power as its 4.1-litre predecessor, but its tractability earned Ascari second place in that debut race. A series of modifications through the 1951 season allowed Ferrari to finally put Alfa Romeo behind it in a Formula One race, with José Froilán González' victory at Silverstone on July 14 becoming the constructor's first World Championship win. Ascari's wins at the Nürburgring and Monza and strong finishes throughout the season cemented the company's position as a Formula One contender.

Changes in the Formula One regulations led the company to shift the big engine to an Indy car, the 1952 375 Indianapolis. Three new Weber 40IF4C carburettors brought power output to 380 hp (279 kW), the wheelbase was lengthened, and the chassis and suspension were strengthened. Although the car performed well in European testing, it was not able to meet the American challenge, with just one of four 375s even qualifying for the 1952 Indianapolis 500. Ascari was the driver who did qualify the car for the race, starting 25th (out of 33 starters) with a qualifying speed of 134.3 mp/h (the pole was won by American Chet Miller who pushed his supercharged Kurtis Kraft-Novi to 139.03 mp/h). Ascari would be classified in 31st place, completing only 40 of the 200 laps before being forced to retire with wheel failure, though he would go on to win the remaining six Grands Prix of the season to easily win his first World Championship from Ferrari teammate Giuseppe Farina.

The big V12 was scrapped for 1954, as Formula One required a 2.5-litre engine. The new 553 F1 adopted Lampredi's four cylinder engine, leaving the V12 for sports car use.

The 375 was driven during the 2011 British Grand Prix weekend by then-current Ferrari driver Fernando Alonso as a tribute to the sixtieth anniversary of the Ferrari's first World Championship Grand Prix win at the 1951 British Grand Prix at Silverstone, with Argentinean driver José Froilán González driving at the time.

Ferrari Lampredi engine

Aurelio Lampredi designed a number of racing engines for Ferrari. He was brought on to hedge the company's bets with a different engine family than the small V12s designed by Gioacchino Colombo. Lampredi went on to design a number of different Inline-4, Inline-6, and V12 engines through the 1950s, and it was these that would power the company's string of world championships that decade. All were quickly abandoned, however, with the Dino V6 and V8 taking the place of the fours and sixes and evolution of the older Colombo V12 continuing as the company's preeminent V12.

Jean Guichet

Jean Guichet (born 10 August 1927 in Marseilles, France) is a French industrialist and former racing driver. He is most well known for winning the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans with co-driver Nino Vaccarella, driving a Ferrari 275 P for Scuderia Ferrari. Guichet raced sports cars and rallied from 1948 through the late 1970s. He began his racing career as a self-funded independent driver but would later drive for teams including Scuderia Ferrari, the Abarth works team, Ecurie Filipinetti, Maranello Concessionaires, and NART.Guichet is also known as the first owner of 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO chassis number 5111GT, one of only 36 produced. He successfully raced this car, including an overall win of the 1963 Tour de France with co-driver Jose Behra. Following Guichet's sale of the car in 1965 and multiple subsequent ownership changes, this car was sold privately in September 2013 for $52,000,000 USD. This broke the then-current record for world's most expensive car.

Jensen C-V8

The Jensen C-V8 is a four-seater GT car produced by Jensen Motors between 1962 and 1966.

Launched in October 1962, the C-V8 series had fibreglass bodywork with aluminium door skins, as did the preceding 541 series.

All C-V8s used big-block engines sourced from Chrysler; first the 361 and then, from 1964, the 330 bhp (246 kW) 383 in³. Most of the cars had three-speed Chrysler Torqueflite automatic transmission, but seven Mk2 C-V8s were produced with the 6-litre engine and four-speed manual gearbox , followed by two manual Mk3s. While the great majority of C-V8s were made in right-hand drive (RHD), ten were made in left-hand drive (LHD).

The car was one of the fastest production four-seaters of its era. The Mk II, capable of 136 mph (219 km/h), ran a quarter mile (~400 m) in 14.6 seconds, and accelerated from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 6.7 seconds.The upgraded Mk II, introduced in October 1963, had Selectaride rear dampers and minor styling changes. Changes on the Mk III, the final version of the series which was introduced in June 1965, included a minor reduction in overall length, deeper windscreen, equal size headlamps without chrome bezels, improved interior ventilation, wood-veneer dashboard, the addition of overriders to the bumpers, and a dual-circuit braking system. 104/2308, the blue car illustrated in this article is a mildly modified Mark Two which left the factory in May, 1965.

The factory made two convertibles: a cabriolet, and a Sedanca that opened only above the front seats. The 1963 Sedanca was featured in an article by Paul Walton in the June 2008 issue of Ruoteclassiche, Italy's leading classic car magazine.

The front of the C-V8 was styled with covered headlamps, similar to those on the Ferrari 275 GTB and Jaguar 3.8 E-type as a key element of the design. But because of concerns that they might reduce the effectiveness of the headlamps, the covers were deleted for the production cars. As a consequence the C-V8's front-end appearance was compromised and proved controversial for decades. Owners are now starting to return their cars to the original streamlined styling intended by the car's designer Eric Neale. The model was discontinued in 1966 after a total production run of 500. The fibreglass body, and the fact that the twin-tube frame was set in from the perimeter of the car, have contributed to the model's comparatively high survival rate.

A CV-8 Mk II was featured in the 1965 to 1966 ITC television series The Baron. Famous owners of Jensen C-V8s include actor Sean Connery of James Bond fame who owned a MKII Reg AUW 70B, the pop star Susan Maughan, the guitarist Dave Hill from the glam-rock band Slade whose car carried the registration YOB 1 and Sir Greg Knight MP, the Chair of the All Party Parliamentary Historic Vehicles Group.

A CV-8 was featured in the 2015 BBC television series London Spy driven by the character Scottie. One was also featured in series 4 episode 5 of Minder.

In 2015 a Jensen CV-8 Mk II started to be modified with the aim of becoming the first Jensen to set a speed record on Speed Week 2018.

List of most expensive cars sold at auction

This is a list of the most expensive cars sold in auto auctions through the traditional bidding process, that of those that attracted headline grabbing publicity, mainly for the high price their new owners have paid.

August 2018 Ferrari 250 GTO (number 23) auctioned for $48.4 million.

June 2018: A 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO, known as the Holy Grail model, won the Tour de France in 1963, changed hands for a world record US$70 million (not auction). It is a 174 mph road-legal racing car and one of only 36 built between 1962 and 1964. It was purchased by an American businessman.

A 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO, serial number 3413GT, sold at RM Sotheby's Auction on August 25, 2018 for US$48,405,000 (including buyer's premium). This broke the record previously held by another 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO, serial number 3851GT, which sold for a then-record $38,115,000 (including buyer's premium) at Bonham's Quail Auction on August 14, 2014. While collectible cars have been sold privately for more, this is the highest price ever paid for a car at a public auction.The 1904 Rolls-Royce 10 hp Two-Seater is currently listed on the Guinness World Records as the most expensive veteran car to be sold, at the price of US$7,254,290 (equivalent to $8,765,000 in 2018), on a Bonhams auction held at Olympia in London on December 3, 2007.This list only consists of those that have been sold for at least $4 million in auction sales during a traditional bidding process, inclusive of the mandatory buyers premium and does not include private, unsuccessful (failing to reach its reserve price, incomplete) and out of auction sales.

Transaxle

A transaxle is a single mechanical device which combines the functions of an automobile's transmission, axle, and differential into one integrated assembly. It can be produced in both manual and automatic versions.

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Type 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
8 cylinder Mid-engine berlinetta 308 308 i 308 QV 328 348 360
208 208 Turbo GTB/GTS Turbo F355
Mid-engine 2+2 308 GT4 Mondial 8 Mondial QV Mondial 3.2 Mondial t
208 GT4
12 cylinder Boxer berlinetta 365 BB 512 BB 512i BB Testarossa (F110) 512TR F512 M
Grand tourer 250 275 365 GTB/4
"Daytona"
550 Maranello
America 330 365
2+2 grand tourer 250 GT/E 330 GT 2+2 365 GT 2+2 365
GTC/4
365 GT4 2+2 400 400 i 412 456 456M
Supercar 250 GTO 250 LM 288
GTO
F40 F50
     Sold under the Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline
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