Fernando Henrique Cardoso

Fernando Henrique Cardoso (Portuguese: [feʁˈnɐ̃dʊ ẽˈʁiki kaʁˈdozʊ]; born June 18, 1931), also known by his initials FHC ([ɛfjaɡaˈse]), is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician[1] who served as the 34th President of Brazil from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2002.[2] He was the first Brazilian president to be reelected for a subsequent term. An accomplished scholar noted for research on slavery and political theory, Cardoso has earned many honors including the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation (2000)[3] and the Kluge Prize from the US Library of Congress (2012).[4]

Fernando Henrique Cardoso

Official portrait of Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Cardoso in 1994
34th President of Brazil
In office
January 1, 1995 – December 31, 2002
Vice PresidentMarco Maciel
Preceded byItamar Franco
Succeeded byLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Minister of Finance
In office
May 19, 1993 – March 30, 1994
PresidentItamar Franco
Preceded byEliseu Resende
Succeeded byRubens Ricupero
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
October 2, 1992 – May 20, 1993
PresidentItamar Franco
Preceded byCelso Lafer
Succeeded byCelso Amorim
Senator for São Paulo
In office
March 15, 1983 – October 5, 1992
Personal details
BornJune 18, 1931 (age 88)
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Political partyPSDB
Ruth Leite
(m. 1953; died 2008)

Patrícia Kundrát (m. 2014)
ResidenceSão Paulo
Alma materUniversity of São Paulo
Fernando Henrique Cardoso's signature

Personal and professional life

Fernando Henrique Cardoso na década de 1930
Fernando Henrique Cardoso walking hand in hand with his father in the 1930s

Cardoso descends from wealthy Portuguese immigrants. Some were politicians during the Empire of Brazil.[5] He is also of black African descent, through a black great-great-grandmother and a mulatto great-grandmother.[6] Cardoso described himself as "slightly mulatto" and allegedly said he has "a foot in the kitchen" (a nod to 19th-century Brazilian domestic slavery).[7][8]

Born in Rio de Janeiro, he lived in São Paulo for most of his life. Cardoso is a widower who was married to Ruth Vilaça Correia Leite Cardoso, an anthropologist, from 1953 until her death on June 24, 2008; they had four children.[9] Educated as a sociologist, he was a professor of political science and sociology at the Universidade de São Paulo.[10] and president of the International Sociological Association (ISA), from 1982 to 1986. He is a member of the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton),[11] an honorary foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has written several books.

He was also Associate Director of Studies in the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris, then visiting professor at the Collège de France and later Paris-Nanterre University.[12] He later gave lectures at British and US universities including Cambridge University, Stanford University, Brown University and the University of California, Berkeley.[12] He is fluent in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish.[12]

After his presidency, he was appointed to a five-year term (2003–2008) as professor-at-large at Brown University's Watson Institute for International Studies, where he is now on the board of overseers. Cardoso is a founding member of the University of Southern California Center on Public Diplomacy's Advisory Board.[13] In February 2005, he gave the fourth annual Kissinger Lecture on Foreign Policy and International Relations at the Library of Congress, Washington DC on "Dependency and Development in Latin America.[14]

In 2005, Cardoso was selected by the British magazine Prospect as being one of the world's top one hundred living public intellectuals.[15][16][17]

Academic career

Cardoso is a well-known professor and intellectual. He earned a bachelor's degree in Social Sciences from Universidade de São Paulo in 1952, from where he also earned a Master's and a Doctorate in Sociology. His doctoral thesis, under the supervision of Florestan Fernandes, examined the institution of slavery in Southern Brazil, critiquing, from a Marxist perspective, the dominant approach of Gilberto Freyre to the topic. It has since become a classic on the subject. Cardoso has also received the Livre-Docência degree in 1963, the most senior level of academic recognition in Brazil, also from Universidade de São Paulo. In 1968, he received the title of Cathedratic Professor, holding the chair of Political Science at Universidade de São Paulo.[10]

As he continued his academic career abroad in Chile and France after the tightening of Brazilian military dictatorship, Cardoso published several books and papers on state bureaucracy, industrial elites and, particularly, dependency theory. His work on dependency would be his most acclaimed contribution to sociology and development studies, especially in the United States.[18] After presiding the International Sociological Association from 1982 to 1986 Cardoso was selected as a Fulbright Program 40th anniversary distinguished fellow and in that capacity was a visiting scholar and lectured at Columbia University on democracy in Brazil.[19] Cardoso currently gives speeches and classes abroad.[20] In June 2013 he was elected as a member of Academia Brasileira de Letras. He said his election was due to recognition for his academic achievements, rather than his political career.[21][22]


After his return to Brazil, Fernando Henrique engaged with the burgeoning democratic opposition to the régime both as an intellectual and as a political activist. He became Senator from São Paulo for the former Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) in 1982, substituting as a suplent the newly-elected governort of São Paulo, Franco Montoro. In 1985, he ran unsuccessfully for mayor of São Paulo against former President Jânio Quadros. Ahead in the polls, he let himself be photographed in the mayor's chair before the elections. Some attribute his loss to this episode.[23]

Elected to the Senate in 1986 for the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB), which MDB became after re-democratization, he joined a group of PMDB parliamentarians who left that party to found the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) after previously-held PMDB positions shifted to the right when the party filled with politicians who had collaborated with the dictatorship. As senator, Cardoso took part in the 1987–1988 National Constituent Assembly that drafted and approved Brazil's current Constitution in the wake of the country's re-democratization. In the early stages of the Constituent Assembly's work (from February to March 1987), Cardoso led the committee that drafted the internal rules of procedure, including the procedural rules governing the drafting of the Constitution itself. These rules of procedure were adopted by the Assembly and published on March 25, 1987. Until 1992, Cardoso served as Leader of the PSDB in the Senate. From October 1992 to May 1993, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under President Itamar Franco (PMDB).

From May 1993 to April 1994, he was Minister of Finance and resigned in April 1994 to launch a presidential campaign. In the October 3 election, he won the presidency on the first round of voting with 54% of the vote, more than twice that of his nearest opponent, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. This is still the largest margin of victory ever recorded in a free election in Brazilian history. After the constitution was amended to allow a president to succeed himself, he won a second term almost as easily in 1998, taking 53% to Lula's 31.7%. To date, he is the only president to win an outright majority of the popular vote, and the only one to win office without a runoff election since the popular elections were reinstated in 1989.

Cardoso was succeeded in 2003 by Lula da Silva, who ran for the fourth time and had come in second on prior attempts. Lula won in the runoff election against the Cardoso-supported candidate, José Serra. Lula's election has been interpreted as resulting from Cardoso's low approval ratings in his second term.

Presidency (1995–2002)

Geneva Ministerial Conference 18-20 May 1998 (9305962437)
Cardoso with Nelson Mandela at the 2nd World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, May 18, 1998
Fernando Henrique Cardoso com George W. Bush em novembro de 2001
Cardoso meets with George W. Bush in the Oval Office in 2001
Vladimir Putin 14 January 2002-4
Cardoso with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow on January 14, 2002.

Cardoso, often nicknamed "FHC", was elected with the support of a heterodox alliance of his own Social Democratic Party, the PSDB, and two right-wing parties, the Liberal Front Party (PFL) and the Brazilian Labour Party (PTB). Brazil's largest party, the centrist Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB), joined Cardoso's governing coalition after the election, as did the right-wing PPB, the Brazilian Progressive Party, in 1996.

Party loyalty was not always strong, and coalition members did not always vote with the government. Cardoso had difficulty at times gaining support for some of his legislative priorities, even though his coalition held an overwhelming majority of the congressional seats. Nevertheless, many constitutional amendments were passed during his presidency.

His presidency saw institutional advancements in of human rights, beginning with a national secretariat and a new government programme, discussed with the civil society, to address the issue. On January 8, 1996, he issued his controversial Decree 1775, which created a framework for the clear demarcation of indigenous reservations, but which, as part of the process, opened indigenous territories to counterclaims by adjacent landowners. In 2000, Cardoso demanded the disclosure of some classified military files concerning Operation Condor, a network of South American military dictatorships that kidnapped and assassinated political opponents.[24]

FHC was the first Brazilian President to address the inequality and the enormous gap between rich and poor. He started the following programs: Bolsa Escola, the Auxílio Gás, the Bolsa Alimentação, and the Cartão Alimentação.[25]

His wife, Ruth Cardoso, focused on unifying transfer programs aimed at helping people suffering from poverty and hunger.,[26][27][28] by means of a program based on the idea that educating the poor could help raise them out of poverty.[29]

Cardoso's administration deepened the privatization program launched by president Fernando Collor de Mello. During his first term, several government-owned enterprises in areas such as steel milling, telecommunications and mining, such as Telebras and Companhia Vale do Rio Doce were sold to the private sector, the deepest denationalisation in Brazilian history, amidst a polarized political debate between "neoliberals" and "developmentalists". Ironically, this time Cardoso was against the latter group, generating uproar among former academic colleagues and political allies who accused him of reneging his previous intellectual work. Economists still contend over its long-term effects; some research suggests that companies sold by the government achieved better profitability as a result of their disengagement from the state.[30]

Inauguration of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2003.jpeg
Outgoing president Cardoso, with his wife Ruth (right), at the inauguration of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva on January 1, 2003.

Despite the sale of public assets, the years 1995 to 2002 saw a rise of the total public debt from 30% to 55.5% of GDP. Economists aligned with his government argued that this was due to external factors outside the control of the administration at the time, such as the devaluation of the Brazilian real and the growth of the share of the debt denominated in US dollars.[31] Nevertheless, devaluation of the currency was an instrument of monetary policy used right after his reelection, when the real pegged to the dollar led to a financial crisis that saw the country lose much of its foreign reserve fund and raise its interest rates on government bonds to very high levels as he tried to stabilize the currency under a new free-floating regime. With this economic shift, the greatest achievement of Cardoso - his landmark lowering of inflation - was maintained, but his popularity plummeted.

Given his previous experience as Minister of Foreign Affairs and his prestige as an internationally famous sociologist, he was respected on the world scene, building friendships with such leaders as Bill Clinton and Ernesto Zedillo. Although he was respected abroad, in Brazil he had problems gaining support in Congress for government priorities and among people in general. As a result, major reforms planned by the executive branch, such as changes in the tax system and to social security, were only partially approved and only after long discussion. Although he claiming to still support social democracy, his economic policies led people on the left to identify him with neoliberalism and right-wing politics, terms that often carry a very negative connotation in Latin American political debate and academic circles.

Viagens presidenciais de Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Foreign trips of Cardoso during his presidency.

He also experienced personal problems with former ally Itamar Franco, his predecessor and later became Governor of Minas Gerais, a fierce opponent of his administrative reforms that saw the state lose its capacity to contract debt and forced a reduction of local government spending. Cardoso was also criticized for amending the constitution to his own benefit, allowing him to stay eight years in office. His popularity in his first four years, gained with the success of Plano Real, decreased during his last four years as the currency crisis was followed by lower economic growth and employment rates, greater public debt, growing political dissent and, finally, an energy crisis caused by an unexpected draught and low levels of investment in appropriate infrastructure. He publicly admitted that he could have done more for public security and for the creation of new jobs, but defended his policies in areas such as health and education.

Cardoso's administration was accused of bribing congressmen to pass a constitutional amendment that secured FHC the right to seek a reelection, which he eventually won.[32]


FHC, Collor e Sarney
Former Presidents (from right), Sarney, Collor and Cardoso, April 2008

After stepping down from office, he assumed a position as a senior leader of his party and leading public voice in the opposition to the incumbent Workers' Party, writing extensively on Brazilian politics for newspapers and giving lectures and interviews. Nevertheless, his relatively low popularity rates among the general population have made his legacy a mixed blessing to his political allies, who are somewhat reluctant to embrace it wholeheartedly during elections, especially on topics regarding privatization and social policy. In 2006, he helped the campaign of the PSDB candidate for the Presidency, Geraldo Alckmin, and has reiterated that he does not wish to run for office again.

FHC 15 anos real
Cardoso speaks at the National Congress during a ceremony to mark the 15th anniversary of the Real Plan in July 2009
Cristina y Cardoso
Former President Cardoso and the then President of Argentina Cristina Kirchner in the Casa Rosada, Buenos Aires, 3 December 2009
Posse de Fernando Henrique Cardoso na Academia Brasileira de Letras
Cardoso during his induction ceremony at the Brazilian Academy of Letters, 10 September 2013

He dedicates his time to a personal institute which he founded in São Paulo, based on the model of bodies created by former Presidents of the United States, has written two books about his experience as president of Brazil and advocates for relaxation of criminal laws relating to drugs, generating both criticism and praise. He lectures at Brown University about Brazilian economic policy, urban development, and deforestation and has taught as a guest lecturer at Sciences Po in Paris.[33] Also, in 2007 he became a member of the editorial board of the Latin American policy publication Americas Quarterly, for which he is an occasional contributor.[34][35]

Since leaving the Brazilian presidency, Cardoso has been involved in a number of international organisations and initiatives. He is a member of the Club of Madrid and was its president from 2003 to 2006.[36] He has been a member of the Fondation Chirac's honour committee,[37] ever since the Foundation was launched in 2008 by former French president Jacques Chirac to promote world peace. Cardoso is a founding member of Washington D.C.-based think tank The Inter-American Dialogue as well as former chair of the organization's board. He is also a former director of World Resources Institute.[38][39]

Cardoso has a particular interest in drug policy. He served on the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy and later chaired the Global Commission on Drug Policy. He appeared as an interviewee in 2011 documentary Breaking the Taboo, which explores the conclusion reached by the Global Commission on Drug Policy in 2011 that drug liberalization is the best approach in dealing with drug policy.

Cardoso is also a member of The Elders, a group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues.[40] In August 2009, he travelled to Israel and the West Bank as the head of an Elders delegation that also included Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Mary Robinson and Desmond Tutu.[41]

In 2013 he became a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.


Foreign honours

Honorary doctorate

  • 1978 Honorary Doctor of Laws, Rutgers University
  • 2001 Honorary Doctor of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel (awarded in São Paulo on 11/18)
  • 2012 Honorary Doctor of Sociology, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal
  • 2016, Honorary Doctor of Laws, Harvard University (awarded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on May 26, 2016).

Selected works

  • Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (2006) The Accidental President of Brazil, PublicAffairs, ISBN 1-58648-324-2
  • Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (2001) Charting a New Course: The Politics of Globalization and Social Transformation, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-0893-5
  • Goertzel, Ted G. (1999) Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Reinventing Democracy in Brazil, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
  • Cardoso, Fernando Henrique and Faletto, Enzo (1979) "Dependency and Development in Latin America", University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-03193-8


  1. ^ Margolis, Mac (13 March 2006). "'Che Guevara in Tweed'". Newsweek International. Retrieved 11 November 2014 – via Questia Online Library.(subscription required)
  2. ^ "Galery of presidents" (in Portuguese). Palácio do Planalto. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Prince of Asturias Foundation. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  4. ^ Rohter, Larry (13 May 2012). "Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil to Receive Kluge Prize". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  5. ^ Koifman, Fábio (2002). Presidentes do Brasil: de Deodoro a FHC (in Portuguese). ISBN 978-8529300801.
  6. ^ "Afinal, o Brasil é racista ou não?". Jornal da Unicamp (in Portuguese). Universidade Estadual de Campinas. January 2001. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  7. ^ "Chronology for Afro-Brazilians in Brazil". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2004. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  8. ^ "FHC nega ter dito que tem um "pé na cozinha"". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  9. ^ Bergamo, Mônica (15 November 2009). "FHC decide reconhecer oficialmente filho que teve há 18 anos com jornalista". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  10. ^ a b "Biography - Fernando Henrique Cardoso" (PDF). Brown University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  11. ^ "His Excellency Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Clinton Global Initiative. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  12. ^ a b c "Fernando Henrique Cardoso's biography on the Harry Walker Agency Speakers' Bureau website". Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
  13. ^ "USC Launches First Degree Program in Public Diplomacy". USC PressRoom. USC. 15 June 2005. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  14. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso Gives Fourth Annual Kissinger Lecture on Feb. 22". News from the Library of Congress. Library of Congress. 31 January 2005. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  15. ^ Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (7 May 2007). "Brazil's Henrique Cardoso" (Interview). Interviewed by Riz Khan. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 November 2014 – via Youtube.com.
  16. ^ "Biografia" (in Portuguese). Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  17. ^ President Cardoso's lecture at the Clinton School of Public Service: Democracy Today: The Experience of Latin America (Podcast) Archived July 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Packenham, Robert A. (1982). "Plus ca Change...: The English Edition of Cardoso and Faletto's Dependencia y Desarrollo en America Latina". Latin American Research Review. 17 (1): 131–151. ISSN 0023-8791. JSTOR 2502945.(subscription required)
  19. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Fulbright Association. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  20. ^ Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. "Programa do Jô com Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC)" (Interview) (in Portuguese). Interviewed by Jô Soares. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  21. ^ Silvestre, Edney (28 June 2013). "Fernando Henrique Cardoso é eleito para Academia Brasileira de Letras". Jornal da Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  22. ^ "ABL elege Fernando Henrique Cardoso para a sucessão do jornalista João de Scantimburgo" (in Portuguese). Academia Brasileira de Letras. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  23. ^ Riding, Alan (14 March 1988). "Brasilia Journal; Brazil's Professor-Politician: He Stoops to Kisses". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  24. ^ Devienne, Gérard (1 January 2007). "Latin America in the 1970s: "Operation Condor", an International Organization for Kidnapping Opponents". l’Humanité in English. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  25. ^ "Fernando Henrique anuncia cadastro único e auxílio-gás". Agência Brasil (in Portuguese). 5 March 2002. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  26. ^ "Ruth Cardoso lançou sementes do Bolsa Família, diz acadêmico". BBCBrasil.com (in Portuguese). British Broadcasting Corporation. 25 June 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  27. ^ "Gilberto Dimenstein: Ruth Cardoso é personagem por trás do Bolsa Família". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 25 June 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  28. ^ Lamounier, Bolívar (9 August 2008). "Bolsa-isto, bolsa-aquilo…; alguém aí se lembra de Ruth Cardoso ?". Exame.com (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  29. ^ de Janvry, Alain; Finan, Frederico; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; Nelson, Donald; Lindert, Kathy; de la Brière, Bénédicte; Lanjouw, Peter (December 2005). "Brazil's Bolsa Escola Program: The Role of Local Governance in Decentralized Implementation" (PDF). The World Bank. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  30. ^ Anuatti-Neto, Francisco; Barossi-Filho, Milton; Carvalho, Antonio Gledson de; Macedo, Roberto (April – June 2005). "Os efeitos da privatização sobre o desempenho econômico e financeiro das empresas privatizadas". Revista Brasileira de Economia (in Portuguese). 59 (2): 151–175. doi:10.1590/s0034-71402005000200001. ISSN 0034-7140.
  31. ^ Giambiagi, Fabio; Ronci, Marcio (August 2004). "Fiscal Policy and Debt Sustainability: Cardoso's Brazil, 1995-2002" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  33. ^ "Environment, Development and Democracy: the Brazilian Experience" (PDF). The Watson Institute for International Studies. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  34. ^ "Editorial Board". Americas Quarterly. Americas Society and Council of the Americas. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  35. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Americas Quarterly. Americas Society and Council of the Americas. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  36. ^ "Cardoso, Fernando Henrique". Club de Madrid. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  37. ^ "Honor Committee". Fondation Chirac. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  38. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". World Resources Institute. Retrieved 12 November 2014. Fernando Henrique Cardoso is no longer on staff at the World Resources Institute.
  39. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  40. ^ "Fernando H. Cardoso". The Elders. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  41. ^ "The Elders visit to the Middle East – 25–28 August". The Elders. 21 August 2009. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  42. ^ "Semakan Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang, dan Pingat Persekutuan".
  43. ^ Slovak republic website, State honours Archived 13 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine: 1st Class in 2001 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
  44. ^ Rohter, Larry (13 May 2012). "Brazil's Ex-Leader Honored as Scholar". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  45. ^ "Library of Congress to Award President Fernando Henrique Cardoso Kluge Prize for Study of Humanity". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 February 2017.

External links

Party political offices
New political party Joint President of the PSDB
Served alongside: Mário Covas, Franco Montoro and José Richa
Succeeded by
Franco Montoro
Preceded by
Mário Covas
PSDB nominee for President of Brazil
1994, 1998
Succeeded by
José Serra
Political offices
Preceded by
Celso Lafer
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Celso Amorim
Preceded by
Eliseu Resende
Minister of Finance
Succeeded by
Rubens Ricupero
Preceded by
Itamar Franco
President of Brazil
January 1, 1995 – 31 December 2002
Succeeded by
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Honorary titles
Title created PSDB Honor President
Academic offices
Preceded by
João de Scantimburgo]
6th Academic of the 36th chair of the
Brazilian Academy of Letters

1960 Brazilian presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Brazil on 3 October 1960. Jânio Quadros of the National Labor Party, helming a coalition of the PTN, the National Democratic Union and the Christian Democratic Party, won a sweeping victory, taking 48.3% of the vote. Voter turnout was 81.0%.Quadros' victory was the largest in Brazilian history at the time; the 15.6 percent margin of victory would remain a record until Fernando Henrique Cardoso won by 27 points in 1994. His victory marked the first time in 31 years that the presidency had not been won by an heir to the legacy of Getúlio Vargas.

This would be the last free presidential election held in Brazil until 1985.

1994 Brazilian general election

General elections were held in Brazil on 3 October 1994. The presidential elections were won by Fernando Henrique Cardoso of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (and also supported by the Liberal Front Party and the Brazilian Labour Party), who received 54.3% of the vote. Cardoso won the election by a margin of 27.3%, the largest in Brazilian history to date, and the first of his two landslide victories. The Brazilian Democratic Movement Party remained the largest party in the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.

1998 Brazilian general election

General elections were held in Brazil on 4 October 1998, with a second round on 25 October. In the first round Fernando Henrique Cardoso was re-elected President and the governorships of 14 states were elected, in addition to all seats in the Chamber of Deputies and Legislative Assemblies, and one third of the seats in the Federal Senate. In the second round the governorships of 12 states and the Federal District were defined. This election was marked by the use of voting machines for the first time ever. They would have been used in all municipalities two years later, in the 2000 local elections.

This was the third general election held after the promulgation of the 1988 Constitution, being also the third time Brazilians voted directly for President since the end of the military dictatorship. Shortly before these elections were held, the federal government was able to approve in the National Congress a constitutional amendment bill allowing the re-election of members of the Executive branch of government. There was much discussion about the constitutionality of the bill, and denouncements were made by the press that some parliamentarians were bribed to vote for the approval of the bill.Controversies aside, then President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, backed by a coalition that included the three major parties of the time – the Liberal Front Party, the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (which offered their informal support to him), and his own Brazilian Social Democratic Party – was able to be re-elected in the first round after achieving 53% of the valid votes. His margin over Workers' Party candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva was of 21.3%, giving him a second landslide victory; it is to date the last landslide victory in Brazilian history. Lula da Silva received almost 32% of the votes. Ciro Gomes, then a member of the Socialist People's Party came in third, with almost 11% of the votes.


ATLANTIS-2 is a fiber optic transatlantic telecommunications cable connecting Argentina, Brazil, Senegal, Cape Verde, Spain's Canary Islands and Portugal. It is the first submarine cable to link Latin America and the African continent.

The Atlantis 2 project total cost was US$370 million invest by a 25 international carrier consortium led technically and financially by Embratel with more than US$100 million of the investment.

Embratel, which organized the project, also installed two additional fiber pairs of 40Gbit/s for its exclusive use between Fortaleza and Rio de Janeiro.The cable was ready for service in February 2000 with a launch capacity of 40Gbit/s. On May 10, to celebrate the definitive start-up of that operation, a videoconference between Fernando Henrique Cardoso (President of Brazil) and António Guterres (Prime Minister of Portugal) was held to demonstrate the new link.

It is approximately 12,000 kilometers in length.

It can already be upgraded with current technology to 160Gbit/sThe landing points include:

Las Toninas, Argentina

Fortaleza, Brazil

Praia, Cape Verde

Dakar, Senegal

El Médano, Canary Islands, Spain

Lisbon, Portugal

Banco Banespa

Banco Banespa (Banco do Estado de São Paulo) was a Brazilian regional bank, founded in 1909 by the state government of São Paulo. The bank was privatized in November 2000 by the government of former president Fernando Henrique Cardoso and sold to Spanish bank Santander.

Brazilian Social Democracy Party

The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Portuguese: Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, PSDB), also known as the Brazilian Social Democratic Party or the Party of Brazilian Social Democracy, is a centrist political party in Brazil. As the third largest party in the National Congress, the PSDB was the main opposition party against the left-wing Workers' Party (PT) administrations of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff from 2003 to 2016.

Born together as part of the social democratic opposition to the military dictatorship from the late 1970s through the 1980s, the PSDB and the PT have since the mid-1990s been the bitterest of rivals in current Brazilian politics—both parties prohibit any kind of coalition or official cooperation with each other at any government levels. Its mascot is a blue and yellow colored toucan, with party members being called tucanos for this reason. Famous tucanos include Mário Covas, Geraldo Alckmin, Tasso Jereissati, Aécio Neves, former President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Franco Montoro, Aloysio Nunes, Yeda Crusius, João Doria and José Serra.

Brazil–Colombia border

The border between Brazil and Colombia is 1,644.2 km (1,021.7 mi) long. The boundary was delimited in two treaties:

the Vásquez Cobo-Martins treaty of 1907, establishing the line from the Rio Negro northwestward along the Amazon River-Orinoco watershed divide, "then generally southward along various river courses and straight-line segments to the mouth of the Apaporis River", and

the Tratado de Límites y Navegación Fluvial of 1928, delimiting the Apaporis-Amazon segment of the boundary as a "geodesic line identical to its Brazilian-Peruvian antecedent after Colombia gained undisputed sovereignty over the area".The border between Brazil and Colombia has been an important transit point for cocaine. In August 2000, Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso established a $10 million "Plan Cobra" to secure the border against narcotics traffickers moving into the unpatrolled upper Amazon River basin.

Commander of the Brazilian Air Force

The Commander of the Brazilian Air Force (Brazilian Portuguese: Comandante da Aeronáutica) is the head of the Brazilian Air Force and the leader of its Aeronautics Command (Comando da Aeronáutica or COMAer). The Commander holds the rank of Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar (lit. Air Lieutenant Brigadier, a 4 star rank), is appointed by the President and reports directly to the Brazilian Minister of Defence. Prior to mid-1999 the Air Force was run by a military Minister of Aeronautics.

Eliseu Padilha

Eliseu Lemos Padilha (born 23 December 1945) is a Brazilian lawyer and politician, who was appointed by Dilma Rousseff as the Chief-Minister of the Brazilian Civil Aeronautics Government Department. He was in office from January 1, 2015 to December 1, 2015. He has also served as Chief-Minister of Transport and Infrastructure between 1997 and 2001 (appointed by Fernando Henrique Cardoso) and four terms as Federal Congressman of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, his birthplace.

He is one of the few ministers in Brazilian history to have resigned from a ministerial office because of his divergent position from Dilma's government policies.

Ellen Gracie Northfleet

Ellen Gracie Northfleet (Portuguese: [ˈɛlẽj ˈɡɾejsi nɔʁtʃˈfɫiːtʃ]; born February 16, 1948) is a Brazilian judge. She is the first woman to be appointed to the Supreme Court of Brazil and the Court's first female president.

On August 8, 2011 she retired from the Court, 7 years before the full extension a mandate that would go until 70 years old.There was no formal announcement of her decision to retire and no formal ceremony at her departure.After her departure the Brazilian Association of Federal Judges published a public statement requesting that a representative of the Federal Magistrature be appointed for her position. Ellen Gracie was not a career magistrate since she did not write the exams to become a Federal Judge, as is the case for members of the Federal Magistrature. She was nominated for the position by then Brazilian president Fernando Henrique Cardoso.

Francisco Luiz Sibut Gomide

Francisco Luiz Sibut Gomide (born November 30, 1945 in Curitiba) is an engineer, economist and politician.

He was Minister of Mines and Energy of Brazil during the government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, from 3 April to 31 December 2002.

Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado

FAAP (Armando Alvares Penteado Foundation) was founded in 1947 by Earl Armando Alvares Penteado, whose objective was to support, promote and develop the plastic and scenic arts, culture and teaching.

It is one of the most prestigious and respected academic institutions in Brazil, with 12 thousand students and 1200 professors. The Campus is located in Higienópolis, one of the most traditional districts of São Paulo, and houses 7 Faculties: Business Administration, Fine Arts, Communication, Engineering, Economics, Law and Technology, post-graduation courses and MBA.

The foundation is an important cultural centre in São Paulo, housing one of the most eminent theaters in town (Teatro FAAP) and the Museu de Arte Brasileira (Museum of Brazilian Art). FAAP has received important exhibits, most notably the exhibit "China: A Arte Imperial, A Arte do Cotidiano, A Arte Contemporânea", the "Treasures of the Czars" display (including some of the famous Fabergé eggs), and in 2011 an exhibit on Grace Kelly, "Os Anos Grace Kelly" (Grace Kelly Era), inaugurated by Prince Albert of Monaco.

Every semester the institution provides lectures from notable artists, politicians and economists. Notable guest speakers include George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Gordon Brown, Queen Silvia of Sweden, Rubens Ricupero (also Director Faculty of Economics), Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Peter Mandelson, among others.

Itamar Franco

Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco (Portuguese pronunciation: [itaˈmaʁ ˈfɾɐ̃ku]; June 28, 1930 – July 2, 2011) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 33rd President of Brazil from December 29, 1992 to December 31, 1994. Previously he was Vice President of Brazil from 1990 until the resignation of President Fernando Collor de Mello. During his long political career Franco also served as Senator, Mayor, Ambassador and Governor. At the time of his death he was a Senator from Minas Gerais, having won the seat in the 2010 election.

List of University of São Paulo faculty

This is a list of professors from the University of São Paulo.

Plano Real

The Plano Real ("Real Plan", in English) was a set of measures taken to stabilize the Brazilian economy in 1994, during the presidency of Itamar Franco. Its architects were led by the Minister of Finance and succeeding president Fernando Henrique Cardoso. The Plano Real was based on an analysis of the root causes of hyperinflation in the New Republic of Brazil, that concluded that there was both an issue of fiscal policy and severe, widespread inertial inflation. The Plano Real intended to stabilize the domestic currency in nominal terms after a string of failed plans to control inflation.

Ramez Tebet

Ramez Tebet (Três Lagoas, November 7, 1936 – Campo Grande, November 17, 2006) was a Brazilian politician and lawyer. He represented Mato Grosso do Sul in the Federal Senate from 1995 to 2006.The son of Taufic Tebet and Angelina Jaime Tebet, he came from a traditional Arab-Brazilian family. Tebet graduated from the Faculty of Law at UERJ (State University of Rio de Janeiro) in 1959. He was mayor of his hometown, Três Lagoas, in the 1970s. Tebet also served as secretary of Justice, deputy governor and governor of Mato Grosso do Sul. In the 1990s, he was minister of National Integration under President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB). From September 20, 2001 to January 31, 2003, Tebet was the President of the Senate. He died on November 17, 2006, after suffering from liver and bladder cancer.His daughter, Simone Tebet, is currently a Senator.

Raul Jungmann

Raul Belens Jungmann Pinto (born 3 April 1952 in Recife) is a Brazilian business consultant and politician. He served as minister of agrarian development under former president Fernando Henrique Cardoso and federal deputy for the state of Pernambuco. He was the Minister of Defence from May 2016 to February 2018, appointed by then-acting president Michel Temer. On 27 February 2018, Jungmann was confirmed as Minister of the Public Security.

Ruth Cardoso

For the Brazilian chess player, artist and woodcutter, see Ruth Volgl Cardoso.Ruth Vilaça Correia Leite Cardoso (September 19, 1930 – June 24, 2008) was a Brazilian anthropologist and a former member of the Faculty of Philosophy, Letters and Human Sciences at the University of São Paulo (FFLCH-USP). She was the wife of 34th President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, and First Lady of her country between January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2002. She held a Ph.D in anthropology from the University of São Paulo.

As professor and researcher Cardoso taught at the Latin American College of Social Sciences (Flacso/Unesco), University of Chile (Santiago), Maison des Sciences de L'Homme (Paris), University of California, Berkeley, and Columbia University (New York City). She was an associate member of the Center for Latin American Studies of the University of Cambridge. With her husband, the sociologist and former president of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, she founded and later directed the research institute Cebrap (Centro Brasileiro de Análise e Planejamento – Brazilian Center of Analysis and Planning), which continues to be a leading site of social science research in Brazil.Dr. Cardoso’s academic reputation rests primarily on a series of highly influential articles and book chapters on popular movements and political participation that she published in the 1980s and 1990s. Under Dr. Cardoso, Cebrap created Brazil’s first research group on social movements, helping to legitimate formal academic study of the "new" (non-class) social movements that had emerged in the 1970s. At the same time, she was careful to stress the limits of identity-based and popular movements for political transformation, noting the divisions among them and their frequent dependency on clientelistic relations with the state and political parties.

Unlike many academics, Dr. Cardoso also had the opportunity to put some of her theories into practice after her husband was elected president. She transformed the traditional charity approach of other first ladies with her Comunidade Solidária (Solidary Community) programs that stressed the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in state-society partnerships. In addition to executing concrete social programs, Comunidade Solidária also facilitated broad discussions of important social topics, from agrarian reform to the legal status of NGOs, publishing the results of these dialogues. Anthony Hall of the London School of Economics told the BBC after her death that she was instrumental in developing the plan to bundle various social programs together in the way that has become characteristic of the successful Bolsa Familia social program. She published a book about these experiences, Comunidade Solidaria: Fortalecendo a Sociedade, Promovendo O Desenvolvimento (Comunitas, 2002). She transformed the Comunidade Solidaria into an NGO, Comunitas, after her husband left office.

She died in São Paulo on June 24, 2008, after suffering a cardiac arrest. She had been discharged from the Sírio-Libanês Hospital the previous day, June 23, 2008, having previously been admitted with chest pains.

Timeline of Brazilian economic stabilization plans

The following is a timeline of the Brazilian economic stabilization plans in the "new Republic" (post-military dictatorship) era, a period characterized by intense inflation of the local currency, exceeding 2,700% in the period of 1989 to 1990.

This period was marked by intense economic experimentation (including many forms of economic heterodox shocks) and, as a whole, comprises a unique case study on macroeconomics.

February 28, 1986: Plano Cruzado (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Dilson Funaro)

November 21, 1986: Plano Cruzado II (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Dilson Funaro)

June 12, 1987: Plano Bresser (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira)

January 6, 1988: Política Feijão com Arroz (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Maílson da Nóbrega)

January 15, 1989: Plano Verão (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Maílson da Nóbrega)

March 15, 1990: Plano Collor, a.k.a. "Plano Brasil Novo" and Plano Collor II (president: Fernando Collor de Mello, finance minister: Zélia Cardoso de Mello)

July 1, 1994: Plano Real (president: Itamar Franco, finance minister: Fernando Henrique Cardoso)

Old Republic
Vargas Era
Republic of 46
Military Regime
New Republic
Deputy Chair
Honorary Members
Former Members


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