Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa

The Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa, or 250 TR, is a racing sports car built by Ferrari from 1957 to 1961. It was introduced at the end of the 1957 racing season in response to rule changes that enforced a maximum engine displacement of 3 liters for the 24 Hours of Le Mans and World Sports Car Championship races. The 250 TR was closely related to earlier Ferrari sports cars, sharing many key components with other 250 models and the 500 TR.[1]

The 250 TR achieved many racing successes, with variations winning 10 World Sports Car Championship races including the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1958, 1960, and 1961, the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1958, 1959 and 1961, the Targa Florio in 1958, the 1000 Km Buenos Aires in 1958 and 1960 and the Pescara 4 Hours in 1961. These results led to World Sports Car Championship constructor's titles for Ferrari in 1958, 1960 and 1961.

Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa
1961 Ferrari 250 TR 61 Spyder Fantuzzi 34 left 2
1961 250 TRI61 Spyder Fantuzzi, chassis 0792TR (Ralph Lauren collection)
Overview
ManufacturerFerrari[1][2]
Also calledFerrari 250 TR
Ferrari Testa Rossa
Production1957-1961[2]
AssemblyMaranello [2]
DesignerSergio Scaglietti
Carlo Chiti
Giotto Bizzarrini[1][2]
Body and chassis
Body styleSpyder
LayoutFMR layout[2][1]
RelatedFerrari 250
Ferrari 500 TR
Ferrari 500 TRC
Powertrain
Engine3.0 L (2953.21 cc) [3] Tipo 128 Colombo V12[1][2]
Transmission4-speed manual
5-speed manual[1][2]
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,350 mm (92.5 in)[2]
Length3,959 mm (155.9 in) [2]
Width1,523 mm (60.0 in) [2]
Curb weight800 kg (dry) [3]
Chronology
PredecessorFerrari 500 TR[1]
SuccessorFerrari 250 P[1]

Design and development

The 250 Testa Rossa was initially developed to compete in the 1957 World Sports Car Championship racing season, in response to rule changes planned for the upcoming 1958 season that would enforce a maximum engine displacement of 3 liters. The objective was to improve on the existing 4-cylinder 2.0L 500 TR/500 TRC Testa Rossa by integrating the more powerful Colombo-designed 3.0L V12 as used in 250 GT series. Along with the new engine, Ferrari improved the existing Testa Rossa chassis and bodywork. As with other Ferrari racing cars, Enzo Ferrari demanded absolute reliability from all components, resulting in a somewhat conservative design approach that aimed for endurance racing success through durability rather than overall speed. Carlo Chiti was the chief designer during 250 TR development and his continual experimentation counterbalanced Mr. Ferrari's conservatism and led to the many revisions that kept the car competitive through 1962.[1][4] Other Ferrari engineers had major contributions to the 250 TR, notably Giotto Bizzarrini, who helped with aerodynamic improvements for the 1961 season,[5] and Andrea Fraschetti, who helped developed the first 250 TR prototype before his 1957 death during a test drive.[4]

The 250 TR was raced and continually developed by Scuderia Ferrari from 1957 through 1962. In total, 33 250 TRs of all types were built between 1957 and 1962.[4][6][7][8][9][10][11] Included in this total are 19 "customer versions" of the 250 TR sold to independent racing teams, replacing the 500 TRC for this market. All customer cars had left hand drive Scaglietti "pontoon fender" bodies and live rear axles. They did not benefit from the continual improvements to Scuderia Ferrari cars, although many independent teams modified their 250 TRs or purchased ex-Scuderia Ferrari cars in order to stay competitive.[1][12][4]

Engine and drivetrain

250 Testa Rossa 002
250 Testa Rossa Tipo 128 V-12 Engine

The 250 Testa Rossa engine was based on Colombo-designed 3.0L V12 used in 250 GT road and racing cars. Carlo Chiti and other Ferrari engineers made several modifications to increase the performance of this already proven engine. The starting point was a 1953-style cylinder block with an overall capacity of 2953 cc, a 73mm bore and 58.8 mm stroke. Six two-barrel Weber 38 DCN carburetors fed the engine, increased from the 3 carburetors typical for 250 GT engines. The cylinder heads used single overhead cams, 2 valves per cylinder and helical double-coil valve springs (a first for Ferrari).[13][14][6] The helical valve springs were much smaller than previously used torsion springs, allowing the cylinder heads to be strengthened and secured with 24 studs rather than 18 in previous 250 engines. This increased the overall reliability of the engine by improving head gasket sealing. One spark plug was used per cylinder and the position was changed from earlier 250 designs, now located outside the engine vee between exhaust ports. This allowed for a better spark position and more efficient combustion. Piston connecting rods were now machined from steel billet, rather than forged, which resulted in more stress-resistance at higher RPMs.[1] The cam covers were painted bright red, the source of the name "Testa Rossa" (literally, "Red Head"). This tradition and name originated with the 500 TR.[6]

The resulting engine was designated Tipo 128 and generated 300 hp (220 kW) at 7000 rpm. The power/displacement ratio of 100 hp/liter was a particular point of pride for Ferrari, as it demonstrated how Ferrari's engineering prowess could create a competitive engine even under rules restricting displacement. The engineering team improved a well understood, proven design by incorporating new technology and strengthening known weak points. They created an exceptionally durable engine, a massive benefit in endurance racing. Other Ferrari racing cars (250 GTO, 250 P) achieved racing success with the same basic engine well into the 1960s, years after the 250 TR chassis was obsolete.

1957-1958 250 TRs used a 4-speed transmission, followed by a 5-speed transmission in 1959. Customer cars were equipped with a 250 GT-style transmission positioned directly behind the engine, while Scuderia Ferrari team cars sometimes used rear-mounted transaxles for better weight distribution.[6]

Chassis, brakes and suspension

The 250 Testa Rossa used a tubular steel spaceframe chassis, similar to that used in the 500 TR. Compared to the 500 TR, the wheelbase was extended by 10 cm to 2.35 meters. The chassis gained a reputation for durability, as it was designed according to Enzo Ferrari's desire for absolute reliability even at the expense of excess weight. [1][4][13][15]

All 250 TRs used independent front suspension with coil springs. All customer cars had live rear axles.[4][6] Pre-1960 factory team cars used either live or de Dion rear axles[4][6] while the 1960 250 TRI60 and 1961 250 TRI61 used independent rear suspension.[1]

1957 and 1958 250 TRs were equipped with drum brakes on all four wheels. Enzo Ferrari insisted on the use of drum brakes in the early 250 TRs as he believed they were more reliable and predictable in how they faded compared to more powerful but relatively new disc brakes. Drum brakes were unpopular with drivers as they required tremendous physical exertion to operate, due to lack of servo assist and the extremely hard, long-lasting pads used for endurance races. Despite the extensive air cooling used in the 1958 "pontoon fender"-bodied cars, drum brakes were still subject to heat-induced fade.[4] They were finally replaced with Dunlop disc brakes in all Scuderia Ferrari cars for the 1959 race season.[15]

Bodywork and interior

All 250 TRs had 2-seater spider bodies, as did the earlier 4-cylinder Testa Rossas. At the time, this was considered the lightest and most aerodynamic configuration for a racing sports car.

The first 250 Testa Rossa prototype (chassis number 0666TR) debuted at the 1957 Nürburgring 1000km. This hastily prepared prototype was based on a 290 MM chassis and had conventional bodywork by Scaglietti very similar to that of the 4-cylinder 500 TR, except for a large hood bulge.[1][16]

1958 Ferrari 250 TR 0736TR Front
1958 250 TR with "pontoon fender" Scaglietti body. The channels for front brake cooling are clearly visible
1958 Ferrari 250 TR 0736TR Interior
Interior of 1958 250 TR.

For the 1958 250 TR, new bodywork was developed in collaboration between Scaglietti and Chiti with several innovations on the previous 4-cylinder Testa Rossa body. Instead of the conventional fully enclosed front end, the new body had a distinctive cut-away nose reminiscent of a Formula 1 car. The protuberant central air intake was now flanked by deep channels and the headlights were set into nacelle- or pontoon-like fenders that enveloped each front wheel. The purpose of this design was to funnel cooling air inwards towards the brake drums, mitigating the persistent problem of heat-related fade. The lower body was recessed inwards behind the front wheels in order to vent heat from the brakes and exhaust. The front hood was topped with a large bulge and air intake (forward facing on some cars, reverse facing on others) to provide clearance for the vertically oriented carburetors. The rear bodywork was more conventional, including a tapered fairing behind the driver's head and two small brake lights set into vertical fins.[1][6][13][14]

The distinctive cutaway-nose bodywork of the 1958 cars became the most iconic 250 TR style and was used on all cars sold new to private customers. This resulted in the colloquial name for early Scaglietti-bodied 250 TRs: "pontoon fender." Despite their radical appearance, racing and test runs soon showed that this design generated a significant amount of aerodynamic drag and high speed instability. This was especially noticeable when competing on high speed courses such as the Circuit de la Sarthe against more aerodynamic cars such as the Maserati Tipo 61 and Jaguar D-Type. As a result, the Scaglietti bodywork was soon revised and a wide variety of alternative styles were created from 1958 through 1961. Even during 1958, some Scuderia Ferrari cars were equipped with more conventional bodies in the style of the 1957 prototype.[1][4][6][13][14]

The 250 TR's open interior was simple and utilitarian, lacking the luxury trimmings found in Ferrari GT cars. The instrumentation and controls were completely focused around the driver. Like other 1950s and 1960s Ferrari sports cars, 250 TRs were equipped with an open gated shifter and a Nardi wooden steering wheel.

Variants and further development

The 250 TR was subject to continual iteration and refinement from 1957 to 1961, resulting in numerous differences between individual cars that may or may not coincide with different chassis production dates. As was common with Ferrari racing cars of the 1950s and 1960s, 250 TRs were frequently modified and updated by the Ferrari factory and/or private owners. Bodywork was often changed to improve performance or to repair crash damage. Ferrari historians track these changes with a numbering suffix based on year of production (such as 250 TR61 for a 1961-style car) as well as descriptors such as "Spider Fantuzzi" to denote cars with bodies fabricated by Fantuzzi. Despite this historiographical systematization, the low-production, hand-built nature of these cars and their use and modification in period mean that differences are most thoroughly explained in the context of an individual chassis' history.

1959: TR59

For the 1959 season, the 250 TR body design was lightly revised by Pininfarina, with fabrication of the bodies handled by Fantuzzi. The cutaway nose with pontoon fenders was gone, replaced by a more aerodynamic design that still incorporated many ventilation grilles and air inlets.[1][14][15]

The 1959 250 TR was the first Ferrari sports car to use disc brakes (manufactured by Dunlop). Disc brakes are much less susceptible to heat build-up and fade than drum brakes, so the extra air cooling provided by the 1958 Scaglietti body was no longer necessary.[1][14][15]

A 5-speed transmission mounted directly behind the engine was also introduced in 1959. [1][15]

1960: TR60 and TRI60

Ferrari 250 TR Fantuzzi
1959 250 TR59/60 Spider Fantuzzi, showing the tall windshield used on 1960 cars

Dry sump lubrication systems became standard equipment for all 250 TRs in 1960. This allowed the engine to sit lower in the chassis, lowering the car's center of mass for improved handling and enabling a lower, more aerodynamic front profile.[13]

Rear independent suspension was introduced to the 250 TR in 1960. The car equipped with independent suspension was designated the 250 TRI60 (chassis 0780TR) and throughout the season raced alongside the 250 TR60 equipped with a conventional de Dion rear axle.[1][13]

The body of the 250 TR again changed for the 1960 season, primarily due to new regulations requiring a windshield with a vertical height of 25 cm. The new, larger windshield was immediately disliked by drivers, as it was difficult to see over, the plexiglass material could not be effectively cleared by windshield wipers, and the much larger surface area increased drag.[1][13] The excess drag resulted in a top speed of 161 mph (259 km/h) down the Mulsanne Straight at Le Mans. In comparison, during the same race Masten Gregory's Maserati Tipo 61 reached approximately 175 mph (282 km/h).[5]

1959 cars that were updated to 1960 specification (minus independent rear suspension) are often designated as 250 TR59/60.[15]

1961: TRI61

Ferrari 250 TR 61 Spyder Fantuzzi 1961
1961 250 TRI61 Spider Fantuzzi

All 1961 250 Testa Rossas were designated 250 TRI61 as independent rear suspension was now standard.[1]

Due to high drag and visibility problems with the TR60 body style, Ferrari engineers including Giotto Bizzarini and Carlo Chiti were tasked with completely re-designing the 250 TR bodywork for the 1961 racing season. As a result, the new Fantuzzi-built TRI61 body incorporated a number of dramatic changes, informed by new aerodynamic theories and wind-tunnel testing. The windshield now had a more gradual slope and wrapped around both sides of the cockpit to meet the rear bodywork. Instead of the rounded tail with fairing for the driver's head, the TRI61 had a very high rear body that met the trailing edge of the side windows and tapered to a truncated, slightly concave Kamm tail.[5] This bodystyle was called an "open coupe" and was very similar to bodies used on mid-engined Ferrari sports racers such as the 1961 Dino 246 SP.[17] The front air inlet was now split into two openings, introducing the distinctive "sharknose" or "nostril" style that was also used on other Ferrari sports racing cars and the 156 Formula 1 car.[1]

During testing of the 250 TRI61, a full-width angled "deflector" panel was installed along the top edge of the rear bodywork. This was initially installed to prevent exhaust fumes from entering the cockpit under deceleration. After testing the prototype with the deflector, driver Richie Ginther commented that high-speed stability seemed to improve with only a slight reduction in top speed, leading to the inclusion of this feature on all 1961 bodies. The Ferrari engineers had in effect created a rear spoiler, well before engineers understood the aerodynamic theory behind them and integrated them into many car designs. [1]

1962: 330 TRI/LM

Ferrari 330 TR
1962 Ferrari 330 TRI/LM

For the 1962 season, Ferrari developed the final iteration of the front-engined Testa Rossa, the 330 TRI/LM (LM standing for Le Mans). The biggest change from the 250 TR was a Tipo 163 4.0 Liter Colombo V12 developed from the engine of the 400 Superamerica, further improved with Testa Rossa cylinder heads and other modifications seen on 250 TR engines. This engine produced 390 hp (290 kW) at 7500 rpm, significantly more power than the 250-series 3.0L unit. This engine design would be used again in the 1964 330 P.

The single 330 TRI/LM (chassis number 0808) was built from a damaged 250 TRI60 (chassis 0780TR). The original chassis was lengthened and a TRI61-style spider body by Fantuzzi was fitted. At the 1962 24 Hours of Le Mans, this car was driven by Olivier Gendebien and Phil Hill and became the last front-engine car to win an overall victory at Le Mans.[1][18][19]

Racing history

1963-05-19 Ferrari 250 TRI von Abate u. Maglioli, Nürburgring
The 250 TRI61 of Abate/Maglioli, driving for Scuderia Serenissima at the 1963 Nürburgring 1000km.
Auto race, Leopoldville, 1958 (29389291161)
250 TR (chassis 0736) at the 1958 GP Léopoldville, with Paul Frère driving

The 250 Testa Rossa was raced successfully throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s. Independent teams raced the 250 TR alongside Scuderia Ferrari cars from 1958 on, although the most developed versions of the car were restricted to factory-sanctioned teams only.[14]

250 TRs were extremely competitive during this time, winning 10 World Sportscar Championship races including the 1958, 1960, and 1961 24 Hours of Le Mans,[20][21][22] the 1958, 1959 and 1961 12 Hours of Sebring,[23][24][25] the 1958 Targa Florio,[26] the 1958 and 1960 1000 km Buenos Aires[27][28] and the 1961 4 hours of Pescara.[29] Notable drivers included Phil Hill, Olivier Gendebien, Luigi Musso, Peter Collins, Dan Gurney, Wolfgang von Trips and Mike Hawthorne, among others.

The excellent results of 250 TRs and Scuderia Ferrari's skilled drivers earned Ferrari the 1958, 1960 and 1961 Constructor's World Sportscar Championship titles.[14]

The Aston Martin DBR1 and the Porsche 718 were the 250 TR's closest competitors during this time. Stirling Moss drove a DBR1 to win first place against strong Ferrari opposition at the 1958 1000km Nürburgring,[30] and DBR1s would go on to win over 250 TRs at the 1959 Le Mans, Nürburgring, and Tourist Trophy races, depriving Ferrari of the Constructor's World Championship in 1959.[14][31][32][33]

Influence

The Tipo 128 Colombo-designed 3.0L V12 developed for the 250 Testa Rossa would continue to be used in Ferrari sports racing cars through the early 1960s. The 250 GTO, 250 P and 250 LM achieved racing success with this engine.[1][13][14]

Experimentation on 250 TR body styles from 1957 through 1962 provided Ferrari engineers with valuable experience in developing both low-drag and stability-promoting aerodynamic bodywork. The 250 GTO, Dino sports racers, and 250/275/330 P were the immediate beneficiaries of this knowledge.

Ferrari named the 1984-1991 Testarossa road car as a homage to the 500 TR and 250 TR. In contrast to the front-engine V12-powered 250 TR, the Testarossa is a mid-engine design using a flat-12 engine and was designed as a road-going sports car, rather than a racer.[34]

Collectibility

The 250 Testa Rossa is one of the most valuable vintage Ferraris (and therefore one of the most valuable cars of any type), due to their low production (33 total including all 250 TR variants), racing success and historical influence. The 250 GTO is generally considered to have a greater monetary value, although true market values are difficult to determine due to how seldom either model is sold at auction. 250 TRs are often seen at prestigious auto shows such as the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance [35][36] and the Goodwood Festival of Speed.[37]

A 1957 250 TR (chassis 0714TR) sold for €9,020,000 at RM Sotheby's 2009 Maranello auction.[38][39] The 1957 250 TR prototype (chassis 0666TR) sold for $16.39 million at the 2011 Gooding & Co Pebble Beach auction.[40][41][42] 250 TR chassis 0704 reportedly sold privately in 2014 for $39.8 million.[43]

Fashion designer Ralph Lauren's extensive auto collection contains two 250 TRs, a 1958 Scaglietti-bodied car (chassis 0734TR) and a 1961 250 TR/61 Spider Fantuzzi (chassis 0792TR).[44][45]

The value, performance and historical significance ascribed to the 250 TR have motivated many individuals and companies to create reproduction automobiles. Sold as a "replica", "recreation" or "reproduction", these can vary widely in historical accuracy and sophistication, sometimes using Ferrari engines and chassis or simply attempting to replicate the body style of the original with unrelated mechanical underpinnings.[46][47] Some of these reproductions have been unscrupulously represented as original, factory-built 250 TRs.[48]

As 250 TR values rose, some extremely damaged or destroyed 250 TRs were reconstructed using varying amounts of newly fabricated or non-original components. In at least one instance, this has resulted in a case of disputed identity, whereby multiple reconstructed or reproduced cars lay claim to a particular factory chassis number.[49]

Further reading

  • Finn, Joel E. (2003). Ferrari Testa Rossa V-12. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International. ISBN 0760317356. A comprehensive history of the 250 Testa Rossa, including the design and development process, racing results, and histories of individual chassis

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Antoine, Prunet, (1983). Ferrari : sport racing and prototypes competition cars. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0393017991. OCLC 10382200.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Derrick, Martin; Clay, Simon (2013). Million Dollar Classics: The World's Most Expensive Cars. Chartwell Books. ISBN 978 0 7858 3051 1.
  3. ^ a b "Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Finn, Joel E. (2003). Ferrari Testa Rossa V-12. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International. ISBN 0760317356. OCLC 52876643.
  5. ^ a b c Frère, Paul (April 1991). "A Mystery Solved: How the Testa Rossa Entered the Aerodynamic Era". Cavallino. 62: 16–17.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h "250 Testa Rossa". Cavallino. 67: 20–27. February 1992.
  7. ^ "250 TR - Index". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  8. ^ "250 TR58 - Index". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  9. ^ "250 TR59 - Index". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  10. ^ "250 TRI/60 - Index". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  11. ^ "All.Ferraris - Cars by serial number . 250 TRI/61". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  12. ^ "Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa (1958) - Ferrari.com". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Fitzgerald, Warren W.; Merritt, Richard F.; Thompson, Jonathan (1976). Ferrari: The Sports and Gran Turismo Cars (3rd ed.). CBS Publications. ISBN 978-0878800193. OCLC 810446.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i 1927-1975., Tanner, Hans, (1984). Ferrari. Nye, Doug. (6th ed.). Sparkford, Yeovil, Somerset: Haynes. ISBN 978-0854293506. OCLC 12418956.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Mallepelle, Paolo (December 1987). "1959 250 TR59, No. 0766 TR". Cavallino. 42: 25–31.
  16. ^ "Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa - History, Photos, Profile". Sports Car Digest - The Sports, Racing and Vintage Car Journal. 2012-12-31. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  17. ^ "Ferrari 246 SP (1961) - Ferrari.com". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  18. ^ "330 TRI LM s/n 0808". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  19. ^ "Ferrari 330 TR (1962) - Ferrari.com". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  20. ^ "1958 Le Mans 24 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  21. ^ "1960 Le Mans 24 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  22. ^ "1961 Le Mans 24 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  23. ^ "1958 Sebring 12 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  24. ^ "1959 Sebring 12 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  25. ^ "1961 Sebring 12 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  26. ^ "1958 Targa Florio | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  27. ^ "1958 Buenos Aires 1000Kms | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  28. ^ "1960 Buenos Aires 1000Kms | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  29. ^ "1961 Pescara 4 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  30. ^ "1958 Nurburgring 1000Kms | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  31. ^ "1959 Le Mans 24 Hours | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  32. ^ "1959 Tourist Trophy | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  33. ^ "1959 Nurburgring 1000Kms | Motor Sport Magazine Database". Motor Sport Magazine. 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  34. ^ "GT Testarossa: Pininfarina's design broke with tradition, in 1984". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  35. ^ "Rare Ferraris Compete at Important Pebble Beach Concours". Cavallino Magazine. 2018-09-08. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  36. ^ Lamm, John (2017-08-22). "18 Favorite Ferraris from the 2017 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  37. ^ Atwood, James (2017-07-30). "Goodwood 2017: best of Ferrari". Autocar.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  38. ^ "Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa Breaks All-Time Auction Record". Sports Car Digest - The Sports, Racing and Vintage Car Journal. 2009-05-17. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  39. ^ "250 TR s/n 0714TR". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  40. ^ "1957 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa". Gooding & Company. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  41. ^ Phillips, Drew (2018-08-22). "1957 Ferrari 250 TR Prototype sells for record $16.39 million at Gooding's Pebble Beach auction". Autoblog. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  42. ^ "250 TR s/n 0666". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  43. ^ Ernst, Kurt (2014-01-30). "Unrestored 1957 Ferrari Testa Rossa Reportedly Sells for $39.8 million". www.hemmings.com. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  44. ^ Lamm, John (2011-04-29). "1958 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa". Road & Track. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  45. ^ "250 TRI/61 s/n 0792TR". www.barchetta.cc. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  46. ^ "Ferrari 250 TR Recreation Is Better Than The Real Thing". Motor Authority. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  47. ^ "Bonhams : 1962 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa Re-creation Chassis no. 4257". www.bonhams.com. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  48. ^ Sheehan, Michael (January 2006). "Fake Ferraris for Fun and Profit". www.ferraris-online.com. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  49. ^ Sheehan, Michael (February 2002). "Clone Wars". ferraris-online.com. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
1000 km Buenos Aires

The 1000 km Buenos Aires was an endurance sports car event held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The race mostly run on the Autódromo Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, although it would run the Costanera circuit in 1957. Besides a single race in Caracas, Venezuela, it was the only annual South American race in the history of the World Sportscar Championship.

Carrozzeria Scaglietti

Carrozzeria Scaglietti (Italian pronunciation: [karrottseˈriːa skaʎˈʎetti]) was an Italian automobile design and coachbuilding company active in the 1950s. It was founded by Sergio Scaglietti in 1951 as an automobile repair concern, but was located across the road from Ferrari in Maranello outside Modena, Italy.

Scaglietti gained Enzo Ferrari's trust and respect both through his bodywork and design skills and for providing a retreat for young Dino Ferrari. Their professional relationship began when Ferrari asked Scaglietti to repair and modify race car bodywork in the late 1940s, which was soon followed by orders for full car bodies in the early 1950s. Scaglietti and Dino Ferrari designed a 166MM, Prototipo 0050M, the first Ferrari to have a "headrest" bump. This feature was subsequently used on most racing Ferraris of the 1950s and 1960s. The idea was initially despised by Enzo but championed by Dino, and 0050M's design became an overall success.

In the mid-1950s, Scaglietti became the Carrozzeria of choice for Ferrari's racing efforts. Many sports racing prototypes were designed and manufactured at their facility. All those exclusively designed by Scaglietti carried the Scaglietti & C. badge while cars built to outside designs did not. The company's 1958 250 Testa Rossa, with its Formula One-inspired pontoon fenders, is one of the most famous Scaglietti designs. Several of Ferrari's most coveted models such as the 250 California Spyder, 250 GTO and 250 Tour de France were built by Scaglietti to a Pinin Farina design.Today, the former Scaglietti works is owned by Ferrari and used to produce Ferrari's current line of aluminium bodied cars, including the 488 and F12, using both modern and traditional techniques. In 2002, a special edition of the 456, the 456M GT Scaglietti was named in honor of Scaglietti. This was followed by the 2004 introduction of the 612 Scaglietti, a 2+2 GT car produced until 2010. Despite names honoring Scaglietti, both the 456 and 612 were designed by Pininfarina.

Sergio Scaglietti died at his Modena home on 20 November 2011 at the age of 91.

Charlie Ross (antiques expert)

Charlie Ross {Nickname: Rosco}(born June 1950) in Buckinghamshire, England) is a British antiques expert, presenter and auctioneer, known for regular appearances on several BBC Antique programmes.

Driver deaths in motorsport

Due to the inherently dangerous nature of auto racing, many individuals, including drivers, crew members, officials and spectators, have been killed in crashes related to the sport, in races, in qualifying, in practice or in private testing sessions. Deaths among racers and spectators were numerous in the early years of racing. However advances in safety technology, and specifications designed by sanctioning bodies to limit speeds, have reduced deaths in recent years. Spectacular accidents have often spurred increased safety measures and even rules changes. Widely considered to be the worst accident amongst them is the 1955 crash at Le Mans that killed driver Pierre Levegh and approximately 80 spectators with over 100 being injured in total.

This is a list alphabetically sorted, and structured after the kind of competition, of the more notable drivers, excluding motorcycle riders. In addition, several famous racing drivers have been killed in public road crashes; see List of people who died in road accidents.

Ferrari

Ferrari (; Italian: [ferˈraːri]) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed.

In 2014 Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million.Fiat S.p.A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p.A. from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari.

The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. (a company incorporated in the Netherlands) as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016.Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships (16) and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins (15). Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth.

Ferrari 250

The Ferrari 250 is a series of sports cars and grand tourers built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The company's most successful early line, the 250 series includes many variants designed for road use or sports car racing. 250 series cars are characterized by their use of a 3.0 litres (2,953 cc) Colombo V12 engine designed by Giaoccino Colombo. They were replaced by the 275 and 330 series cars.

Ferrari Monza

A Ferrari Monza is one of a series of cars built by Ferrari. In the early 1950s, Ferrari shifted from using the compact Gioacchino Colombo-designed V12 engine in its smallest class of sports racers to a line of four-cylinder engines designed by Aurelio Lampredi. Inspired by the success of the light and reliable 2.5 L 553 F1 car, the four-cylinder sports racers competed successfully through the late 1950s, culminating with the famed 500 Mondial and 750 Monza.

One important stylistic difference between most four-cylinder Ferraris is that they lacked the hood scoops common on V12 models. The V12 cars used downdraft carburettors located centrally in the "valley" of the engine, while the inline-engined fours used side-draft units and thus did not need the hood scoops.

Forza Motorsport 4

Forza Motorsport 4 is a racing video game developed by Turn 10 Studios and published by Microsoft Studios for the Xbox 360. It is the fourth installment in the Forza series. It is the first title in the series to support the Kinect sensor alongside the traditional controller-based gameplay. It is the last Forza Motorsport released for Xbox 360; 2012's Forza Horizon and its 2014 sequel were the last two Forza games for the platform, while 2013's Forza Motorsport 5 was released as an Xbox One exclusive.

A new feature in the series is Autovista, a game mode in which players can view precise details such as engine parts and interior gauges on a select number of cars. It features a partnership with BBC's Top Gear as well as its American counterpart. Jeremy Clarkson and James May, former co-presenters for Top Gear, provide commentary in the game's Autovista mode. Other partnerships include a two-year agreement with the American Le Mans Series (ALMS). Over 500 cars and 26 tracks are included.

The game received universal acclaim from critics, who praised the enhanced vehicle physics, updated visuals, and strong sound design. Several reviewers also gave high marks for the game's Autovista mode. Some critics expressed frustration with Kinect features, and others also felt that the game was not enough of an innovation from its predecessor, Forza Motorsport 3. These critics did, however, concede that the game was a vast improvement over Forza Motorsport 3.

List of Ferrari engines

This is a list of internal combustion engines manufactured by Ferrari.

List of most expensive cars sold at auction

This is a list of the most expensive cars sold in auto auctions through the traditional bidding process, that of those that attracted headline grabbing publicity, mainly for the high price their new owners have paid.

August 2018 Ferrari 250 GTO (number 23) auctioned for $48.4 million.

June 2018: A 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO, known as the Holy Grail model, won the Tour de France in 1963, changed hands for a world record US$70 million (not auction). It is a 174 mph road-legal racing car and one of only 36 built between 1962 and 1964. It was purchased by an American businessman.

A 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO, serial number 3413GT, sold at RM Sotheby's Auction on August 25, 2018 for US$48,405,000 (including buyer's premium). This broke the record previously held by another 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO, serial number 3851GT, which sold for a then-record $38,115,000 (including buyer's premium) at Bonham's Quail Auction on August 14, 2014. While collectible cars have been sold privately for more, this is the highest price ever paid for a car at a public auction.The 1904 Rolls-Royce 10 hp Two-Seater is currently listed on the Guinness World Records as the most expensive veteran car to be sold, at the price of US$7,254,290 (equivalent to $8,765,000 in 2018), on a Bonhams auction held at Olympia in London on December 3, 2007.This list only consists of those that have been sold for at least $4 million in auction sales during a traditional bidding process, inclusive of the mandatory buyers premium and does not include private, unsuccessful (failing to reach its reserve price, incomplete) and out of auction sales.

Mach Five

The Mach Five (マッハ号, Mahha-gō) is the racing car Speed Racer (Go Mifune in the Japanese version) drives in the anime series of the same name (known as "Mach Go! Go! Go!" in Japan). The car was designed, built, and created by "Pops Racer" (Daisuke Mifune), Speed Racer's father. It features a set of special devices which Speed Racer uses throughout the series. In the original 1967 series, the Mach Five is a white racing car with an "M" written on its hood (which does not stand for "Mach 5", but instead stands for "Mifune", both Go's last name, and the name of his father's motor company). In the 1993 American remake, the design was completely changed.

Its name probably derives from the fact that speeds above Mach 5 are known as hypersonic. However, the Mach Five cannot reach Mach speeds. The name is also a pun in two languages: the word for "five" in Japanese is "go". However, the "go" used for the car's name is a suffix attached to the names of ships, etc. Thus, the car is known in the Japanese version as simply the "Mach".

The car is designed to compete in a type of "open formula" racing, where cars are usually built with the maximum power and minimum of weight.

Medardo Fantuzzi

Medardo Fantuzzi (Bologna, 1906 - Modena, 1986) was an Italian automotive engineer, known for his Carrozzeria Fantuzzi body workshop.He and his brother, Gino Fantuzzi were famous for their affiliation with Maserati, where they got involved in building the Maserati A6 GCS (44 built 1953-5), Maserati 350S and Maserati 200S. Later, Medardo worked for Ferrari (until 1966), known for building the Pininfarina-penned Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa Spyder Fantuzzi (1961); the workshop also did one-off Ferrari 250 GTE and a Ferrari 330.

Fantuzzi also built, in the early 1960s, an OSCA Barchetta 1500cc 372FS for one of their mechanics.

Medardo's Carrozzeria Fantuzzi designed the bodywork for the one-off Ferrari that Terence Stamp drove in Federico Fellini's "Spirits of the Dead" motion picture.

He also worked for De Tomaso, Scuderia Serenissima, AMS and Tecno. His son is Fiorenzo Fantuzzi of Modena. The body workshop is still in existence.

RM Sotheby's

RM Sotheby's (formerly RM Auctions), incorporated in 1991, is a classic car auction company which maintains offices in Canada, the United States, UK, and Germany. The company's headquarters are located in Blenheim, Ontario. The company also does restoration, private treaty sales, auctions, estate planning and financial services.

RM has additional divisions, including a full restoration shop.

Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum

The Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum is an automotive museum located at 6825 Norwitch Drive in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The museum's collection consists of approximately 65 racing sports cars and has been assembled over more than 50 years by Frederick A. Simeone, a retired neurosurgeon and native of Philadelphia.

Key personnel
Current drivers
Test drivers
Ferrari Driver Academy
World champions
Drivers' titles
Constructors' titles
Race winners
Former personnel
Formula One cars
IndyCar/CART cars
Sports racing cars

Languages

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