Ferdinand I of Austria

Ferdinand I (19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875) was the Emperor of Austria from 1835 until his abdication in 1848. As ruler of Austria, he was also President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia (as Ferdinand V), King of Lombardy–Venetia and holder of many other lesser titles (see grand title of the Emperor of Austria).

Ferdinand succeeded on the death of his father Francis II and I on 2 March 1835. He was incapable of ruling his empire because of his mental deficiency, so his father, before he died, made a will which promulgated that Ferdinand should consult Archduke Louis on all aspects of internal policy and urged him to be influenced by Prince Metternich, Austria's Foreign Minister.[2]

Following the Revolutions of 1848, Ferdinand abdicated on 2 December 1848. He was succeeded by his nephew, Franz Joseph. Following his abdication, he lived in Hradčany Palace, Prague, until his death in 1875.[3]

Ferdinand married Maria Anna of Savoy, the sixth child of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia. They had no children.

Ferdinand I & V
Ferdinand I; Keizer van Oostenrijk
Ferdinand wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece, portrait by Leopold Kupelwieser, 1847
Emperor of Austria,
King of Hungary, Bohemia,
Dalmatia, and Croatia
Reign2 March 1835 – 2 December 1848
Coronations28 September 1835, Pressburg
Y(Hungary and Croatia)
7 September 1836, Prague
(Bohemia)
6 September 1838, Milan
(Lombardy–Venetia)
PredecessorFrancis I
SuccessorFranz Joseph I
Prime MinisterSee list
Head of the Präsidialmacht Austria
In office2 March 1835 – 12 July 1848
PredecessorFrancis I
SuccessorFranz Joseph I
Born19 April 1793
Vienna, Archduchy of Austria, Holy Roman Empire[1]
Died29 June 1875 (aged 82)
Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia, Austria-Hungary[1]
Burial
SpouseMaria Anna of Savoy
Full name
Ferdinand Charles Leopold Joseph Francis Marcelin
HouseHabsburg-Lorraine
FatherFrancis II, Holy Roman Emperor
MotherMaria Theresa of the Two Sicilies
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Biography

Early life

Ferdinand was the eldest son of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily. Possibly as a result of his parents' genetic closeness (they were double first cousins), Ferdinand suffered from epilepsy, hydrocephalus, neurological problems, and a speech impediment. He was educated by Baron Josef Kalasanz von Erberg, and his wife Josephine, by birth a Countess von Attems.[4]

Reign

Eduard Gurk 001
Coronation of King Ferdinand V in 1836 in Prague

Ferdinand has been depicted as feeble-minded and incapable of ruling, but although he had epilepsy, he kept a coherent and legible diary and has even been said to have had a sharp wit, but having as many as twenty seizures per day severely restricted his ability to rule with any effectiveness. Though he was not declared incapacitated, a Regent's Council (Archduke Louis, Count Kolowrat, and Prince Metternich) steered the government.

When Ferdinand married Princess Maria Anna of Savoy, the court physician considered it unlikely that he would be able to consummate the marriage.[5] When he tried to consummate the marriage, he had five seizures. He is best remembered for his command to his cook: when told he could not have apricot dumplings (Marillenknödel) because apricots were out of season, he said "I am the Emperor, and I want dumplings!" (German: Ich bin der Kaiser und ich will Knödel!).[6][7]

1848 Revolution

Sarcophagus Ferdinand 1 of Austria Kaisergruft Vienna
Ferdinand's sarcophagus the Imperial Crypt, Vienna

As the revolutionaries of 1848 were marching on the palace, he is supposed to have asked Metternich for an explanation. When Metternich answered that they were making a revolution, Ferdinand is supposed to have said "But are they allowed to do that?" (Viennese German: Ja, dürfen's denn des?) He was convinced by Felix zu Schwarzenberg to abdicate in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph (the next in line was Ferdinand's younger brother Franz Karl, but he was persuaded to waive his succession rights in favour of his son) who would occupy the Austrian throne for the next sixty-eight years.

Ferdinand recorded the events in his diary: "The affair ended with the new Emperor kneeling before his old Emperor and Lord, that is to say, me, and asking for a blessing, which I gave him, laying both hands on his head and making the sign of the Holy Cross ... then I embraced him and kissed our new master, and then we went to our room. Afterwards I and my dear wife heard Holy Mass ... After that I and my dear wife packed our bags."

In retirement (1848–1875)

Ferdinando I d'Austria
Photograph of the aged Ferdinand dated circa 1870

Ferdinand was the last King of Bohemia to be crowned as such. Due to his sympathy with Bohemia (where he spent the rest of his life in Prague Castle) he was given the Czech nickname "Ferdinand V, the Good" (Ferdinand Dobrotivý). In Austria, Ferdinand was similarly nicknamed "Ferdinand der Gütige" (Ferdinand the Benign), but also ridiculed as "Gütinand der Fertige" (Goodinand the Finished).

He is interred in tomb number 62 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.

Titles

He used the titles:[8]

His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty Ferdinand the First, By the Grace of God

Ancestry

Ferdinand's parents were double first cousins as they shared all four grandparents (Francis' paternal grandparents were his wife's maternal grandparents and vice versa). Therefore, Ferdinand only had four great-grandparents, being descended from each of them twice. Further back in his ancestry there is more pedigree collapse due to the close intermarriage between the Houses of Austria and Spain and other Catholic monarchies.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ferdinand I. of Austria" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Taylor, A. J. P.: "The Habsburg Monarchy 1809-1918" (Penguin Books, Great Britain, 1990, ISBN 978-0-14-013498-8), pp 52-53
  3. ^ van der Kiste, p 16
  4. ^ Grafenauer, Bogo. "Erberg Jožef Kalasanc baron" [Erberg Joseph Calasanz baron]. In Vide Ogrin, Petra (electronic ed.). Cankar, Izidor et al. (printed ed.) 1925–1991. 2009 (electronic ed.) (eds.). Slovenski biografski leksikon (in Slovenian). ISBN 978-961-268-001-5.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  5. ^ van der Kiste, John. Emperor Francis Joseph London: Sutton Publishing, 2005 ISBN 0-7509-3787-4. p 2
  6. ^ According to A.J.P. Taylor, he was in fact asking for noodles - "But it is an unacceptable pun in English for a noodle to ask for noodles" - The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918
  7. ^ Regan, Geoffrey. Royal Blunders page 72
  8. ^ Velde, Francois R. "Royal Styles". www.heraldica.org.
  9. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Franz I." . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 208 – via Wikisource.
  10. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Theresia von Neapel" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 81 – via Wikisource.
  11. ^ a b c d Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Theresia (deutsche Kaiserin)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 60 – via Wikisource.
  12. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Ludovica (deutsche Kaiserin)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 53 – via Wikisource.
  13. ^ a b Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 9.

External links

Ferdinand I of Austria
Cadet branch of the House of Lorraine
Born: 19 April 1793 Died: 29 June 1875
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Francis I
Emperor of Austria
King of Hungary and Croatia
King of Bohemia
King of Lombardy–Venetia

1835–1848
Succeeded by
Francis Joseph I
Political offices
Preceded by
Francis I of Austria
Head of the Präsidialmacht Austria
1835–1848
Succeeded by
Franz Joseph I of Austria
1848

1848 (MDCCCXLVIII)

was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1848th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 848th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1848, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

It is historically famous for the wave of revolutions, a series of widespread struggles for more liberal governments, which broke out from Brazil to Hungary; although most failed in their immediate aims, they significantly altered the political and philosophical landscape and had major ramifications throughout the rest of the century.

De Schepper

De Schepper is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Cornelius de Schepper (born 1503?-1555), Flemish counsellor and ambassador for the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Ferdinand I of Austria and Mary of Hungary, governor of the Netherlands

Els de Schepper (born 1965), Flemish actress, comedian and writer

Kenny de Schepper (born 1987), French tennis player

Robert de Schepper (1885 – ?), Belgian Olympic fencer

Emperor Ferdinand

Emperor Ferdinand may refer to:

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503–1564), Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578–1637), Holy Roman Emperor 1619–1637, King of Bohemia 1617–1619, 1620–1637, and King of Hungary 1618–1625

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1608–1657), Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria

Ferdinand I of Austria (1793–1875), Emperor of Austria, President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia

Ferdinand of Austria

Ferdinand of Austria may refer to:

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503 – 1564), Archduke of Austria

Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria (1529 – 1595), son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578 – 1637), aka Ferdinand III, Archduke of Inner Austria

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1608 – 1657), Archduke of Austria, son of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (1609/1610 - 1641)

Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria (1628 – 1662)

Ferdinand I of Austria (1793 – 1875)

Ferdinand of Habsburg

Ferdinand of Habsburg may refer to:

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503–1564)

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578–1637)

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1608–1657)

Ferdinand I of Austria (1793–1875)

Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg (1997)

Gabriel von Salamanca-Ortenburg

Gabriel von Salamanca (Burgos, Castile, 1489 – Alsace, France 12 December 1539) was a Spanish nobleman who served as general treasurer and archchancellor of the Habsburg archduke (and future Emperor) Ferdinand I of Austria from 1521 to 1526. He was elevated to a Count of Ortenburg in 1524.

Hans Maler zu Schwaz

Hans Maler zu Schwaz (1480/1488–1526/1529) was a German painter born in Ulm and active as portraitist in the village of Schwaz, near Innsbruck. Maler may have trained with the German artist Bartholomäus Zeitblom, who was chief master of the School of Ulm between 1484 and 1517. He painted numerous portraits of members of the Habsburg court at Innsbruck as well as of wealthy merchants such as the Fuggers.Maler's two most important patrons were Ferdinand I of Austria, who at the time was Archduke (Later Emperor) and the celebrated Fuggers. Ferdinand is known to have commissioned at least three portraits of himself and four of his wife, Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Maler also painted portraits in 1517 of Sebastian Andorfer, a successful metal maker and merchant from Schwaz. His portrait style rarely varied from his bust-format, where the subject's hands were not shown and without eye contact to the viewer.He received commissions early on in his career from Ferdinand's grandfather, Maximilian I and was also commissioned in 1508 for frescoes depicting the Habsburg family tree in Ambras Castle.

Josip Jelačić

Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim (16 October 1801 – 20 May 1859; also spelled Jellachich, Jellačić or Jellasics; in Croatian: Josip grof Jelačić Bužimski) was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia.

Lainzer Tiergarten

The Lainzer Tiergarten is a 24.50 km² (6,054-acre) wildlife preserve in the southwest corner of Vienna, Austria, 80% of it being covered in woodland. It dates back to 1561, when Ferdinand I of Austria created it as a fenced-in hunting ground for his family to use. Since 1919, it has been open to the public. Its name consists of its location by the Lainz district of Vienna's 13th District, and Tiergarten, which means zoo (literally, "animal garden").

List of ambassadors of Turkey to Austria

The Turkish Ambassador to Austria has his residence in Vienna.

List of heads of government under Austrian Emperors

This is a list of heads of government under Austrian Emperors.

Maria Anna of Savoy

Maria Anna of Savoy (Italian: Maria Anna Ricciarda Carolina Margherita Pia; 19 September 1803 – 4 May 1884) was Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary (see Grand title of the Empress of Austria) by marriage to Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria.

Marie Henriette of Austria

Marie Henriette of Austria (Marie Henriette Anne; 23 August 1836 – 19 September 1902) was Queen of the Belgians as the wife of King Leopold II.

Marie Henriette was one of five children from the marriage of Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary, and Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg. Marie Henriette was a cousin of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria, and granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, through her father.

Marillenknödel

Marillenknödel (Czech: meruňkové knedlíky) is a pastry common in Austrian (especially Viennese) and Czech cuisine. Marillen is the Austro-Bavarian term for apricots and this pastry is found predominantly in areas where apricot orchards are common, such as the Wachau and Vinschgau regions.

Small dumplings (Knödel) are formed from dough, in which cored apricots or mirabelle plums are placed. The dumplings are then boiled in slightly salted water and covered in crispily fried bread crumbs and powdered sugar. The dough is usually made of potato (Erdapfel), though also quark (Topfen) and choux pastry are used.

Today, Marillenknödel are also offered as frozen ready meals. At the Kurt Tichy ice cream parlor in Vienna one can also find Eismarillenknödel, in which the "dough" is made of ice cream and the crumbs are made of a nut and sugar mixture.

Ferdinand I of Austria famously ordered Marillenknödel when they were out of season, to which he replied, "I am the Emperor and I want dumplings!"

Museum of the Risorgimento (Milan)

The Museum of the Risorgimento (Museo del Risorgimento), located in the 18th-century Milanese Palazzo Moriggia, houses a collection of objects and artworks which illustrate the history of Italian unification from Napoleon's first Italian campaign of 1796 to the annexation of Rome in 1870. The city of Milan played a key role in the process, most notably on the occasion of the 1848 uprising against the Austrians known as the Five Days of Milan.

The museum was founded on a collection of documents on the Risorgimento, gathered for the Exhibition of Turin in 1884 and then moved to the showroom at Milan’s Public Gardens. The exhibition was later transferred to the Rocchetta rooms at the Sforza Castle, where it was officially inaugurated on 24 June 1896. In 1943, due to the war-time bombardment of the castle, the museum was temporarily moved to the estate of Casa Manzoni (home of the famed Italian poet and novelist Alessandro Manzoni). Finally in 1951 it was housed inside the Moriggia Palace, where it remains today.The museum is part of the Civic Historical Collections. Its collections include Baldassare Verazzi's Episode from the Five Days and Francesco Hayez's 1840 Portrait of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. The permanent exhibition is displayed to follow the chronological order of events of the Risorgimento, leading the visitor through fifteen rooms, to which the new Weapons Room has been recently added. The latest refurbishment in 1998 included the redesign of the permanent exhibitions, to accentuate the highlights of the collections, particularly the relics.

The museum boasts the green-and-silver velvet cloak and the valuable regal insignia of Napoleon Bonaparte’s coronation, the banner of the Legione Lombarda Cacciatori a Cavallo (Lombard Legion on Horseback) and the first Italian flag. The last renovation saw the redesign of the lighting and information systems, as well as improvements to the ‘Romantic Garden’ behind the building.

Secret State Conference

The Secret State Conference (German: Geheime Staatskonferenz) was the de jure advisory body to Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria and the de facto ruling cabinet of the Austrian Empire from 1836 to 1848 during the Vormärz era.

Siege of Vienna

The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. The siege came in the aftermath of the 1526 Battle of Mohács, which had resulted in the death of the King of Hungary and the descent of the kingdom into civil war, with rival factions supporting the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria and others supporting the Ottoman backed John Zápolya. The Ottoman attack on Vienna was part of their intervention into the Hungarian conflict, intended in the short term to secure Zápolya's position. Historians disagree in their interpretation of Ottoman long-term goals and regarding what motivations lay behind the choice of Vienna in particular as the target of the campaign. The failure of the siege marked the beginning of 150 years of bitter military tension and reciprocal attacks, culminating in a second siege of Vienna in 1683.

There is speculation by some historians that Suleiman's main objective in 1529 was actually to assert Ottoman control over the whole of Hungary, the western part of which (known as Royal Hungary) was under Habsburg control. The decision to attack Vienna after such a long interval in Suleiman's European campaign is viewed as an opportunistic manoeuvre after his decisive victory in Hungary. Other scholars theorise that the suppression of Hungary simply marked the prologue to a later, premeditated invasion of Europe.

Truce of Adrianople (1547)

The Truce of Adrianople in 1547, named after the Ottoman city of Adrianople (present-day Edirne), was signed between Charles V and Suleiman the Magnificent. Through this treaty, Ferdinand I of Austria and Charles V recognized total Ottoman control of Hungary, and even agreed to pay to the Ottomans a yearly tribute of 30,000 gold florins for their Habsburg possessions in northern and western Hungary. The Treaty followed important Ottoman victories in Hungary, such as the Siege of Esztergom (1543).

Ancestors of Ferdinand I of Austria
8. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor[11] (= 14)
4. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor[9]
9. Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary[11] (= 15)
2. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
10. Charles III, King of Spain[12] (= 12)
5. Maria Luisa of Spain[9]
11. Maria Amalia of Saxony[12] (= 13)
1. Ferdinand I of Austria
12. Charles III, King of Spain[13] (= 10)
6. Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies[10]
13. Maria Amalia of Saxony[13] (= 11)
3. Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
14. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor[11] (= 8)
7. Maria Carolina of Austria[10]
15. Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary[11] (= 9)
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