Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, GE, KOGF, GR (29 October 1507 – 11 December 1582), known as the Grand Duke of Alba (Spanish: Gran Duque de Alba) in Spain and the Iron Duke (Dutch: IJzeren Hertog) in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble, general, and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquess of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. His motto in Latin was Deo patrum Nostrorum, which in English means "To the God of our fathers".

He was an adviser of King Charles I of Spain (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), and his successor, Philip II of Spain, Mayordomo mayor of both, member of their Councils of State and War, governor of the Duchy of Milan (1555–1556), viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples (1556–1558), governor of the Netherlands (1567–1573) and viceroy and constable of the Kingdom of Portugal (1580–1582). He represented Philip II in negotiating Philip's betrothal to Elisabeth of Valois and Anna of Austria, who were the third and fourth, and last, wives of the king.

By some historians he is considered the most effective general of his generation[2] as well as one of the greatest in military history.[3] Although a tough leader, he was respected by his troops. He touched their sentiments e.g. by addressing them in his speeches as "gentlemen soldiers" (señores soldados), but was also popular among them for daring statements such as:

Kings use men like oranges, first they squeeze the juice and then throw away the peel.[4]

Alba especially distinguished himself in the conquest of Tunis (1535) during the Ottoman-Habsburg wars when Carlos I defeated Hayreddin Barbarossa and returned the Spanish Monarchy to predominance over the western Mediterranean Sea. He also distinguished himself in the battle of Mühlberg (1547), where the army of Emperor Charles defeated the German Protestant princes.

On December 26, 1566 he received the Golden Rose, the blessed sword and hat granted by Pope Pius V, through the papal brief Solent Romani Pontifices, in recognition of his singular efforts in favor of Catholicism and for being considered one of his champions[5]

He is best known for his actions against the revolt of the Netherlands, where he instituted the Council of Troubles, and repeatedly defeated the troops of William of Orange and Louis of Nassau during the first stages of the Eighty Years' War. He is also known for the brutalities during the capture of Mechelen, Zutphen, Naarden and Haarlem. In spite of these military successes, the Dutch revolt was not broken and Alba was recalled to Spain. His last military successes were in the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, winning the Battle of Alcantara and conquering that kingdom for Philip II. Spain unified all the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula and consequently expanded its overseas territories.

The Duke of Alba

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, III Duque de Alba, por Antonio Moro
Governor of Milan
In office
MonarchCharles I of Spain
Preceded byFerdinando Gonzaga
Succeeded byCristoforo Madruzzo
Viceroy of Naples
In office
MonarchCharles I of Spain
Preceded byBernardino de Mendoza
Succeeded byJuan Fernández Manrique de Lara
Governor of the Netherlands
In office
MonarchPhilip II of Spain
Preceded byMargaret of Austria
Succeeded byLuis de Requesens y Zúñiga
1st Viceroy of Portugal and the Algarves
In office
18 July 1580 – 11 December 1582
MonarchPhilip I of Portugal
Preceded byNew title
Succeeded byArchduke Alberto of Austria
12th Constable of Portugal
In office
MonarchPhilip II of Spain
Preceded byJohn, 6th Duke of Braganza
Succeeded byTeodósio II, 7th Duke of Braganza
Personal details
Born29 October 1507
Piedrahíta, Ávila, Spain
Died11 December 1582 (aged 75)
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Spouse(s)María Enríquez de Toledo y Guzmán
ChildrenFernando de Toledo
García Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzmán
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzman
Diego Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzmán
Beatriz Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzmán
ProfessionSoldier, diplomat, statesman
Military service
AllegianceSpain Spanish Crown
RankCaptain General
Battles/warsOttoman-Habsburg wars

Italian Wars

Schmalkaldic War

Dutch Revolt

War of the Portuguese Succession

14-4003 Print Baudartius Arrival Duke of Alba Brussels 1567 1
The arrival of the Duke of Alba in Brussels, 1567. Print from 'The Wars of Nassau' by Willem Baudartius, Amsterdam 1616

Early years

Gent, Sint-Baafskathedraal blazoen Fernandez Alvarez de Toledo B STB 433 194
Coat of arms of the 3rd Duke of Alba.

Fernando was born in Piedrahíta, Province of Ávila, on 29 October 1507. He was the son of García Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, heir of Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo and Enríquez de Quiñones, II Duke of Alba de Tormes, and of Beatriz Pimentel, daughter of Rodrigo Alonso Pimentel, IV Count - I Duke of Benavente and his wife, María Pacheco. Fernando was orphaned at age three when his father, García, died during a campaign on the island of Djerba in Africa in 1510. At the age of six, Fernando accompanied his grandfather, the second duke of Alba on a military mission to capture Navarre.

His youth and education were typical for Castilian nobility of the age. He was educated at the ducal court of the House of Alba, located in the Castle Palace of Alba de Tormes, by two Italian preceptors, Bernardo Gentile - a Sicilian Benedictine - and Severo Marini and by the Spanish Renaissance poet and writer Juan Boscan. He was educated in Roman Catholicism and humanism. He mastered Latin and knew French, English and German.

In 1524, when he was seventeen, he joined the troops of Constable of Castile, Íñigo Fernández de Velasco, II Duke of Frías, during the capture of Fuenterrabía, then occupied by France and Navarre. For his role in the siege, Fernando was appointed governor of Fuenterrabía.

When his grandfather Fadrique died in 1531, the ducal title passed to Fernando as the firstborn son of Garcia. Throughout his adulthood, he served the Spanish monarchs Charles I and his successor Philip II.

Mayordomo mayor to the Spanish Kings

In 1541 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo was named Mayordomo Mayor del Rey de España (High Steward to the King of Spain) by Charles I of Spain.[6] Alba kept this Office in court until the death of the monarch in 1556.

In 1546, Charles I invested Fernando, the Third Duke of Alba Grand Master as knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece.

From 1548 King Charles intensified the preparations of Prince Philip as his successor in the Spanish Monarchy, and he named Duke of Alba mayordomo mayor of his son to prepare Philip for his new role. Fernando took Philip on a tour around Europe that lasted until 1551. Fernando accompanied Philip to England to attend his marriage to Mary Tudor. The Duke was one of fifteen grandees of Spain who attended the ceremony in the abbey of Winchester on 25 July 1554.

After the death of Charles, the new King Philip II maintained Fernando Third Duke of Alba as mayordomo mayor until the death of the Duke in 1582.

In 1563, King Philip II created the title Duke of Huéscar to be bestowed on the heir of the Dukes of Alba. Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, son of Fernando became 1st Duke of Huéscar.

In 1566, Alba's son and heir, Fadrique, broke his promise of marriage to Magdalena de Guzman, lady of Queen Anne of Austria, which led to his arrest and imprisonment in the Castle of La Mota in Valladolid. The following year he was released so he could go to Flanders with his father to serve in the military. In 1578 Philip II ordered the case against Fadrique reopened. It was discovered that in order to avoid marriage, Fadrique had secretly married María de Toledo, daughter of García Álvarez de Toledo and Osorio, IV Marquess of Villafranca del Bierzo, using a permit issued for that purpose by his father the Duke of Alba. Fadrique was sent to prison, in the Castle of La Mota. Fernando, Duke of Alba was banished from the court for one year for "breaking the strict court protocol."[7] The Duke went into exile in Uceda, where his secretaries Fernando de Albornoz and Esteban Ibarra likewise spent their punishment.[8]

Military commands

Against the Ottomans and French (1532–42)

After Fernando had become the third Duke of Alba in 1532, Charles V sent him to Vienna to help defend the city against an Ottoman invasion army. No battle ensued as the Ottomans, having lost momentum due to time lost during the Siege of Güns, decided not to advance against Vienna and retreated from the field. He was accompanied by the soldier-poet Garcilaso de la Vega, who later dedicated part of his Eclogue II to the House of Alba and its Duke.

The Duke's first military command to engage in battle was in the conquest of Tunis. In early June 1535 at Cagliari, he embarked with the military force commanded by the Marquess of Vasto. On 14 July, the fortress of La Goleta was seized, and a week later the army took the city of Tunis which was defended by Hayreddin Barbarossa. Thus Spain regained control over the western Mediterranean Sea.

In 1542, he led the Spanish troops against the French Army, ending the siege of Perpignan. The siege was a decisive victory for Alba and one of the worst defeats of Francis I during the French offensive of 1542.

In Germany (1546–47)

In 1547, Charles I, in his capacity as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor engaged with the Protestant forces in the Schmalkaldic War. The Duke of Alba was in charge of Tercios, the elite Spanish ground troops during the Battle of Mühlberg on the banks of the river Elbe. A flanking attack by Alba's Tercios was largely responsible for the imperial army's decisive victory against the Elector of Saxony.

In Milan and Naples (1555–59)

Antonis mor, fernando àlvarez de toledo, duca di alba, 1549, 01
The Duke of Alba in 1549 by Anthonis Mor

In later years, the focus of conflict between France and Spain had moved to the Italian peninsula. Alba was sent to Italy as commander in chief of the Spanish-Habsburg army in Italy, and became governor of Milan in 1555, and viceroy of Naples in 1556.

The newly appointed Pope Paul IV, an enemy of the Habsburgs, prompted King Henry II of France to expel the Spanish from Italy. Papal troops joined the French for this aim. In July 1556 the Pope declared Philip II was removed from the title King of Naples. Alba did not hesitate[9] and marched on Rome at the head of 12,000 Spanish soldiers. He financed the campaign, in part, by obtaining a loan of 430,000 ducats from Bona Sforza, dowager Queen of Poland; the loan became known as Neapolitan sums and was never repaid.[10] The Pope called for a truce, giving time for a French army commanded by Francis, Duke of Guise to march on Naples. The Spanish intercepted the French and defeated them in the Battle of San Quentin. Without French support, the papal troops were overwhelmed by the Spanish and the Duke of Alba entered Rome in September 1557. The pope had to sue for peace.[11]

In 1559, peace was concluded, between the kings of Spain and France with the Peace of Cateau–Cambrésis. With this treaty Spain had freed resources allowing colonization in the Americas. The treaty lasted for a century, and the Italian peninsula entered a prolonged period of rest. Peace between Spain and France was sealed by marriage between the Spanish monarch -the twice widowed Philip II- and Isabel de Valois, the daughter of the French king Henry II. During the royal wedding, which was held in Paris, Fernando the Third Duke of Alba represented Philip II by proxy.[12]

Governor of the Netherlands (1567–73)

Bor-Nederlantsche-Oorloghen 9152
Engraving of the statue of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo in Antwerp by Jacques Jonghelinck. From Nederlantsche Oorloghen by Pieter Bor
Ferdinand Alvare de Tolède, médaille Avers
Head of a bronze medal with the effigy and the cuirass of the Grand Alba bearing the Golden Fleece in commemoration of his triumphs in 1571 with the Latin legend «FERDIN[andus] • TOLET[anus] • ALBÆ • DUX • BELG • PRÆF[ectus]», which means, in English, "Fernando de Toledo Duke of Alba Governor of the Netherlands"
Ferdinand Alvare de Tolède, médaille Revers
Back of the same medal with the Latin inscription «DEO et REGI VITÆ VSVS», which means, in English, "God and King are purposes of life"
After Willem Key - Portrait of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo by Willem Key (1568)

From August to October 1566, the "Iconoclasm" (Dutch: Beeldenstorm) took place in the Netherlands, during which Calvinist Protestant followers destroyed a number of monasteries and churches and defaced or destroyed Catholic statues. To tackle both civil and religious rebels, King Philip II sent the 3rd Duke of Alba to Brussels on 22 August 1567, at the head of a powerful army. On arrival, Alba replaced Margaret of Parma, the sister of the Spanish king, as head of the civil jurisdiction. He decided that the local nobility was in open rebellion against the king and supported the new Protestant teachings, heresy in his view.

A few days later, on 5 September 1567, Alba established the "Council of Troubles", popularly known in the Netherlands as the "Court of Blood," to prosecute those responsible for the riots of 1566, especially those who were deemed heretics. Alba also targeted the local Catholic nobility, who favoured dialogue and opposed outside intervention. Two of the three heads of the Flemish nobility, the Count of Egmont, a Catholic General for Philip II, who had led the cavalry that defeated the French at the Battle of San Quentin, and Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn, were arrested. The court sentenced both counts to death. The Major of Antwerpen, Anthony van Stralen, Lord of Merksem and Jan van Casembroot were other famous victims of the bloody repression, along with a large group of other "heretics". The condemned persons were executed on 5 June 1568 in the Town Hall Square in Brussels. Alba had little confidence in Flemish justice, which he perceived as sympathetic to the defendants, and witnessed the executions in person.

The maintenance of the troops in Flanders entailed substantial economic costs. The Duke decided to impose new taxes on the population. Some cities, including Utrecht, refused to pay the "tithe" and declared a rebellion, which quickly spread throughout the Netherlands. William the Silent, the prince of Orange, enlisted the help of the French Huguenots; and started to actively support the rebellion. William and the Huguenots took many Dutch cities. The Spanish troops advanced under banners with the Latin legend Pro lege, rege, et grege, which in English means For the law, the king, and the people [literally, the flock]. In 1572 the Spanish army carried out the Spanish Fury at Mechelen, retaking and sacking the city after the rebel garrison had left. From there, Spain retook Zutphen and Naarden. The Spanish Siege of Haarlem, characterized by brutality and savagery on both sides, culminated in the surrender of the city and the execution of all the garrison, estimated at 2,000 men. The subsequent Siege of Alkmaar was unsuccessful however; and was the first defeat in a full scale engagement for the Spanish troops during the Dutch revolt. The prolonged military campaigns and the harsh repression of the rebel citizenry earned the 3rd Duke of Alba the nickname "The Iron Duke" in the Netherlands, and he became an important element of the anti-Spanish Black Legend.[13] His reputation was used for propaganda purposes by rebel statesman Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde to further strengthen anti-Spanish sentiments in the Netherlands.

In spite of continuous military action, the political situation in the Netherlands had not turned in favour of the Spanish crown. After five years of repression, more than 5,000 executions[14] and numerous complaints to the Spanish court, Philip II decided to change policy and relieve the Duke of Alba. The monarch sent Luis de Requesens to replace Alba. De Requesens tried to appease the situation by giving concessions to the rebels. Alba returned to Spain in 1573.

Nevertheless, the Duke still had influence in the Royal Council. Alba belonged to the conservative Spanish faction called Albistas or imperialists. This faction included the Inquisitor General Fernando de Valdés y Salas, the House of Pimentel, the Duke de Alburquerque and other members of the House of Álvarez de Toledo. The Albistas advised the king to take a firm stand in the Netherlands. The Albistas' hardline position was hotly contested by the liberal Ebolistas or humanists, led by Ruy Gómez de Silva, prince of Éboli and his secretary Francisco de Eraso. After the death of the prince of Éboli in 1573, the royal secretary Antonio Pérez went on to lead the liberal faction and began his association with Ana de Mendoza de la Cerda, Princess of Éboli. Against the Albistas' urging, King Philip II himself publicly acknowledged that "it is not possible to carry Flanders forward by way of war."[15] Political concessions by Luis de Requesens failed to end the rebellion in the Netherlands and hostilities soon resumed. These failures of the Ebolistas to end the Dutch revolt raised the distrust of the king, and Philip II again granted the Duke of Alba an important position in court.

Portuguese succession (1580–82)

After the death of King Sebastian of Portugal, who had no heirs, in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578, the crown fell to his great uncle Cardinal Henry I of Portugal.[16] The death of the latter, without any appointed heirs, led to the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.[17]

One of the claimants to the throne, António, Prior of Crato, a bastard son of Infante Louis, Duke of Beja and only grandson through the male line of king Manuel I of Portugal, was proclaimed King in June 1580.[18][19]

Philip II, through his mother Isabella of Portugal also a grandson of Manuel I, did not recognize Antonio as king of Portugal. The king appointed Fernando, Duke of Alba, as captain general of his army.[20] The duke was 73 years old and ill at the time.[21] Fernando mustered his forces, estimated at 20,000 men,[22] in Badajoz, and in June 1580 crossed the Spanish-Portuguese border and moved to Lisbon. In late August he defeated a Portuguese army at the Battle of Alcântara and entered Lisbon. This cleared the way for Philip II who became Philip I of Portugal, and created a dynastic union spanning all of Iberia under the Spanish crown.[23]

King Philip II rewarded Fernando with the titles of 1st Viceroy of Portugal and Constable of Portugal on July 18, 1580. With these titles Fernando represented the Spanish monarch in Portugal and was second in hierarchy only after the king in Portugal. Fernando held both titles until his death in 1582.[24]

Marriage and children

His first child, Fernando de Toledo (1527–1591), was an illegitimate son with a miller's daughter in the town of La Aldehuela.[25]

The Duke was married in 1527 to his cousin María Enríquez de Toledo y Guzmán (died 1583), daughter of Diego Enríquez de Guzmán, III Count of Alba de Liste, with whom he had four children.

  • García Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzmán (23 July 1530 – 1548)
  • Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzman, IV Duke of Alba (21 November 1537 – 3 September 1585)
  • Diego Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzmán (1541–1583), Count of Lerín and Constable of Navarre by his marriage, held on 24 March 1565, with Brianda Beaumont (1540–1588), daughter of Luis de Beaumont. He was succeeded by Antonio Álvarez de Toledo y Beaumont, V Duke of Alba de Tormes (1568 – 29 January 1639)
  • Beatriz Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzmán (died 1637), married Álvaro Pérez Osorio, V Marquess of Astorga.

Later years and death

Leone leoni, don ferdinando alvarez de toledo, 3° duca d'alba, 1554-1556
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, by Leone Leoni.

Alba died in Lisbon on 11 December 1582, at the age of seventy-five; he was given the last rites by the famous Luis de Granada.

His remains were transferred to Alba de Tormes, where he was buried in the convent of San Leonardo. In 1619 they were transferred to the Convento de San Esteban, Salamanca. In 1983 a mausoleum was erected over his grave, funded by the Provincial Deputation of Salamanca.[26][27]


García Álvarez de Toledo y Carrillo de Toledo
I Duke of Alba
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Quiñones
II Duke of Alba
María Enriquez de Quiñones y Toledo
García Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga
Álvaro de Zúñiga y Guzmán
I Duke of Plasencia
Isabel de Zúñiga y Pimentel
Leonor Pimentel y Zúñiga
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel
III Duke of Alba
Alonso Pimentel y Enríquez
III Count of Benavente
Rodrigo Alonso Pimentel
I Duke of Benavente
María de Quiñones y Portugal
Beatriz Pimentel y Pacheco
Juan Pacheco, I Duke of Escalona
María Pacheco y Portocarrero
señora de Villacidaler
María Portocarrero Enríquez


  1. ^ "Spain and Felipe II 1556-64"
  2. ^ De la Fuente Arrimadas, Nicolás. Fisiografía e historia del Barco de Ávila. Ávila. Tipografía y encuadernación de Senén Martín. 1925. P. 251.
  3. ^ Belda Plans, Juan. Grandes personajes del Siglo de Oro español. Ediciones Palabra S.A. Madrid. 2013. P. 20. ISBN 978-84-9840-851-5.
  4. ^ Spanish: Los reyes usan a los hombres como si fuesen naranjas, primero exprimen el jugo y luego tiran la cáscara.
  5. ^ Sampedro Escolar, José Luis. La Casa de Alba. La Esfera de los Libros, S. L. Madrid. 2007. ISBN 84-9734-595-9. ISBN 978-84-9734-595-8. P. 97/8.
  6. ^ De Atienza y Navajas, Julio (barón de Cobos de Belchite). La obra de Julio de Atienza y Navajas, barón de Cobos de Belchite y marqués del Vado Glorioso en "Hidalguía". Instituto Salzar y castro. Madrid. Hidalguía. 1993. P. 196.
  7. ^ Spanish: Por romper el estricto protocolo de La Corte.
  8. ^ Documents about the causes that motivated the prission of D. Fadrique, son of the duke of Alba, and that the same time, the duke himself, op. cit., vol. VII, pp. 464–524, y vol. VIII, pp. 483–529.
  9. ^ Letter from the Duque of Alba to Paul IV, in the Colección de documentos inéditos para la historia de España, vol. II, pp. 437–446.
  10. ^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1984). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571. American Philosophical Society. p. 656. ISBN 9780871691620.
  11. ^ Virreyes de Nápoles, op. cit., vol. XXIII, pp. 148–163.
  12. ^ "Los escritos de Herrera Casado. Artículos y comentarios sobre Guadalajara. Diciembre 2010. La boda de Felipe II en Guadalajara - 1560. (Herrera Casado's writings. Articles and opinions on Guadalajara. December 2010. The wedding of Felipe II in Guadalajara - 1560". www.herreracasado.com.
  13. ^ BEHIELS, Lieve. "El duque de Alba en la conciencia colectiva de los flamencos - Foro Hispánico. Revista Hispánica de los Países Bajos. 3 (1992) 31-43".
  14. ^ Jonathan Israel, The Dutch Republic: its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477-1806 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 159-160.
  15. ^ Spanish: No es posible llevar adelante lo de Flandes por la vía de la guerra.
  16. ^ De Baena Parada, Juan. Epítome de la vida, y hechos de don Sebastián Dezimo Sexto Rey de Portugal. 1692. P. 113/120.
  17. ^ Marqués de Pidal. Marqués de Miraflores. Salvá, Miguel. Colección de documentos inéditos para la historia de España. Academia de la Historia. Tomo XL. Madrid. 1862. P. 230.
  18. ^ Ferreira, António (16 December 1987). "Castro". UC Biblioteca Geral 1 – via Google Books.
  19. ^ Alden, Dauril (16 December 1996). "The Making of an Enterprise: The Society of Jesus in Portugal, Its Empire, and Beyond, 1540-1750". Stanford University Press – via Google Books.
  20. ^ Disposition of Philip II about giving the duke the control of the army, op. cit., vol. XXXII, pags. 7-9.
  21. ^ Ruth MacKay, The Baker Who Pretended to Be King of Portugal, (University of Chicago Press, 2012), 49.
  22. ^ Ruth MacKay, The Baker Who Pretended to Be King of Portugal, 50.
  23. ^ John Huxtable Elliott. España en Europa: Estudios de historia comparada: escritos seleccionados. Universitat de València. 2002. Páginas 79-80.
  24. ^ Belda Plans, Juan. Grandes personajes el Siglo de Oro español. Palabra. 2013. P. 29.
  25. ^ Frey Fernando de Toledo, Gran Prior de Castilla Archived 2013-09-15 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Notice about the translación of the body of the Duke of Alba, op. cit., vol XXXV, p. 361.
  27. ^ Rosell, María del Mar. Traslado definitivo de los restos del gran duque de Alba a un mausoleo de Salamanca. El País. Edición impresa. 26 mar 1983. To the move attended, the duchess of Alba, Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart and her second housband, Jesús Aguirre y Ortiz de Zárate, their sons -the duque of Huéscar Carlos Fitz-James Stuart y Martínez de Irujo y Fernando, Cayetano y Eugenia Martínez de Irujo-, as well as other family members, of nobiliary houses, the mausolum author, the mayor of the Salamanca duchal villages, and other guests standt out the bishop of the diocece, Mauro Rubio, who presided over the solemn religious ceremony.


  • Hobbs, Nicolas (2007). "Grandes de España" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 October 2008.
  • Instituto de Salazar y Castro. Elenco de Grandezas y Titulos Nobiliarios Españoles (in Spanish). Periodic publication.
  • Falcó y Osorio, María del Rosario. Duquesa de Berwick y de Alba. Catálogo de las colecciones expuestas en las vitrinas del Palacio de Liria. Madrid. 1898.
  • Fernández Álvarez, Manuel. El duque de hierro: Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, III de Alba. Colección Espasa Forum. Espasa Calpé. Madrid. 2007. ISBN 978-84-670-2625-2.
  • Kamen, Henry. El gran duque de Alba. Cuarta edición, cartoné. La Esfera de los Libros. Madrid. 2004/7. ISBN 978-84-9734-220-9.
  • Maltby, William S. El gran duque de Alba. Prólogo Jacobo Siruela, traducción Eva Rodríguez Halffter. Segunda edición. Ediciones Atalanta. Vilaür. 2007. ISBN 978-84-935313-8-6.
  • Junta de Castilla y León. Consejería de Educación y Cultura. Los Álvarez de Toledo Nobleza viva. María del Pilar García Pinacho. España. 1998. ISBN 84-7846-775-0.
  • Alba, General and Servant to the Crown. Edited by Maurits Ebben, Margriet Lacy-Bruijn and Rolof van Hövell tot Westerflier. Karwansaray. 2013. ISBN 978-94-90258-08-5.
Government offices
Preceded by
Ferdinando Gonzaga
Governor of Milan
Succeeded by
Cristoforo Madruzzo
Preceded by
Bernardino de Mendoza
Viceroy of Naples
Succeeded by
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo
Preceded by
Margaret of Parma
Governor of the Netherlands
Succeeded by
Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga
New title Viceroy of Portugal
Succeeded by
Albert of Austria
Preceded by
João de Bragança
Constable of Portugal
Succeeded by
Teodósio de Bragança
Spanish nobility
Preceded by
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo
Duke of Alba
Succeeded by
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo
Preceded by
García Álvarez de Toledo
Marquess of Coria
Carlos and Elisabeth

Carlos and Elisabeth (German: Carlos und Elisabeth) is a 1924 German silent drama film directed by Richard Oswald and starring Conrad Veidt, Eugen Klöpfer and Aud Egede Nissen. It is based on the play Don Carlos by Friedrich Schiller. Oswald modelled the film's visuals on a staging of the play by Max Reinhardt at the Deutsches Theater.The film's sets were designed by the art director Oscar Friedrich Werndorff.

Council of Troubles

The Council of Troubles (usual English translation of Dutch: Raad van Beroerten, or Spanish: Tribunal de los Tumultos, or French: Conseil des Troubles) was the special tribunal instituted on 9 September 1567 by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, governor-general of the Habsburg Netherlands on the orders of Philip II of Spain to punish the ringleaders of the recent political and religious troubles in the Netherlands. Due to the many death sentences pronounced by the tribunal, it also became known as the Council of Blood (Bloedraad in Dutch and Conseil de Sang in French). The tribunal would be abolished by Alba's successor Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens on 7 June 1574 in exchange for a subsidy from the States-General of the Netherlands, but in practice it remained in session until the popular revolution in Brussels of the summer of 1576.

Diego Enríquez de Guzmán

Diego Enríquez de Guzmán, 5th count of Alba de Liste (circa 1530 – 1604), Viceroy of Sicily (1585–1591), a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece since the year 1600, was the son of Enrique Enriquez, 4th count of Alba de Liste (circa 1500 – 1562), and Maria Alvarez de Toledo y Pimentel (circa 1510 – ), one daughter of Garcia Alvarez de Toledo, 2nd duke of Alba (circa 1490 – 29 August 1510) and of Beatriz Pimentel, a daughter of the 4th count and 1st duke of Benavente since January 1473, Rodrigo Alfonso Pimentel.

This count title of Alba de Liste dates from the middle of the fifteenth century, being awarded to Enrique Enriquez y Mendoza. Alba de Liste, a.k.a. Alba de Aliste, is a castle, absolutely ruined today, located near some 300 inhabitants, Losacino, 41°41′N, 6°05′W in the province of Zamora, Spain.

His mother Maria Alvarez de Toledo y Pimentel was the maternal half-sister of Catalina, the wife of widower (previously left with 7 male and 7 female children), Diego Enriquez, 3rd count of Alba de Liste (circa 1490 – 1550), and therefore we can conclude that as both sisters came from the 2nd duke of Alba, Garcia, deceased aged around 20, there was no great difference of age between them and then, probably, the 5th count, Diego, son of the 4th count, Enrique, eldest son of 7 males/7 females gotten by Diego Enriquez, 3rd count, was named Diego, for keeping remembrance of his grandfather Diego, the 3rd count.

Furthermore, as both sisters, Maria and Catalina, were daughters of the 2nd duke of Alba, they were also maternal half-sisters of the famous 3rd duke of Alba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, (Ávila, Piedrahíta, 19 October 1507 – Lisbon, Portugal, 11 November 1582), a.k.a. "The Iron Duke", who married Maria Enriquez, daughter of the 3rd count of Alba de Liste, being thus the sister of the 4th count Enrique and the aunt of the 5th count, mentioned here as Diego Enríquez de Guzmán, 5th count of Alba de Liste.

Then, we can also deduce that the famously hard "Iron Duke", the 3rd Duke of Alba, Fernando, mentioned thereto, who married María Enriquez de Guzmán, a.k.a. Maria Enriquez, daughter of the 3rd count of Alba de Liste, was the sister of the 4th count, Enrique, and the aunt of the 5th count, mentioned here as Diego Enríquez de Guzmán, 5th count of Alba de Liste.

This 5th count married Maria de Urrea, but, apparently, there was no adult male issue. The title thus reverted to his uncle, Fadrique Enriquez, a name quite frequent in the Spanish medieval history and requiring thus extra care with delving in his life who was the 6th count of Alba de Liste, born around 1530, who married a Guiomar de Vilhena, perhaps a Portuguese woman.

Some genealogists say however the 6th count was a certain Antonio Enriquez, deceased 1610, no issue. There were court cases on who inherited then the title. Then they say a Fadrique Enriquez became the 7h count after 1617 but died in 1632. New court cases gave the title of 8 count in 1633 to a Luis Enriquez, 2nd count of Villaflor, deceased, no issue, in 1667.

Luis Enríquez de Guzmán, 9th Count of Alba de Liste, a.k.a. Luis Enrique de Guzman y Coresma (circa 1610 – circa 1680), was the 9th count of Alba de Liste, Viceroy of Mexico (1650–1653) and 17th Viceroy of Peru (1655–1661).

Then, new court cases again in 1709 gave the title, 13, Count of Alba de Liste, in a sentence of 1713, to the 10th count-duke of Benavente Antonio Francisco de Pimentel, deceased 1743, a.k.a. Antonio Francisco Pimentel de Zúñiga y Vigil de Quiñones, XIII count of de Benavides, XV count of Mayorga, XIII count of Luna, VI marquis of Jabalquinto, V marquis of Villareal de Perullena, also XIII count of Alba de Liste, who married first Maria Ignacia de Borja y Aragón, daughter of the 10th Duke of Gandía hija del X duque de Gandía etc. and then with Marie Philippe de Horne, daughter of the count of Houtekerche.

New legal fights because of the inheritance of titles to be held by the 12th Duchess of Benavente who had however already no less than six dukedoms and many more other lesser titles, (marquess, countess, Vicomtesse) and the blocking of inheritance of this title at that time for some females gave them in 1772 to the transfer of the title to the "Fernández de Velasco" family, dukes of Frías.

Then, it was used by the "Téllez-Girón" family, dukes of Osuna, reaching later, in the case of the 21st Count, the "Martorell" family, through Gabino de Martorell y Téllez-Girón, 17th duke of Escalona, (Madrid, 22 October 1894 – deceased Madrid, 13 November 1918) changing family name, finally, because of a marriage between a Martorell female, 23rd Countess, and the "Viñamata" family, Luis Viñamata y Emmanueli, deceased on 30 November 1981, well inside the second half of the 20th century.

Don Carlos (play)

Don Carlos (German: Don Karlos, Infant von Spanien) is a (historical) tragedy in five acts by Friedrich Schiller; it was written between 1783 and 1787 and first produced in Hamburg in 1787. The title character is Carlos, Prince of Asturias and the play as a whole is loosely modeled on historical events in the 16th century under the reign of King Philip II of Spain.

Duke of Huéscar

Duke of Huéscar (Spanish: Duque de Huéscar) is a hereditary title in the Spanish nobility. The title was created in 1563 by King Philip II of Spain and bestowed on Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez, 6th Marquis of Coria, son and heir of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba. It was granted as a title for the male heirs apparent of the subsequent dukes of Alba, who until then held the marquisate of Coria before succeeding to the dukedom of Alba. Its name refers to the village of Huéscar, Granada, one of the manors of the House of Alba.

Egmont (play)

Egmont is a play by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, which he completed in 1788. Its dramaturgical structure, like that of his earlier 'Storm and Stress' play Götz von Berlichingen (1773), is heavily influenced by Shakespearean tragedy. In contrast to the earlier work, the portrait in Egmont of the downfall of a man who trusts in the goodness of those around him appears to mark a shift away from 'Storm and Stress' values.

Fernando Alvarez

Fernando Alvarez may refer to:

Fernando Alvarez (jockey) (1937–1999), American Thoroughbred horse racing jockey and trainer

Fernando Alvarez (economist), Argentine macroeconomist

Fernando Martín Álvarez (born 1947), president of the Spanish football club Real Madrid

Fernando Román Álvarez (born 1993), Spanish footballer

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba (1507–1582), Spanish noble, officer and diplomat

Fernando Álvarez de Sotomayor y Zaragoza (1875–1960), Galician painter

Fernando Álvarez Monje (born 1968), Mexican politician

Fernando de Toledo

Fernando de Toledo, (ca. 1528–1591) was a Spanish nobleman.

He was the illegitimate and first son of Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, "The Iron Duke", who fathered Fernando de Toledo upon the daughter of a miller of La Aldehuela, in the province of Ávila, Spain.

Not until 1546, when Fernando was nineteen years old, did the duke recognize Fernando as his son. This later became the subject of a comedy written by the great Spanish playwright Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio; the title of the play, "Más mal hay en La Aldegüela de lo que sueña" means approximately, "There are worse things in Aldehuela than you have dreamt of".

Fernando Toledo was a prior of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in Castile and León. He was Captain General of the cavalry of Flanders and Portugal, member of the Council of State, and (from 1571 to 1580) Viceroy of Catalonia, succeeding Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y de la Cerda (also known as Diego de Mendoza y de la Cerda, 2nd Count of Mélito, 1st Duke of Francavilla), who had been viceroy from 1564 to 1571.

Geert van Turnhout

Geert van Turnhout (French: Gérard de Turnhout; c. 1520–15 September 1580) was a Flemish composer, who became master of the Flemish chapel (capilla flamenca) in Spain.

He was born in Turnhout. He had a younger brother, also a composer, Jan van Turnhout.

Turnhout was employed first at Antwerp, then at the Church of St Gummarus, Lier, Belgium, (maître de chapelle 1559), then in 1562 back to the Cathedral of Our Lady (Antwerp) where he was made maître de chant in 1563. On 2 May 1571 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba engaged Turnhout as maestro de capilla of the Capilla Flamenca Philip II of Spain in Madrid to succeed Jean de Bonmarché. Turnhout arrived in Madrid with a group of singers from the Low Countries. He remained there until his death, when he was succeeded by George de La Hèle.

Gilles de Geus

Gilles de Geus ("Gilles de Geus") is a Dutch humoristic/historical comics series, created by Hanco Kolk and Peter de Wit in 1983. It is set in the 16th century during the Eighty Years' War and features the adventures of Gilles, a brave but not always too bright resistance fighter who is part of the Geuzen, an army who fight the Spanish oppressor in the Netherlands. The series has been compared to Asterix for being a humoristic comics series set in a historical time period, containing a lot of satirical winks and references.

The series has been translated into English as "Bryant the Brigand" and was published by Alibris. It has also been translated into Spanish as Tristán el salteador.

House of Alba

The House of Alba de Tormes (Spanish: Casa de Alba de Tormes), commonly known as the House of Alba, is a prominent Spanish aristocratic family that descended from 12th-century nobility of post-conquest Toledo. Their claim to Alba de Tormes dates from 1429, when Gutierre Álvarez de Toledo became Lord of Alba de Tormes while serving as Bishop of Palencia.

La Conjura de El Escorial

La Conjura de El Escorial (The Escorial Conspiracy) is a 2008 Spanish historical drama film directed by Antonio del Real and starring Jason Isaacs, Julia Ormond, Jordi Mollà, Pilar Bastardés and Jürgen Prochnow. It is set in the reign of Philip II of Spain.

Le duc d'Albe

Le duc d'Albe (its original French title) or Il duca d'Alba (its later Italian title) is an opera in three acts originally composed by Gaetano Donizetti in 1839 to a French language libretto by Eugène Scribe and Charles Duveyrier. Its title, which translates as The Duke of Alba, refers to its protagonist Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba. The work was intended for performance at the Paris Opéra. However, William Ashbrook notes that "Rosine Stoltz, the director's mistress, disliked her intended role of Hélène and Donizetti put the work aside when it was half completed".Donizetti then abandoned the score in favour of continuing to work simultaneously on both L'ange de Nisida and L'elisir d'amore, and thus it was nearly 34 years after the composer's death that it was completed by his former pupil Matteo Salvi and received its first performance in an Italian translation and under its Italian title Il duca d'Alba at the Teatro Apollo in Rome on 22 March 1882 with Leone Giraldoni in the title role, Abigaille Bruschi Chiatti as Amelia di Egmont, and Julián Gayarre as Marcello.

It received almost no performances in Italian until the mid-20th century and was only given its first performances in French in May 2012.

Les Aventures de Till L'Espiègle

Les Aventures de Till L'Espiègle is a French-East German film, based on The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak. It was released in 1956.

List of viceroys of Portugal

This is a list of the Viceroys of Portugal during the Iberian Union (1580–1640). According to what was established in the Cortes of Tomar in 1581, the regency of the Kingdom of Portugal always had to be trusted by the king to a Portuguese, or in alternative to a member of the Royal Family. This was, in a general way, fulfilled, having during two periods the regency been trusted to a governmental council called Government Junta of the Kingdom of Portugal.

1580 : Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba

1583 : Albert VII, Archduke of Austria

1593 : First Government Junta:

Miguel de Castro, Archbishop of Lisbon

João da Silva, Count of Portalegre

Francisco de Mascarenhas

Duarte Castelo-Branco, Count of Sabugal

Miguel de Moura

1600 : Cristóvão de Moura, 1st Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo (1st time)

1603 : Afonso Castelo-Branco, Bishop of Coimbra

1605 : Pedro Castilho, Bishop of Leiria

1608 : Cristóvão de Moura, Marquess of Castelo Rodrigo (2nd time)

1612 : Aleixo de Meneses, Bishop of Guarda

1615 : Miguel de Castro, Archbishop of Lisbon (Interim)

1619 : Diogo da Silva e Mendonça, Count of Salinas (1st time)

1621 : Second Government Junta:

Martim Afonso Mexia, Bishop of Coimbra (1621–1622)

Diogo de Castro and Nuno Álvares de Portugal (1622–1623)

Diogo de Castro and Diogo da Silva e Mendonça (2nd time) (1623–1626)

Diogo da Silva e Mendonça and Afonso Furtado de Mendonça (1627–1630)

António Ataíde and Nuno de Mendonça (1631–1632)

1632 : Nuno de Mendonça

1633 : João Manuel de Ataíde, Archbishop of Lisbon

1633 : Diogo de Castro, Count of Basto

1634 : Margarida of Savoy, dowager Duchess of Mantua

Patrie (1917 film)

Patrie is a 1917 French film by Albert Capellani after the drama of Victorien Sardou. The film featured Henry Krauss as the Count of Rysoor, Paul Capellani as Karloo Van der Noot, Léon Bernard as Ionas, and Maxime Desjardins as the Duke of Alba.

Patrie (1946 film)

Patrie is a 1946 French drama film directed by Louis Daquin. It was entered into the 1946 Cannes Film Festival. Like the 1917 film it is based on the play by Victorien Sardou.

The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak

The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak (French: La Légende et les Aventures héroïques, joyeuses et glorieuses d'Ulenspiegel et de Lamme Goedzak au pays de Flandres et ailleurs) is a 1867 novel by Belgian author Charles De Coster. Based on the 14th-century Low German figure Till Eulenspiegel, Coster's novel recounts the allegorical adventures as those of a Flemish prankster, Thyl Ulenspiegel, during the Reformation wars in the Netherlands.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.