Ferrari (/fəˈrɑːri/; Italian: [ferˈraːri]) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed.
In 2014 Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million.
Fiat S.p.A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p.A. from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari. The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. (a company incorporated in the Netherlands) as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016.
Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships (16) and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins (15). Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth.
|Founded||13 September 1939 in Modena, Italy (as Auto Avio Costruzioni)|
|9,251 units (2018)|
|Revenue||€3.417 billion (2017)|
|€775 million (2017)|
|€537 million (2017)|
|Total assets||€4.141 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||€779 million (2017)|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||Ferrari S.p.A. |
Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A.
|Footnotes / references|
Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari (pronounced [skudeˈriːa]) literally means "Ferrari Stable" and is usually used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought, prepared, and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department; therefore the Scuderia Ferrari was disbanded.
In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari. The new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform. It was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. The factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including works for road car production.
The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.A. (Società Esercizio Fabbriche Automobili e Corse).
Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, and work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range also received a boost.
In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death later that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p.A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, which was introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made (minus the 400th which was donated to the Vatican for charity) had a price tag of $650,000 apiece (equivalent to £400,900).
On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars worth over $162 million (£99.95 million) attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, who was succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and finally on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman.
On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari. The aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. Ferrari officially priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015.
Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other teams and for one make race series.
The 1940 AAC 815 was the first racing car to be designed by Enzo Ferrari, although it was not badged as a Ferrari model.
Scuderia Ferrari has participated in several classes of motorsport, though it is currently only officially involved in Formula One. It is the only team to have competed in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first F1 victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix.
Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first Drivers Championship a year later. Ferrari is the oldest team in the championship, and the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2014, the team's records include 15 World Drivers Championship titles, 16 World Constructors Championship titles, 221 Grand Prix victories, 6736.27 points, 679 podium finishes, 207 pole positions, and 230 fastest laps in 890 Grands Prix contested. Of the 19 tracks used in 2014, 8 have lap records set by the F2004, with a further 3 set by the F2003-GA, F2008 and F10.
Ferrari drivers include: Tazio Nuvolari, José Froilán González, Juan Manuel Fangio, Alberto Ascari, Luigi Chinetti, Maurice Trintignant, Wolfgang von Trips, Phil Hill, Olivier Gendebien, Mike Hawthorn, Peter Collins, Giancarlo Baghetti, Ricardo Rodríguez, Chris Amon, John Surtees, Lorenzo Bandini, Ludovico Scarfiotti, Jacky Ickx, Mario Andretti, Clay Regazzoni, Niki Lauda, Carlos Reutemann, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Didier Pironi, Patrick Tambay, René Arnoux, Michele Alboreto, Gerhard Berger, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost, Jean Alesi, Michael Schumacher, Eddie Irvine, Rubens Barrichello, Felipe Massa, Kimi Räikkönen, Fernando Alonso, Sebastian Vettel, and Charles Leclerc.
At the end of the 2006 season, the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end sponsorship deals with tobacco manufacturers. A five-year deal was agreed and although this was not due to end until 2011, in April 2008 Marlboro dropped their on-car branding on Ferrari.
In addition to Formula One, Ferrari also entered cars in sportscar racing, the two programs existing in parallel for many years.
In 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166 M to Ferrari's first win in motorsports, the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953, winning the title seven out of its first nine years.
When the championship format changed in 1962, Ferrari earned titles in at least one class each year through to 1965 and then again in 1967. Ferrari would win one final title, the 1972 World Championship of Makes before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing after 1973 and allow Scuderia Ferrari to concentrate solely on Formula One.
During Ferrari's seasons of the World Sportscars Championship, they also gained more wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with the factory team earning their first in 1954. Another win would come in 1958, followed by five consecutive wins from 1960 to 1964. Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) would take Ferrari's final victory at Le Mans in 1965.
Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars for privateers. These include the BB 512 LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the 458 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes.
Throughout its history, Ferrari has supplied racing cars to other entrants, aside from its own works Scuderia Ferrari team.
In the 1950s and '60s, Ferrari supplied Formula One cars to a number of private entrants and other teams. One famous example was Tony Vandervell's team, which raced the Thinwall Special modified Ferraris before building their own Vanwall cars. The North American Racing Team's entries in the final three rounds of the 1969 season were the last occasions on which a team other than Scuderia Ferrari entered a World Championship Grand Prix with a Ferrari car.
Ferrari supplied cars complete with V8 engines for the A1 Grand Prix series, from the 2008-09 season. The car was designed by Rory Byrne and is styled to resemble the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car.
Ferrari currently runs a customer GT program for a racing version of its 458 and has done so for the 458's predecessors, dating back to the 355 in the late 1990s. Such private teams as the American Risi Competizione and Italian AF Corse teams have been very successful with Ferrari GT racers over the years. This car, made for endurance sportscar racing to be competed against such racing versions of the Audi R8, McLaren MP4-12C, and BMW Z4 (E89) has proven to be successful, but not as successful as its predecessor, the F430. The Ferrari Challenge is a one-make racing series for the Ferrari 458. The FXX is not road legal and is therefore only used for track events.
The first vehicle made with the Ferrari name was the 125 S. This was primarily a sports/racing model. In 1949, the 166 Inter was introduced marking the company's significant move into the grand touring road car market. Road cars continue to make up the bulk of Ferrari sales to the present day.
Many early cars featured bodywork designed and customised by independent coachbuilders such as Pininfarina, Scaglietti, Zagato, Vignale and Bertone. Starting in the early 2010s with the LaFerrari, the focus was shifted to what is now the standard, Ferrari relying on an in-house design from the Centro Stile Ferrari.
The original road cars were typically two seat front engined V12s. This platform served Ferrari very well through the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968 the Dino was introduced as the first two-seat rear mid-engined Ferrari. The Dino was produced primarily with a V6 engine, however, a V8 model was also developed. This rear mid-engine layout would go on to be used in many Ferraris of the 1980s, 1990s and to the present day. Current road cars typically use V8 or V12 engines, with V8 models making up well over half of the marque's total production. Historically, Ferrari has also produced flat 12 engines.
For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were closely related to the 308 GTB.
The company has also produced several front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the current V12 model Lusso and V8 models Portofino and Lusso T. The California is credited with initiating the popular current model line of V8 front-engined 2+2 grand touring performance sports cars.
Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. The later Testarossa (also mid-engined 12 cylinder) remains one of the most popular and famous Ferrari road cars of all time.
In the 1950s and 1960s, clients often personalized their vehicles as they came straight from the factory. This philosophy added to the mystique of the brand. Every Ferrari that comes out of Maranello is built to an individual customer's specification. In this sense, each vehicle is a unique result of a specific client's desire.
Ferrari formalized this concept with its earlier Carrozzeria Scaglietti programme. The options offered here were more typical such as racing seats, rearview cameras, and other special trim. In late 2011, Ferrari announced a significant update of this philosophy. The Tailor Made programme allows clients to work with designers in Maranello to make decisions at every step of the process. Through this program almost any trim, any exterior color or any interior material are possible. The program carries on the original tradition and emphasizes the idea of each car being unique.
The 1984 288 GTO may be considered the first in the line of Ferrari supercars. This pedigree extends through the Enzo Ferrari to the LaFerrari. In March 2018, at the 88th Geneva International Motor Show, Ferrari revealed its latest supercar, the 488 Pista.
Ferrari SF90 Stradale is the first ever Ferrari to feature PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) architecture which sees the internal combustion engine integrated with three electric motors, two of which are independent and located on the front axle, with the third at the rear between the engine and the gearbox.
Ferrari has produced a number of concept cars, such as the Mythos. While some of these were quite radical (such as the Modulo) and never intended for production, others such as the Mythos have shown styling elements which were later incorporated into production models.
The most recent concept car to be produced by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Millechili.
The Special Projects programme was launched in the late 2000s as Ferrari's ultimate in-house personalization service, enabling customers to own bespoke bodied one-offs based on modern Ferrari road cars. Engineering and design is done by Ferrari, sometimes in cooperation with external design houses like Pininfarina or Fioravanti, and the vehicles receive full homologation to be road legal.
The first car to be completed under this programme was the 2008 SP1, commissioned by a Japanese business executive, the second was the P540 Superfast Aperta, commissioned by an American collector. The following is a list of Special Projects cars that have been made public:
|Name||Picture||Year||Based on||Commissioned by||Notes|
|SP1||2008||F430||Junichiro Hiramatsu||Design by Leonardo Fioravanti.|
|P540 Superfast Apert||2009||599 GTB||Edward Walson||Inspired by a similarly gold-painted and open-topped one-off built by Carrozzeria Fantuzzi on a Ferrari 330 LMB chassis.|
|Superamerica 45||2011||599 GTB||Peter Kalikow||Rotating targa top; design by Pininfarina|
|SP12 EC||2012||458 Italia||Eric Clapton||Designed by Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, in hommage to the 512 BB.|
|SP30||2013||599 GTO||Cheerag Arya|
|SP FFX||—||FF||Shin Okamoto||Design by Pininfarina|
|Ferrari F12 TRS||2014||F12berlinetta||—||Barchetta body, inspired by the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa. Design by Ferrari Styling Centre.|
|Ferrari SP America||2014||F12berlinetta||Danny Wegman|
|Ferrari SP3JC||2014||F12tdf||John Collins||Designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre. Took 3.5 years to complete. Presented in 2018.|
|Ferrari 458 MM Speciale||2016||458 Speciale||—||Design by Ferrari Styling Centre.|
|SP275 RW Competizione||2016||F12tdf||Rick Workman||Inspired by the 1964 275 GTB/C Speciale. Design by Pininfarina in collaboration with Ferrari Styling Centre.|
|Ferrari J50||2017||488 Spider||—|
|SP38||2018||488 GTB||—||Inspired by the F40 and 308.|
|P80/C||2019||488 GT3||—||One-off track-only car inspired by the 330 P3, 330 P4 and the Dino 206 S.|
An F430 Spider that runs on ethanol was displayed at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, Ferrari unveiled a hybrid version of their flagship 599. Called the "HY-KERS Concept", Ferrari's hybrid system adds more than 100 horsepower on top of the 599 Fiorano's 612 HP. Also in mid-2014, the flagship LaFerrari was put into production.
Until the early 1990s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on engine displacement:
Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. In general, the following conventions were used:
This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. Many such names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona name commemorates Ferrari's triple success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with the 330 P4. Only in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB/4 run by NART (who raced Ferraris in America) ran second, behind a Porsche 911.
The various Dino models were named for Enzo's son, Dino Ferrari, and were marketed as Dinos by Ferrari and sold at Ferrari dealers—for all intents and purposes they are Ferraris.
In the mid-1990s, Ferrari added the letter "F" to the beginning of all models (a practice abandoned after the F512 M and F355, but adopted again with the F430, but not with its successor, the Ferrari 458 ).
The famous symbol of the Ferrari race team is the Cavallino Rampante ("prancing horse") black prancing stallion on a yellow shield, usually with the letters S F (for Scuderia Ferrari), with three stripes of green, white and red (the Italian national colors) at the top. The road cars have a rectangular badge on the hood (see picture at top of page), and, optionally, the shield-shaped race logo on the sides of both front wings, close to the door.
On 17 June 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a race at the Savio track in Ravenna where he met the Countess Paolina, mother of Count Francesco Baracca, an ace of the Italian air force and national hero of World War I, who used to paint a horse on the side of his planes. The Countess asked Enzo to use this horse on his cars, suggesting that it would bring him good luck. The original "prancing horse" on Baracca's airplane was painted in red on a white cloud-like shape, but Ferrari chose to have the horse in black (as it had been painted as a sign of grief on Baracca's squadron planes after the pilot was killed in action) and he added a canary yellow background as this is the color of the city of Modena, his birthplace. The Ferrari horse was, from the very beginning, markedly different from the Baracca horse in most details, the most noticeable being the tail that in the original Baracca version was pointing downward.
Ferrari has used the cavallino rampante on official company stationery since 1929. Since the Spa 24 Hours of 9 July 1932, the cavallino rampante has been used on Alfa Romeos raced by Scuderia Ferrari.
The motif of a prancing horse is old, it can be found on ancient coins. A similar black horse on a yellow shield is the Coat of Arms of the German city of Stuttgart, home of Mercedes-Benz and the design bureau of Porsche, both being main competitors of Alfa and Ferrari in the 1930s. The city's name derives from Stutengarten, an ancient form of the German word Gestüt, which translates into English as stud farm and into Italian as scuderia. Porsche also includes the Stuttgart sign in its corporate logo, centred in the emblem of the state of Württemberg. Stuttgart's Rössle has both rear legs firmly planted on the soil, like Baracca's horse, but unlike Ferrari's cavallino.
Fabio Taglioni used the cavallino rampante on his Ducati motorbikes, as Taglioni was born at Lugo di Romagna like Baracca, and his father too was a military pilot during WWI (although not part of Baracca's squadron, as is sometimes mistakenly reported). As Ferrari's fame grew, Ducati abandoned the horse- perhaps the result of a private agreement between the two companies.
The cavallino rampante is the visual symbol of Ferrari. Cavallino Magazine uses the name, but not the logo. Other companies use similar logos: Avanti, an Austrian company operating over 100 filling stations, uses a prancing horse logo which is nearly identical to Ferrari's, as does Iron Horse Bicycles and Norfolk Southern Railway.
Since the 1920s, Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo, Maserati and later Ferrari and Abarth were (and often still are) painted in "race red" (Rosso Corsa). This was the customary national racing color of Italy, as recommended between the World Wars by the organizations that later would become the FIA. It refers to the nationality of the competing team, not that of the car manufacturer or driver. In that scheme, French-entered cars such as Bugatti were blue, German such as Auto Union and Mercedes white (since 1934 also bare sheet metal silver), and British green such as the mid-1960s Lotus and BRM, for instance.
Ferrari won the 1964 World championship with John Surtees by competing the last two races in North America with cars painted in the US-American race colors white and blue, as these were not entered by the Italian factory themselves, but by the U.S.-based North American Racing Team (NART) team. This was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car.
In 1963, Enzo Ferrari was approached by the Ford Motor Company about a possible buy out. Ford audited Ferrari's assets but legal negotiations and talks were unilaterally cut off by Ferrari when he realized that the deal offered by Ford would not enable him to stay at the helm of the company racing program. Henry Ford II consequently directed his racing division to negotiate with Lotus, Lola, and Cooper to build a car capable of beating Ferrari on the world endurance circuit, eventually resulting in the production of the Ford GT40 in 1964.
As the Ford deal fell through, FIAT approached Ferrari with a more flexible proposal and purchased controlling interests in the company in 1969. Enzo Ferrari retained a 10% share, which is currently owned by his son Piero Lardi Ferrari.
Ferrari has an internally managed merchandising line that licenses many products bearing the Ferrari brand, including eyewear, pens, pencils, electronic goods, perfume, cologne, clothing, high-tech bicycles, watches, cell phones and laptop computers.
In 1997 Ferrari launched a long term master planned effort to improve overall corporate efficiency, production and employee happiness. The program was called Formula Uomo and became a case study in social sustainability. It took over ten years to fully implement and included over €200 million (2008) in investment.
Ferrari has had a long-standing relationship with Shell Oil. It is a technical partnership with Ferrari and Ducati to test as well as supply fuel and oils to the Formula One, MotoGP and World Superbike racing teams. For example, the Shell V-Power premium gasoline fuel has been developed with the many years of technical expertise between Shell and Ferrari.
As of the end of 2018, the total of Ferrari built and sold cars in their whole company history is 208,931.
|Year||Sales to end customers (number of type-approved vehicles)|
Approximately thirty Ferrari boutiques exist worldwide, with two owned by Ferrari and the rest operating as franchises. The stores sell branded clothes, accessories and racing memorabilia. Clothing includes upscale and lower-priced collections for men, women, and children.
The 2019 FIA Formula One World Championship is an ongoing motor racing championship for Formula One cars which marks the 70th running of the Formula One World Championship. It is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Starting in March and ending in December, the championship is being contested over twenty-one Grands Prix. Drivers are competing for the title of World Drivers' Champion, and teams for the World Constructors' Champion. The 2019 championship saw the running of the 1000th World Championship race, which was held in China.Lewis Hamilton is the defending World Drivers' Champion, after winning his fifth championship title in the previous season, and Mercedes are the defending World Constructors' Champions, after winning their fifth consecutive championship in 2018.Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari
The Autodromo Internazionale Enzo e Dino Ferrari is a race track near the Italian town of Imola, 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) east of Bologna. It is one of the few major international circuits to run in an anti-clockwise direction. The circuit is named after Ferrari's late founder, Enzo Ferrari, and his son, Alfredo Ferrari, who had died in 1956. The circuit has a FIA Grade One license.It was the venue for the San Marino Grand Prix. For many years, two Grands Prix were held in Italy every year, so the race held at Imola was named after the nearby state. It also hosted the 1980 edition of the Italian Grand Prix, which usually takes place at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza. When Formula One visits Imola, it is seen as the home circuit of Scuderia Ferrari, and masses of supporters come out to support the local team.Charles Leclerc
Charles Leclerc (French pronunciation: [ʃaʁl ləklɛʁ]; born 16 October 1997) is a Monégasque racing driver, currently driving in Formula One for Ferrari. Leclerc won the GP3 Series championship in 2016 and the FIA Formula 2 Championship in 2017.Leclerc made his Formula One debut in 2018 for Sauber, a team affiliated with Ferrari, for which he was part of Ferrari Driver Academy. With Sauber having finished last the year before, Leclerc led the charge to improve the finishing position in the constructors' championship to eighth, being the highest ranked of the two Sauber drivers. Leclerc agreed on a contract with Ferrari for the 2019 season where he is driving alongside Sebastian Vettel. Leclerc became the second-youngest driver to qualify on pole position in Formula One at the 2019 Bahrain Grand Prix.Enzo Ferrari
Enzo Anselmo Giuseppe Maria Ferrari, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (Italian: [ˈɛntso anˈsɛlmo ferˈraːri]; 20 February 1898 – 14 August 1988) was an Italian motor racing driver and entrepreneur, the founder of the Scuderia Ferrari Grand Prix motor racing team, and subsequently of the Ferrari automobile marque. He was widely known as "il Commendatore" or "il Drake". In his final years he was often referred to as "l'Ingegnere" (the Engineer) or "il Grande Vecchio (the Great Old Man)".Enzo Ferrari (automobile)
The Enzo Ferrari (also unofficially referred to as the Ferrari Enzo) (Type F140) is a 12 cylinder mid-engine sports car named after the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was developed in 2002 using Formula One technology, such as a carbon-fibre body, F1-style electrohydraulic shift transmission, and carbon fibre-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) ceramic composite disc brakes. Also used are technologies not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics and traction control. The Enzo Ferrari generates substantial amounts of downforce which is achieved by the front underbody flaps, the small adjustable rear spoiler and the rear diffuser working in conjunction, 3,363 N (756 lbf) is generated at 200 km/h (124 mph) 7,602 N (1,709 lbf) is attained at 299 km/h (186 mph) before decreasing to 5,738 N (1,290 lbf) at top speed.The Enzo's F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It is based on the design of the V8 engine found in the Maserati Quattroporte, using the same basic design and 104 mm (4.1 in) bore spacing. This design replaced the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferrari models. The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari automobile to get a version of this new powerplant.Ferrari 250
The Ferrari 250 is a series of sports cars and grand tourers built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The company's most successful early line, the 250 series includes many variants designed for road use or sports car racing. 250 series cars are characterized by their use of a 3.0 litres (2,953 cc) Colombo V12 engine designed by Giaoccino Colombo. They were replaced by the 275 and 330 series cars.Ferrari 360
The Ferrari 360 (Type F131) is a two-seater, mid-engine, rear wheel drive sports car manufactured by Italian automotive manufacturer Ferrari from 1999 to 2005. It succeeded the Ferrari F355 and was replaced by the Ferrari F430 in 2005.Ferrari 458
The Ferrari 458 Italia (Type F142) is a mid-engine sports car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari. The 458 replaced the F430, and was first officially unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. It was succeeded by the 488, which was unveiled at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show.Ferrari 488
The Ferrari 488 (Type F142M) is a mid-engine sports car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari. The car is an update to the 458 with notable exterior and performance changes.
The car is powered by a 3.9-litre twin-turbocharged V8 engine, smaller in displacement but generating a higher power output than the 458's naturally aspirated engine. The 488 GTB was named "The Supercar of the Year 2015" by car magazine Top Gear, as well as becoming Motor Trend's 2017 "Best Driver's Car". The 488 was succeeded by the F8 Tributo in February 2019.Ferrari F430
The Ferrari F430 (Type F131) is a sports car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari from 2004 to 2009 as a successor to the Ferrari 360. The car is an update to the 360 with notable exterior and performance changes. It was unveiled at the 2004 Paris Motor Show. The F430 was succeeded by the 458 which was unveiled on 28 July 2009.Grand tourer
A grand tourer (GT) is a car that is designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement.
The term derives from the Italian language phrase gran turismo which became popular in the English language from the 1950s, evolving from fast touring cars and streamlined closed sports cars during the 1930s.Kimi Räikkönen
Kimi-Matias Räikkönen (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈkimi ˈmɑtiɑs ˈræikːønen]; born 17 October 1979), nicknamed "Iceman", is a Finnish racing driver currently driving in Formula One for Alfa Romeo Racing. He won the 2007 Formula One World Championship in his first season at Scuderia Ferrari. After nine seasons racing in Formula One he left the sport to compete in the World Rally Championship in 2010 and 2011, returning to Formula One from 2012. In addition to this title, Räikkönen also finished second overall in 2003 and 2005, and third in 2008, 2012 and 2018. Räikkönen has won 21 Grands Prix, making him the most successful Finnish driver in terms of Formula One race wins. He is the only driver to take a race win in the V10, V8 and the hybrid V6 engine eras.Räikkönen entered Formula One as a regular driver for Sauber-Petronas in 2001, having competed in only 23 car races previously. He joined McLaren Mercedes in 2002, and became a title contender by finishing runner-up in the championship to Michael Schumacher in 2003, and Fernando Alonso in 2005. Räikkönen's 2002, 2004 and 2006 seasons were plagued by severe unreliability from his McLaren cars, prompting a move to Ferrari in 2007. This change saw him crowned Formula One World Drivers' Champion that season, pipping both McLaren drivers–Lewis Hamilton and Fernando Alonso–to the title by just one point. In 2008 he equalled the record for the greatest number of fastest laps in a season for the second time.
Räikkönen left both Scuderia Ferrari and the sport after the 2009 season, his sole victory that year having come in that season's Belgian Grand Prix due to driving an uncompetitive Ferrari F60. On his return to Formula One, Räikkönen drove for Lotus in 2012 and 2013. On 11 September 2013, Ferrari announced his re-signing on a two-year contract, beginning in the 2014 season. This contract was subsequently extended until the end of the 2018 season. Räikkönen then endured more than four winless years after rejoining Ferrari before winning the 2018 United States Grand Prix, after 113 Grands Prix and nine years since his last Ferrari victory from his first stint with the team. In spite of the long winless streak, Räikkönen finished among the top four overall in the championship on multiple occasions during his second Ferrari stint. Räikkönen finished his total eight-year long Ferrari career with a third place in the 2018 championship.In September 2018 Ferrari announced that Räikkönen would leave at the end of the season, followed shortly by an announcement from Ferrari-affiliated Sauber Alfa Romeo stating that Räikkönen had been signed on a two-year contract for 2019 and 2020, with Sauber's rookie Charles Leclerc switching to Ferrari in his place.In the World Rally Championship 2010 and 2011, Räikkönen drove a Citroën C4 WRC for the Citroën Junior Team. Concurrently, Räikkönen also competed in NASCAR, and made his debut for Kyle Busch Motorsports in the Camping World Truck Series.
Forbes magazine listed Räikkönen 36th in their 2008 'Celebrity 100' as the 26th highest paid celebrity and fifth highest paid sportsman. The same list in 2009 recorded him as the second highest-paid athlete.LaFerrari
LaFerrari, project name F150 (also unofficially referred to as the Ferrari LaFerrari or Ferrari F150) is a limited production hybrid sports car built by Italian automotive manufacturer Ferrari. LaFerrari means "The Ferrari" in Italian and some other Romance languages, in the sense that it is the "definitive" Ferrari.List of Formula One World Constructors' Champions
The Formula One World Constructors' Championship (WCC) is awarded by the FIA to the most successful Formula One constructor over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results. The Constructors' Championship was first awarded, as the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, in 1958 to Vanwall.
Constructors' Championship points are calculated by adding points scored in each race by any driver for that constructor. Up until 1979, most seasons saw only the highest-scoring driver in each race for each constructor contributing points towards the Championship. On only ten occasions has the World Constructors' Champion team not contained the World Drivers' Champion for that season.
In the 61 seasons the Championship has been awarded, only 15 different constructors have won it, with Scuderia Ferrari the most successful, with 16 titles including 6 consecutive from 1999 to 2004. Only five countries have produced winning constructors: United Kingdom (33 championships with 10 different constructors), Italy (16 with Ferrari), Germany (5 with Mercedes), Austria (4 with Red Bull) and France (3 with two constructors). However, all German, Austrian and French titles have seen the winning cars designed and built (except Matra in 1969) and run by teams based in the United Kingdom. Among drivers that have contributed with at least a single point to the constructors' title, Michael Schumacher has the unofficial record, having been involved with seven such titles, six of those consecutively with Ferrari. Schumacher won the world drivers' title on six of those seven occasions.List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions
The Formula One World Drivers' Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One racing car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on individual Grand Prix results.
The Drivers' Championship was first awarded in 1950, to Giuseppe Farina. The first driver to win multiple Championships was Alberto Ascari, in 1952 and 1953. The current Drivers' Champion is Lewis Hamilton who won his fifth title in 2018.
A driver secures the World Championship each season when it is no longer mathematically possible for another driver to beat them no matter the outcome of the remaining races, although it is not officially awarded until the end of the season. The Drivers' Championship has been won in the final race of the season 29 times in the 69 seasons it has been awarded. The earliest in a season that the Drivers' Championship has been clinched was in 2002, when Michael Schumacher secured the title with six races remaining.
Overall, thirty-three different drivers have won the Championship, with German Michael Schumacher holding the record for most titles, at seven. He also holds the record for most consecutive Drivers' Championships, winning five from 2000 to 2004. The United Kingdom has produced the most Champions with ten; Brazil, Germany and Finland are next with three each. Of the 33 drivers to win the World Championship, nineteen are still alive. The most recently deceased is Niki Lauda (1949–2019). Among teams, Scuderia Ferrari has produced the most winning drivers with 15.Michael Schumacher
Michael Schumacher (; German: [ˈmɪçaːʔeːl ˈʃuːmaxɐ] (listen); born 3 January 1969) is a retired German racing driver who raced in Formula One for Jordan Grand Prix, Benetton and Ferrari, where he spent most of his career, as well as for Mercedes upon his return to the sport. Widely regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers ever, and regarded by some as the greatest of all time, Schumacher is the only driver in history to win seven Formula One World Championships, five of which he won consecutively. The most successful driver in the history of the sport, Schumacher holds the records for the most World Championship titles (7), the most Grand Prix wins (91), the most fastest laps (77) and the most races won in a single season (13), and according to the official Formula One website (Formula1.com), Schumacher was "statistically the greatest driver the sport has ever seen" at the time of his retirement from the sport.After success in karting as a child, Schumacher won titles in Formula König and Formula Three before joining Mercedes in the World Sportscar Championship. In 1991 his Mercedes-funded race debut for the Jordan Formula One team resulted in Schumacher being signed by Benetton for the rest of that season. He finished third in 1992 and fourth in 1993, before becoming the first German World Drivers' Champion in 1994 by one point over Damon Hill, albeit in controversial circumstances. In 1995 he repeated the success, this time with a greater margin. In 1996 Schumacher moved to Ferrari, who had last won the Drivers' Championship in 1979, and helped them transform into the most successful team in Formula One history, as he came close to winning the 1997 and 1998 titles, before breaking his leg at the 1999 British Grand Prix, ending another title run.
Schumacher won five consecutive drivers' titles from 2000 to 2004, including an unprecedented sixth and seventh title. In 2002 Schumacher won the title with a record six races remaining and finished on the podium in every race. In 2004 Schumacher won twelve out of the first thirteen races and went on to win a record 13 times as he won his final title. Schumacher retired from Formula One in 2006, after finishing runner-up to Renault's Fernando Alonso. Schumacher returned to Formula One in 2010 with Mercedes. He produced the fastest qualifying time at the 2012 Monaco Grand Prix, and achieved his only podium on his return at the 2012 European Grand Prix, where he finished third. In October 2012 Schumacher announced he would retire for a second time at the end of the season.His career was frequently controversial, as he was twice involved in collisions in the final race of a season that determined the outcome of the World Championship, with Damon Hill in 1994 in Adelaide, and with Jacques Villeneuve in 1997 in Jerez. Schumacher is an ambassador for UNESCO and has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts throughout his life, donating tens of millions of dollars to charity. Schumacher and his younger brother, Ralf, are the only siblings to win races in Formula One, and they were the first brothers to finish 1st and 2nd in the same race, a feat they repeated in four subsequent races.
On 29 December 2013 Schumacher suffered a traumatic brain injury in a skiing accident. He was placed in a medically induced coma for six months until 16 June 2014. He left the hospital in Grenoble for further rehabilitation at the University Hospital of Lausanne. On 9 September 2014, Schumacher was relocated to his home where he continues to receive medical treatment and rehabilitation privately. As of 2016 he remained unable to walk or stand.Niki Lauda
Andreas Nikolaus Lauda (22 February 1949 – 20 May 2019) was an Austrian Formula One driver, a three-time F1 World Drivers' Champion, winning in 1975, 1977 and 1984, and an aviation entrepreneur. He was the only driver in F1 history to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two most successful constructors. He is widely considered one of the greatest F1 drivers of all time. As an aviation entrepreneur, he founded and ran three airlines: Lauda Air, Niki, and Lauda. He was a Bombardier Business Aircraft brand ambassador. He was also a consultant for Scuderia Ferrari and team manager of the Jaguar Formula One racing team for two years. Afterwards, he worked as a pundit for German TV during Grand Prix weekends and acted as non-executive chairman of Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport, of which Lauda owned 10%.Having emerged as Formula One's star driver amid a 1975 title win and leading the 1976 championship battle, Lauda was seriously injured in a crash at the 1976 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring during which his Ferrari 312T2 burst into flames, and he came close to death after inhaling hot toxic fumes and suffering severe burns. However, he survived and recovered sufficiently to race again just six weeks later at the Italian Grand Prix. Although he narrowly lost the title to James Hunt that year, he won his second Ferrari crown the year after during his final season at the team. After a couple of years at Brabham and two years' hiatus, Lauda returned and raced four seasons for McLaren between 1982 and 1985 – during which he won the 1984 title by half a point over his teammate Alain Prost.Scuderia Ferrari
Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A. (Italian: [skudeˈriːa ferˈraːri]) is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is also nicknamed "The Prancing Horse", with reference to their logo. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season.
The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning the World Sportscar Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Spa, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Bathurst 12 Hour, races for Grand tourer cars and racing on road courses of the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia and the Carrera Panamericana.
As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors' Championships, the last of which was won in 2008. Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers' Championships for the team. Since Räikkönen's title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers' title with Felipe Massa and the 2010 and 2012 drivers' titles with Fernando Alonso.
Michael Schumacher is the team's most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five drivers' titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, and the team won consecutive constructors' title from 1999 until the end of 2004; this was the team's most successful period.
Currently, Sebastian Vettel and Charles Leclerc are the two main race drivers.
The team is also known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the team's home race.Sebastian Vettel
Sebastian Vettel (German pronunciation: [zeˈbasti̯an ˈfɛtl̩]; born 3 July 1987) is a German racing driver who races in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari. He is a four-time Formula One World Champion, having won consecutive titles from 2010–2013 with Red Bull Racing, and is regarded by many as one of the greatest drivers in the history of the sport. Vettel moved to Ferrari for the 2015 season, and is contracted to stay with the team until the end of 2020. In addition to holding a number of 'youngest' records in Formula One, Vettel holds the record for the most consecutive race wins (9), as well as accumulating the third most race victories (52) and podium finishes (115), and the fourth-most pole positions (56).Vettel started his Formula One career as a test driver for BMW Sauber in 2006 and made his racing debut with the team at the 2007 United States Grand Prix, replacing the injured Robert Kubica. Already part of the Red Bull programme, Vettel joined Toro Rosso later in the season, and was kept as a driver for 2008. In his first full season in Formula One, the 21-year-old became the youngest pole-sitter and race winner at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix, although the latter record was broken by Max Verstappen in 2016. Vettel was promoted to Red Bull for the 2009 season, during which he won four races en route to becoming the youngest-ever World Drivers' Championship runner-up.The following year, Vettel became the youngest driver ever to win the World Drivers' Championship, also helping Red Bull win their first World Constructors' Championship. He followed up his first championship with three more titles in succession, becoming the youngest double, triple and quadruple world champion in Formula One. The 2010 and 2012 titles were decided in the final round; topping a four-way title battle in Abu Dhabi in 2010, and beating Fernando Alonso by three points in 2012, while the 2011 and 2013 titles saw Vettel dominating the seasons to secure the titles early. Ending his long-term association with the team, Vettel activated a clause to end his contract with Red Bull at the end of the 2014 season.Soon after, it was announced that Vettel had signed a three-year contract with Ferrari for the 2015 season. In his first season with Ferrari, Vettel won three races and was the closest challenger to the Mercedes drivers. The next year however, he finished fourth in the 2016 championship in another winless season. Vettel and Ferrari enjoyed a resurgence in 2017 and 2018, winning a number of races and topping the standings a number of times in close World Championship battles with Lewis Hamilton. However, both years saw his title hopes end in Mexico as he finished both seasons as runner-up.
FTSE MIB companies of Italy
Ferrari road car timeline, 1947–1969 — next »
|Sports||275 S||340 Mexico/MM||375 MM||375 Plus||410 S|
|125 S||166 S/
||195 S||212 Export||225 S||250 MM||250 Monza||315 S||250 Testa Rossa||250 LM|
|159 S||250 S||290 MM||335 S||250 GTO|
|Berlinetta||250 GT "Tour de France"||250 GT "SWB"||250 GT Lusso||275 GTB||275 GTB/4||365 |
|Coupé||166 Inter||195 Inter||212 Inter||250 Europa||250 Europa GT||250 GT Boano||250 GT Ellena||250 GT Coupé Pinin Farina||330 GTC||365 GTC|
|2+2||250 GT/E||330 GT 2+2||365 GT 2+2|
|Spider||250 GT Cabriolet||275 GTS||330 GTS||365 GTS|
|250 GT California Spyder|
|America||340/342 America||375 America||410 Superamerica||400 Superamerica||500 Superfast||365 California|
« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–1990s — next »
|8 cylinder||Mid-engine berlinetta||308||308 i||308 QV||328||348||360|
|208||208 Turbo||GTB/GTS Turbo||F355|
|Mid-engine 2+2||308 GT4||Mondial 8||Mondial QV||Mondial 3.2||Mondial t|
|12 cylinder||Boxer berlinetta||365 BB||512 BB||512i BB||Testarossa (F110)||512TR||F512 M|
|Grand tourer||250||275||365 GTB/4
|2+2 grand tourer||250 GT/E||330 GT 2+2||365 GT 2+2||365
|365 GT4 2+2||400||400 i||412||456||456M|
|Supercar||250 GTO||250 LM||288
|Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline Sold under the|
« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 2000–present
|Challenge Stradale||430 Scuderia||458 Speciale||488 Pista|
|2+2 grand tourer||GTC4Lusso T|
|V12||Grand tourer||550 Maranello||575M Maranello||599 GTB Fiorano||F12berlinetta||812 Superfast|
|550 Barchetta||Superamerica||599 SA Aperta/599 GTO||F60 America/F12tdf|
|2+2 grand tourer||456M||612 Scaglietti||FF||GTC4Lusso|
|XX Programmes||FXX||599XX||599XX Evoluzione||FXX K||FXX K Evo|
|Ferrari Icona||Monza SP|
Although World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity.
Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was in the Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed.