Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies

Ferdinand I (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825), was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars. Before that he had been, since 1759, Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples and Ferdinand III of the Kingdom of Sicily. He was also King of Gozo. He was deposed twice from the throne of Naples: once by the revolutionary Parthenopean Republic for six months in 1799 and again by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805.

Ferdinand was the third son of King Charles VII of Naples and V of Sicily by his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony. On 10 August 1759, Charles succeeded his elder brother, Ferdinand VI, becoming King Charles III of Spain, but treaty provisions made him ineligible to hold all three crowns. On 6 October, he abdicated his Neapolitan and Sicilian titles in favour of his third son, because his eldest son Philip had been excluded from succession due to illnesses and his second son Charles was heir to the Spanish throne. Ferdinand was the founder of the cadet House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

Ferdinand I
(IV / III)
Angelika Kauffmann Portrait Ferdinand IV VLM
Portrait by Angelica Kauffman, c. 1782
King of the Two Sicilies
Reign12 December 1816 – 4 January 1825
SuccessorFrancis I
King of Naples and Sicily[a]
Reign6 October 1759 – 12 December 1816
PredecessorCharles VII & V
Born12 January 1751
Royal Palace, Naples
Died4 January 1825 (aged 73)
Naples, Two Sicilies
see details...
Full name
Ferdinando Antonio Pasquale Giovanni Nepomuceno Serafino Gennaro Benedetto di Borbone
HouseBourbon of Naples
FatherCharles III of Spain
MotherMaria Amalia of Saxony
ReligionRoman Catholicism


Ferdinand was styled both Ferdinand III of Sicily (6 October 1759 – 12 December 1816) and Ferdinand IV of Naples (6 October 1759 – 23 January 1799; 13 June 1799 – 30 March 1806; 22 May 1815 – 12 December 1816).

On 21 January 1799,[1] the Kingdom of Naples was abolished and replaced by the Parthenopaean Republic which lasted until 13 June 1799. Ferdinand was restored to the throne for a while. On 26 December 1805, Napoleon I of France declared Ferdinand deposed again and replaced him with his own brother Joseph Bonaparte on 30 March 1806.

Ferdinand was restored for the second time following the Austrian victory at the Battle of Tolentino (3 March 1815) over rival monarch King Joachim I. On 8 March 1816 he merged the thrones of Sicily and Naples into the throne of the Two Sicilies. He continued to rule until his death on 4 January 1825.


Ferdinand was born in Naples and grew up amidst many of the monuments erected there by his father which can be seen today; the Palaces of Portici, Caserta and Capodimonte.

Ferdinand was his parents' third son, his elder brother Charles was expected to inherit Naples and Sicily. When his father ascended the Spanish throne in 1759 he abdicated Naples in Ferdinand's favor in accordance with the treaties forbidding the union of the two crowns. A regency council presided over by the Tuscan Bernardo Tanucci was set up. The latter, an able, ambitious man, wishing to keep the government as much as possible in his own hands, purposely neglected the young king's education, and encouraged him in his love of pleasure, his idleness and his excessive devotion to outdoor sports.[2]


Ferdinand IV at age nine
Ferdinand in 1760, at age nine.

Ferdinand's minority ended in 1767, and his first act was the expulsion of the Jesuits. The following year he married Archduchess Maria Carolina, daughter of Empress Maria Theresa. By the marriage contract the queen was to have a voice in the council of state after the birth of her first son, and she was not slow to avail herself of this means of political influence.

Tanucci, who attempted to thwart her, was dismissed in 1777. The Englishman Sir John Acton, who in 1779 was appointed director of marine, won Maria Carolina's favour by supporting her scheme to free Naples from Spanish influence, securing rapprochement with Austria and Great Britain. He became practically and afterward actually prime minister. Although not a mere grasping adventurer, he was largely responsible for reducing the internal administration of the country to a system of espionage, corruption and cruelty.

French Occupation and the Parthenopaean Republic

Although peace was made with France in 1796, the demands of the French Directory, whose troops occupied Rome, alarmed the king once more, and at his wife's instigation he took advantage of Napoleon's absence in Egypt and of Nelson's victories to go to war. He marched with his army against the French and entered Rome (29 November), but on the defeat of some of his columns he hurried back to Naples, and on the approach of the French, fled on 23 December 1798 aboard Nelson's ship HMS Vanguard to Palermo, Sicily, leaving his capital in a state of anarchy.[1]

The French entered the city in spite of the fierce resistance of the lazzaroni, and with the aid of the nobles and bourgeoisie established the Parthenopaean Republic (January 1799). When, a few weeks later the French troops were recalled to northern Italy, Ferdinand sent a hastily assembled force, under Cardinal Ruffo, to reconquer the mainland kingdom. Ruffo, with the support of British artillery, the Church, and the pro-Bourbon aristocracy, succeeded, reaching Naples in May 1800, and the Parthenopaean Republic collapsed. After some months King Ferdinand returned to the throne.

The king, and above all the queen, were particularly anxious that no mercy should be shown to the rebels, and Maria Carolina (a sister of the executed Antoinette) made use of Lady Hamilton, Nelson's mistress, to induce Nelson to carry out her vengeance.

Third Coalition

The king returned to Naples soon afterwards, and ordered a few hundred who had collaborated with the French executed. This stopped only when the French successes forced him to agree to a treaty which included amnesty for members of the French party. When war broke out between France and Austria in 1805, Ferdinand signed a treaty of neutrality with the former, but a few days later he allied himself with Austria and allowed an Anglo-Russian force to land at Naples (see Third Coalition).

Piastra 1805
Piastra of Ferdinand IV of Naples, dated 1805.

The French victory at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December enabled Napoleon to dispatch an army to southern Italy. Ferdinand fled to Palermo (23 January 1806), followed soon after by his wife and son, and on 14 February 1806 the French again entered Naples. Napoleon declared that the Bourbon dynasty had forfeited the crown, and proclaimed his brother Joseph King of Naples and Sicily. But Ferdinand continued to reign over the latter kingdom (becoming the first King of Sicily in centuries to actually reside there) under British protection.

Parliamentary institutions of a feudal type had long existed in the island, and Lord William Bentinck, the British minister, insisted on a reform of the constitution on English and French lines. The king indeed practically abdicated his power, appointing his son Francis as regent, and the queen, at Bentinck's insistence, was exiled to Austria, where she died in 1814.

Church of San Francesco da Paola, Naples, in a ponderous academic neoclassical style, completed in 1816 as Ferdinand's ex voto for his return


After the fall of Napoleon, Joachim Murat, who had succeeded Joseph Bonaparte as king of Naples in 1808, was dethroned in the Neapolitan War, and Ferdinand returned to Naples. By a secret treaty he had bound himself not to advance further in a constitutional direction than Austria should at any time approve; but, though on the whole he acted in accordance with Metternich's policy of preserving the status quo, and maintained with but slight change Murat's laws and administrative system, he took advantage of the situation to abolish the Sicilian constitution, in violation of his oath, and to proclaim the union of the two states into the kingdom of the Two Sicilies (12 December 1816).

Ferdinand was now completely subservient to Austria, an Austrian, Count Nugent, being even made commander-in-chief of the army. For the next four years he reigned as an absolute monarch within his domain, granting no constitutional reforms.

1820 revolution

Palermo insurrection of 1820
Palermo insurrection of 1820

The suppression of liberal opinion caused an alarming spread of the influence and activity of the secret society of the Carbonari, which in time affected a large part of the army. In July 1820 a military revolt broke out under General Guglielmo Pepe, and Ferdinand was terrorised into signing a constitution on the model of the Spanish Constitution of 1812. On the other hand, a revolt in Sicily, in favour of the recovery of its independence, was suppressed by Neapolitan troops.

The success of the military revolution at Naples seriously alarmed the powers of the Holy Alliance, who feared that it might spread to other Italian states and so lead to a general European conflagration. The Troppau Protocol of 1820 was signed by Austria, Prussia and Russia, although an invitation to Ferdinand to attend the adjourned Congress of Laibach (1821) was issued at which he failed to distinguish himself. He had twice sworn to maintain the new constitution but was hardly out of Naples before he repudiated his oaths and, in letters addressed to all the sovereigns of Europe, declared his acts to have been null and void. Metternich had no difficulty in persuading the king to allow an Austrian army to march into Naples "to restore order".

The Neapolitans, commanded by General Pepe, made no attempt to defend the difficult defiles of the Abruzzi, and were defeated at Rieti (7 March 1821). The Austrians entered Naples.

Later years

Following the Austrian victory, the Parliament was dismissed and Ferdinand suppressed the Liberals and Carbonari. The victory was used by Austria to force its grasp over Naples' domestic and foreign policies. Count Charles-Louis de Ficquelmont was appointed as the Austrian ambassador to Naples, practically administrating the country as well as managing the occupation and strengthening Austrian influence over Neapolitan elites.

Ferdinand died in Naples in January 1825. He was the last surviving child of Charles III.

Ferdinand I in cinema

Family of Ferdinand I in 1783 The Royal Family of Naples and Sicily in 1783, Angelica Kauffman; (L-R) Princess Maria Teresa; the future King Prince Francis; King Ferdinand; Queen Maria Carolina holding Princess Maria Cristina; Prince Gennaro (died in 1789); Princess Maria Amalia in the arms of Princess Luisa; the royal couple's seventh child was stillborn during the preparation phase for the painting. The artist then painted a veil over the child already in the cradle, which had been clearly visible in the modello.
Family of Ferdinand I in 1783
The Royal Family of Naples and Sicily in 1783, Angelica Kauffman; (L-R) Princess Maria Teresa; the future King Prince Francis; King Ferdinand; Queen Maria Carolina holding Princess Maria Cristina; Prince Gennaro (died in 1789); Princess Maria Amalia in the arms of Princess Luisa; the royal couple's seventh child was stillborn during the preparation phase for the painting. The artist then painted a veil over the child already in the cradle, which had been clearly visible in the modello.

Titles, styles and honours

Royal styles of
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Escudo de España (mazonado).svg
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty

Titles and styles

  • 12 January 1751 – 10 August 1759: His Royal Highness Prince Ferdinand of Naples and Sicily, Infante of Spain
  • 10 August 1759 – 12 December 1816: His Majesty The King of Naples and Sicily
    • 23 January 1799 – 13 June 1799: Titular King of Naples
    • 30 March 1806 – 22 May 1815: Titular King of Naples
  • 12 December 1816 – 4 January 1825: His Majesty The King of the Two Sicilies

National honours


Greater Coat of Arms of Ferdinand IV of Naples

Coat of arms as King of Naples
(1759–1799 / 1799–1806 /1814–1816)[4]

Coat of Arms of Ferdinand III of Sicily

Coat of arms as King of Sicily

Great Royal Coat of Arms of the Two Sicilies

Coat of arms as King of the Two Sicilies


 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ferdinand IV. of Naples" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 264–265.

  1. ^ De facto King of Naples during three periods:
    • 6 October 1759 – 23 January 1799; interrupted by the proclamation of the brief Parthenopaean Republic;
    • 13 June 1799 – 30 March 1806; interrupted by his dethronement by Napoleon and subsequent replacement by Joseph Bonaparte;
    • 22 May 1815 – 12 December 1816; following Napoleon's final defeat, kept the Crown until its merger with the Crown of Sicily.
  1. ^ a b Davis, John (2006). Naples and Napoleon: Southern Italy and the European Revolutions, 1780-1860. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198207559.
  2. ^ Acton, Harold (1957). The Bourbons of Naples (1731-1825) (2009 ed.). London: Faber and Faber. p. 150. ISBN 9780571249015.
  3. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 9.
  4. ^ a b c "Le origini dello stemma delle Due Sicilie, Ferdinando IV, poi I". Storia e Documenti (in Italian). Real Casa di Borbone delle Due Sicilie. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 12 January 1751 Died: 4 January 1825
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles VII & V
King of Naples
(as Ferdinand IV)

6 October 1759 – 23 January 1799
Parthenopaean Republic
King of Sicily
(as Ferdinand III)

6 October 1759 – 12 December 1816
Union of the crowns
Preceded by
Joachim Murat
King of Naples
(as Ferdinand IV)

22 May 1815 – 12 December 1816
Parthenopaean Republic King of Naples
(as Ferdinand IV)

13 June 1799 – 30 March 1806
Succeeded by
Joseph Bonaparte
Union of the crowns King of the Two Sicilies
(as Ferdinand I)

12 December 1816 – 4 January 1825
Succeeded by
Francis I
Archduke Joseph Franz of Austria

Archduke Joseph Franz Leopold of Austria (9 April 1799 – 30 June 1807) was the second son and seventh child of Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily, daughter of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and his wife Maria Carolina of Austria. He was their fourth child to die.


Carascon is an Italian family name of hidalgo or noble Spanish origin. The surname was originally spelled Carrascón (In this form it is still found in Spain and Latin America). The surname was Italianized as Carascon in the early 19th Century. The founder of the Spanish House was Doctor Don Garcia Fernandez de Carrascón (ca 1480-1533), a wealthy Spanish cleric from Ágreda, Spain who was a protonotary apostolic and personal doctor to Pope Adrian VI as well as a canon of the Cathedral of Toledo, Spain. He left his fortune in the form of a mayorazgo or family trust to his nephew Don Pedro Carrascon and his descendents. Doctor Carrascon is buried in an elaborate chapel in the Church of San Miguel Arcangel in Ágreda.

The founder of the Italian branch of the family was Don Francisco Carrascón (1700-1756), a high-ranking military commissioner (Commissario di Guerra) of the Royal Spanish Army, and Senator of Messina, Sicily. Don Francisco was married to Donna Paula Diez, believed to be the sister of Don Antonio Filareto Diez e Palmero, a Sicilian Nobleman and Senator of Palermo in 1745 and 1764. Don Francisco and Donna Paula had four sons and three daughters. His eldest son, Don Bernabe (or Barnaba) Carrascon was a Colonel in command of the Provincial Regiments of the Kingdom of Naples, and later Commandant of Lucera. His second son, Don Antonio Carrascon, was a Lieutenant Colonel and Governor of the Fortress of Vieste on the Adriatic Sea. The other two sons, Don Pietro Ignazio and Don Ferdinando also distinguished themselves in civil service and the military. Of the daughters, Donna Maria Giuseppa Carascon married Don Berlingiero Scoppa of Lucera, Donna Marianna Carascon married Colonel Don Orsino Scoppa of Lucera. Donna Maria Concetta Carascon married Cavaliere Gaetano Pistorio of Messina.

Don Bernabe's son, Don Francesco Carascon (1771–1820), married Donna Isabella Monarca, a noblewoman from Sessa Aurunca and eventually reached the rank of Captain in the Neapolitan Army. He fought in Calabria, Spain and Rome under the armies of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, Joseph Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, Joachim Murat, brother in law of Napoleon, and once again of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies after the fall of Napoleon. He died in Messina during the peak of the Sicilian Revolution of 1820. His wife, Donna Isabella died five years later leaving behind seven children. Their youngest son Alessandro Carascon (1814–1861) moved to Sulmona in the Abruzzi and became a Caffettiere or Cafe-owner.

Don Bernabe's daughter, Donna Filomena Carrascon, married Colonel Don Dionisio Corsi, a Cavalry commander of the Regina Regiment and Governor (Intendant) of L'Aquila. All of their sons became military officers, but one in particular, Major Don Luigi Corsi, became distinguished as a pioneer in military incendiaries and steam locomotive technology. He was appointed Director of the locomotive factory, Officine di Pietrarsa near Naples by King [Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies].

Their descendants have lived in such varied places in Southern Italy as Messina, Naples, Vieste, Sessa Aurunca, Rome, Sulmona and Pacentro. It is a very rare surname, with only a few descendants in Italy, Spain, England, and the United States.

Chiara Spinelli

Chiara Spinelli later the princess of Belmonte (1744-1823) was an Italian noblewoman and pastellist.

Spinelli was born in Naples, the daughter of Troiano, the ninth duke of Laurino. In 1762 she married Antonio Francesco Pignatelli, the prince of Belmonte, becoming his second wife. She was also the mistress of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. She took part in the revolution which led to the creation of the Parthenopean Republic in 1799; at its collapse she was exiled to France. A self-portrait by Spinelli is held in the collection of the Uffizi in Florence; it was originally displayed alongside those of Irene Parenti Duclos and Anna Borghigiani.

Giovanni Battista Lusieri

Giovanni Battista Lusieri (1755–1821) was an Italian landscape painter from Naples. He was court painter to Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies before working for Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and becoming involved in the removal and shipping of the Elgin Marbles to England.

Ifigenia in Tauride (Jommelli)

Ifigenia in Tauride is an opera (opera seria) in three acts by Niccolò Jommelli set to a libretto by the Mannheim court poet Mattia Verazi. It premiered on 30 May 1771 at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples to celebrate the name day of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. The story is based on Iphigenia in Tauris by Euripides.

Infante Antonio Pascual of Spain

Infante Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno Aniello Raimundo Silvestre of Spain (31 December 1755 – 20 April 1817) was a son of King Charles III of Spain and younger brother of King Charles IV of Spain and King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies.

Infante Philip, Duke of Calabria

Philip of Naples and Sicily, "Duke of Calabria", Infante of Spain (13 June 1747 – 19 September 1777) was the eldest son and heir of Charles III of Spain, but was excluded from the succession to the thrones of Spain and Naples due to his imbecility. His younger brothers, Charles IV of Spain and Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies replaced him in the succession. When his father became King of Spain in 1759, Philip remained in Naples where he lived until his death from smallpox at the age of thirty.

La Sanfelice

La Sanfelice (or La San Felice) is an 1864 novel by the French writer Alexandre Dumas. It depicts the arrest and execution in Naples of Luisa Sanfelice, who was accused of conspiring with the French and their supporters against Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies during the French Revolutionary War. Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton, who were in Naples at the time, also feature as characters.

Lucia Migliaccio

Lucia Migliaccio, Duchess of Floridia (19 July 1770, Syracuse, Sicily - 26 April 1826, Naples) was the second wife of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Their marriage was morganatic and Lucia was never a Queen consort.

Luisa Sanfelice

Luisa or Luigia Sanfelice (1764–1800) was an Italian aristocrat who was executed by Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies because of her involvement with the French-backed Parthenopean Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars although Sanfelice was largely apolitical. As she was generally regarded as the innocent victim of circumstances, she became a legendary figure who was widely portrayed in popular culture. During the nineteenth century she was often depicted as a gentle and naïve beauty whose story closely resembled that of the fictional Fioria Tosca, heroine of the Puccini opera Tosca.Amongst those who depicted Sanfelice was the French writer Alexandre Dumas who wrote the novel La San Felice (1864). In 1874 the artist Giovacchino Toma painted Luisa Sanfelice in Carcere, showing her in captivity before her execution. In the twentieth century Sanfelice appeared in two films Luisa Sanfelice (1942) and Luisa Sanfelice (2004).

Michele Angelo Cianciulli

Michele Angelo Cianciulli, called Michelangelo within his family, was a marquis and statesman of the Kingdom of Sicily.

He was born in Montella on 1 August 1734 and studied law at the University of Naples.

He was regent of the Kingdom of Sicily from 8 July 1808 until 1 August 1808 when Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies handed over the crown of the Kingdom to Joseph Bonaparte and to Murat.

He was appointed as Minister of Justice and settled the bill of law abolishing feudalism.

He died in Naples on Sunday 16 May 1819.

Order of Saint George of the Reunion

The Order of Saint George of the Reunion is an order of knighthood of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was established to replace the Royal Order of the Two-Sicilies.It was created on 1 January 1819 by Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies to reward military valor and merit. It received its name to celebrate the reunification of the dominions located namely (Naples and Sicily) into one kingdom after the Congress of Vienna.

The dynastic dispute within the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies means the position of Grand Master is disputed between Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria and Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro. The head of the Spanish branch, Prince Pedro, considers this Order to be dormant and it is no longer awarded.

Orto Botanico di Parma

The Orto Botanico di Parma, also known as the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Parma, is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Parma. It is located on the Viale Martiri della Libertà, Parma, Italy, and open daily without charge.

The garden succeeds Parma's earlier Orto dei Semplici, a garden for medicinal plants, established by Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma. Today's garden was created in 1770 by Giambattista Guatteri under the auspices of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, with its glass house completed in 1793.

The garden contains aquatic plants including Acorus calamus, Butomus umbellatus, Caltha palustris, Cyperus papyrus, Eichhornia crassipes, Elodea canadensis, Iris pseudacorus, Lemna minor, Nymphaea alba, Pistia stratiotes, and Sagittaria sagittaefolia, as well as mature trees including ginkgo, magnolia, Pinus nigra subsp. laricio, and Ulmus campestris. Its glass houses contain a tropical section with Dracaena fragrans, Ficus elastica, F. benjamina, Monstera deliciosa, Tamarindus indica, Theobroma cacao, etc., as well as epiphytes, orchids, and tropical fruits; and a desert house containing a variety of cacti and succulents.

Pallagrello bianco

Pallagrello bianco is a white Italian wine grape variety that is grown in Campania. The grape has a long history in the region and was one the varieties planted in 1775 by architect and engineer Luigi Vanvitelli in the fan-shaped Vigna del Ventaglio vineyard created for the royal palace of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (Ferdinand IV of Naples) in Caserta. Following the phylloxera epidemic of the mid-19th century and the economic devastation of the World Wars of the early 20th century, plantings of Pallagrello bianco declined greatly and the variety was thought to be extinct until it was rediscovered growing in an abandoned Campanian vineyard in the 1990s.Despite having similar names and both varieties originated in Campania, Pallagrello bianco is not a color mutation of the red Campanian wine grape Pallagrello nero though DNA profiling has not determined yet if the two varieties are closely related. DNA analysis has ruled out a relationship with another white Campanian wine grape, Coda di Volpe, which is known under the synonym Pallagrello and has similar looking "fox tail-shaped" grape clusters.

Portrait of Princess Maria Christina

Portrait of Princess Maria Christina is an oil on canvas painting by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun of Maria Christina, commissioned by her parents Maria Carolina of Austria and Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies between 1775 and 1800. Vigée Le Brun had fled Paris in 1789 after the French Revolution and taken refuge in Naples. It is now in the National Museum of Capodimonte in Naples.

Rothschild banking family of Naples

The Rothschild banking family of Naples was founded by Calmann (Carl) Mayer von Rothschild (1788–1855) who was sent to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from Frankfurt am Main, Germany in 1821 by his father, Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Wanting his sons to succeed on their own and to expand the family business across Europe, Mayer Amschel Rothschild had had his eldest son remain in Frankfurt, while his four other sons went to different European cities to establish a financial institution to invest in business and provide banking services.

Endogamy within the family was an essential part of the Rothschild strategy in order to ensure control of their wealth remained in family hands. Through their collaborative efforts, the Rothschilds rose to prominence in a variety of banking endeavors including loans, government bonds and trading in bullion. Their financing afforded investment opportunities and during the 19th century they became major stakeholders in large-scale mining and rail transport ventures that were fundamental to the rapidly expanding industrial economies of Europe.

By 1820, N M Rothschild & Sons bank was already operating successfully in London, England, de Rothschild Frères in Paris, and S M von Rothschild in Vienna, Austria where Salomon Mayer von Rothschild became a powerful ally of Austria's Prince Klemens Metternich. In March 1821, in support of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, the Austrian army entered the Sicilian Kingdom and occupied Naples. This event opened the door to the Rothschild interests and Carl von Rothschild was sent to Naples where he established C M de Rothschild & Figli to operate as a satellite office to the Rothschild banking family of Germany headquarters in Frankfurt am Main.

Royal Order of the Two-Sicilies

The Royal Order of the Two-Sicilies (Italian: Ordine reale delle Due Sicilie) was a dynastic order of knighthood of the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. The order was established 24 February 1808 by Joseph Bonaparte, who, at the time, was the King of Naples. The order was expanded and continued under the rule of Joachim Murat but was ultimately suppressed by Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies in 1819. Those Knights of the Order of the Two-Sicilies who were still active were instead awarded the Order of Saint George and Reunion.


Sanfedismo (from Santa Fede, "Holy Faith" in Italian) was a popular anti-Republican movement, organized by Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, which mobilized peasants of the Kingdom of Naples against the Parthenopaean Republic in 1799, its aims culminating in the restoration of the Bourbon Kingdom of Naples under Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Its full name was the Army of Holy Faith in our Lord Jesus Christ (Italian: Armata della Santa Fede in nostro Signore Gesù Cristo), and its members were called Sanfedisti.

The terms "Sanfedismo" and "Sanfedisti" are sometimes used more generally to refer to any religiously motivated, improvised peasant army that sprung up on the Italian peninsula to resist the newly created French client republics.

Villa Comunale

The Villa Comunale is the most prominent and visible park in Naples, southern Italy. It was built in the 1780s by King Ferdinand IV (later known as Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) on land reclaimed along the coast between the main body of the city and the small port of Mergellina. The park was originally a "Royal Garden", reserved for members of the royal family, but open to the public on special holidays such as the Festival of Piedigrotta. The park was opened to the general public on a permanent basis in 1869 after the unification of Italy.

The park houses the Anton Dohrn aquarium, a renowned scientific institution built in the 1870s. The seaside road, via Caracciolo, which now lies between the aquarium and the sea, is another more recent reclamation project added to the city in 1900 to provide another connecting road between the city and the suburbs to the west.

The Villa Comunale Park stretches over 1 km through an area of land between Pizzofalcone and Posillipo Hills and follows the curve of the bay from Piazza Vittoria to Piazza della Repubblica.

Children of Ferdinand I
Name Picture Birth Death Notes
By Maria Carolina of Austria (Vienna, 13 August 1752 – Vienna, 8 September 1814)
Maria Teresa Carolina Giuseppina Maria Teresa di Borbone-Napoli 6 June 1772 13 April 1807 Named after her maternal grand mother Maria Theresa of Austria, she married her first cousin Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1790; had issue.
Maria Luisa Amelia Teresa Joseph Dorffmeister 001 Royal Palace of Naples, 27 July 1773 Hofburg Imperial Palace, 19 September 1802 Married her first cousin Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany and had issue.
Carlo Tito Francesco Giuseppe CarloFrancisco01 Naples, 6 January 1775 17 December 1778 Died of smallpox.
Maria Anna Giuseppa Antonietta Francesca Gaetana Teresa MariaAnna2Sicily 23 November 1775 22 February 1780 Died of smallpox.
Francesco Gennaro Giuseppe Saverio Giovanni Battista Francis I of the Two Sicilies Naples, 14 August 1777 Naples, 8 November 1830 Married his cousin Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria in 1797 and had issue; married another cousin Infanta Maria Isabella of Spain in 1802 and had issue; was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830.
Maria Cristina Teresa Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily Caserta Palace, 17 January 1779 Savona, 11 March 1849 Married Charles Felix of Sardinia in 1807; had no issue; it was she who ordered the excavations of Tusculum.
Maria Cristina Amelia CristinaAmeliaDeLasDosSicilias Caserta Palace, 17 January 1779 Caserta Palace, 26 February 1783 Twin of the above; died of smallpox.
Gennaro Carlo Francesco Gennaro2Sicily Naples 12 April 1780 2 January 1789 Died of smallpox.
Giuseppe Carlo Gennaro Giuseppe2Sicily Naples, 18 June 1781 19 February 1783 Died of smallpox.
Maria Amelia Teresa Marie-Amélie de Bourbon 1 Caserta Palace, 26 April 1782 Claremont House, 24 March 1866 Married in 1809 Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orleans, King of the French and had issue.
Maria Cristina Caserta Palace, 19 July 1783 Caserta Palace, 19 July 1783 Stillborn.
Maria Antonietta Teresa Amelia Giovanna Battista Francesca Gaetana Maria Anna Lucia Maria Antonietta Borbone Napoli 1784 1806 Caserta Palace, 14 December 1784 Royal Palace of Aranjuez, 21 May 1806 Married her cousin Infante Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias; died from tuberculosis; had no issue.
Maria Clotilde Teresa Amelia Antonietta Giovanna Battista Anna Gaetana Polcheria Caserta Palace, 18 February 1786 10 September 1792 Died of smallpox.
Maria Enricheta Carmela Naples, 31 July 1787 Naples, 20 September 1792 Died of smallpox.
Carlo Gennaro Naples, 26 August 1788 Caserta Palace, 1 February 1789 Died of smallpox.
Leopoldo Giovanni Giuseppe Michele of Naples Leopoldo Giovanni Borbone Salerno 1790 1851 Naples, 2 July 1790 Naples, 10 March 1851 Married his cousin Archduchess Clementina of Austria and had issue.
Alberto Lodovico Maria Filipo Gaetano AlbertodeSicily01 2 May 1792 Died on board HMS Vanguard, 25 December 1798 Died in childhood (died of exhaustion on board HMS Vanguard).
Maria Isabella MariaIsabella2Sicily Naples, 2 December 1793 23 April 1801 Died in childhood.
Ancestors of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies[3]
16. Louis XIV of France
8. Louis, Dauphin of Framce
17. Maria Theresa of Austria
4. Philip V of Spain
18. Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria
9. Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria
19. Henriette Adelaide of Savoy
2. Charles III of Spain
20. Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma
10. Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma
21. Isabella d'Este
5. Elisabeth Farnese
22. Philip William, Elector Palatine
11. Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg
23. Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
1. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
24. John George III, Elector of Saxony
12. Augustus II of Poland
25. Anne Sophie of Denmark
6. Augustus III of Poland
26. Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
13. Christiane Eberhardine of Bayreuth
27. Sophie Louise of Württemberg
3. Maria Amalia of Saxony
28. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
14. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
29. Eleonore Magdalene of Neuburg
7. Maria Josepha of Austria
30. John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Calenberg
15. Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick
31. Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate
1st generation
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