Ferdinand I of Aragon

Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I; 27 November 1380 – 2 April 1416 in Igualada, Catalonia) called of Antequera and also the Just (or the Honest) was king of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and (nominal) Corsica and king of Sicily, duke (nominal) of Athens and Neopatria, and count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdanya (1412–1416). He was also regent of Castile (1406–1416).

Ferdinand I
Ferran d'Antequera al retaule Sancho de Rojas (detall)
Ferdinand I being crowned by the infant Jesus in San Benito el Real Valladolid, by Juan Rodríguez de Toledo (c.1410–15)
Reign3 September 1412 – 2 April 1416
CoronationJanuary 1414 (Zaragoza)
PredecessorMartin the Humane
SuccessorAlfonso the Magnanimous
Born27 November 1380
Medina del Campo
Died2 April 1416 (aged 35)
Igualada
Burial
ConsortEleanor of Alburquerque
Issue
among others...
Alfonso V, King of Aragon
Maria, Queen of Castile
John II, King of Aragon
Henry, Duke of Villena
Eleanor, Queen of Portugal
Peter, Count of Alburquerque
HouseTrastámara
FatherJohn I of Castile
MotherEleanor of Aragon
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Biography

Born in Medina del Campo, he was the younger son of King John I of Castile and Eleanor of Aragon.

In 1406, upon the death of his elder brother, King Henry III of Castile, Ferdinand declined the Castilian crown and instead, with Henry's widow Catherine of Lancaster, became coregent during the minority of his nephew John II of Castile. In this capacity he distinguished himself by his prudent administration of domestic affairs.

In a war with the Muslim Kingdom of Granada, he conquered the town of Antequera (1410), whence his surname.

After Ferdinand's maternal uncle, King Martin I of Aragon (Martin II of Sicily), died without surviving legitimate issue, Ferdinand was chosen King of Aragon in 1412 to succeed him in the Compromise of Caspe. The other candidate, Count James II of Urgell (see Counts of Urgell), revolted and Ferdinand dissolved the County of Urgell in 1413.

Ferdinand created the title of Prince of Girona for the heir of the Crown of Aragon on 19 February 1416.

The most notable accomplishment of his brief reign was his agreement in 1416 to depose the Antipope Benedict XIII, thereby helping to end the Western Schism, which had divided the Roman Catholic Church for nearly 40 years.

He is buried in the Aragonese royal pantheon of the monastery of Poblet, in a magnificent tomb ordered by his son Alfonso to Pere Oller in 1417.

The Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla wrote an official biography of Ferdinand, Historiarum Ferdinandi regis Aragonum libri sex.

Family and children

In 1393 Ferdinand married Eleanor of Alburquerque (1374–1435). They had seven children:

Appearance and character

"He was tall, a little more than average, and thin and ruddy, and his cheeks had a few freckles... very patient to all who wanted to talk to him, even if their speeches were ordinary or not well-reasoned..."[1]

Ancestry

Ancestors of Ferdinand I of Aragon[2]
16. Ferdinand IV of Castile
8. Alfonso XI of Castile
17. Constance of Portugal
4. Henry II of Castile
18. Pedro Núñez de Guzmán
9. Eleanor of Guzman
19. Beatriz Ponce de León
2. John I of Castile
20. Manuel of Castile
10. Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena
21. Beatrice of Savoy
5. Juana Manuel
22. Ferdinand de la Cerda
11. Blanca de La Cerda y Lara
23. Juana Núñez de Lara
1. Ferdinand I of Aragon
24. James II of Aragon
12. Alfonso IV of Aragon
25. Blanche of Anjou
6. Peter IV of Aragon
26. Gombald d'Entença
13. Teresa d'Entença
27. Constance of Antilon
3. Eleanor of Aragon
28. Frederick III of Sicily
14. Peter II of Sicily
29. Eleanor of Anjou
7. Eleanor of Sicily
30. Otto III, Duke of Carinthia
15. Elisabeth of Carinthia
31. Euphemia of Legnica

See also

Further reading

  • J. N Hillgarth, The Spanish Kingdoms. ISBN 0-19-822531-8
  • T. N. Bisson, The Medieval Crown of Aragon. ISBN 0-19-820236-9

References

  1. ^ From Crónica de Juan II by Alvar García de Santa María
  2. ^ de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisboa Occidental. p. 497.

External links

Ferdinand I of Aragon
Born: 27 November 1380 Died: 2 April 1416
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Martin the Humane
King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca,
Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica;
Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne

1412–1416
Succeeded by
Alfonso the Magnanimous
Alfons de Tous

Alfons de Tous (died February 3, 1421) was president of the Generalitat of Catalonia 1396-1413, succeeding Miquel de Santjoan when the latter left Catalonia in 1396 to become a royal ambassador.During the Western Schism, he aligned with the Antipope Benedict XIII and the revived line of Avignon popes, and continued that support until the Council of Constance, when Ferdinand I of Aragon withdrew his support for Avignon, at which point Alfons tried unsuccessfully to convince Benedict to voluntarily renounce his claim to the papacy.Alfons began his ecclesiastical career as the rector of the church of Sant Mateu (Saint Matthew) in Tortosa. He next served the Benedict XIII as his ambassador to the Kingdom of Castile, and later became rector of the Church of Santa Maria del Pi in Barcelona, from which position he was appointed a deputy to the Corts of Barcelona, the Catalan parliament. On December 3, 1400, as president of the Corts of Barcelona, he purchased the original portion of what then became the Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya for 38,500 sous. Alfons became the first president of the Generalitat of Catalonia to live there.

Subsequently to serving at Santa Maria del Pi, he became a canon of the Cathedral of Barcelona and, eventually, auditor of the Pia Almoina, the charitable fund of the cathedral. In 1408 King Martin of Aragon ("Martin the Humane") proposed him as bishop of Barcelona, but the Pope named Francisco de Blanes instead. Martin successfully exerted pressure to have him named bishop of Elne; in 1410, he was transferred to serve as bishop at Vic, where in 1417 he decreed that every parish must maintain a register of baptisms.

His activities in the role of ecclesiastical deputy to the Generalitat required that he take part in the parliamentary discussion of the succession after Martin's death in 1410. The new king Ferdinand I was from the House of Trastámara, which already ruled Castile, so his selection as king brought Aragon and Castile under the same dynastic house. Subsequently, Alfons presided over the Corts of Montblanc (1414). In both of these parliamentary assemblies as well as in the Corts of Sant Cugat-Tortosa (1419), he tried, with little success, to influence the new Trastámara king to continue the policies of the earlier line of Aragones monarchs.

Aragonese Castle (Reggio Calabria)

Aragonese Castle is a castle in Reggio Calabria enlarged to its current extent by Ferdinand I of Aragon.

Beatrice of Portugal, Duchess of Savoy

Infanta Beatrice of Portugal (Portuguese pronunciation: [biɐˈtɾiʃ]); Portuguese: Beatriz) (31 December 1504 – 8 January 1538) was Duchess of Savoy by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Savoy. She was the Sovereign Countess of Asti from 1531 to 1538.

Duarte of Portugal, 4th Duke of Guimarães

Duarte of Portugal, 4th Duke of Guimarães (October 7, 1515 in Lisbon – September 20, 1540 in Lisbon) was a Portuguese infante (prince); the sixth son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon.

Eleanor of Alburquerque

Eleanor, 3rd Countess of Alburquerque (1374 – 16 December 1435) became Queen consort of Aragon by her marriage to Ferdinand I of Aragon. In Spanish, she is known as Leonor Urraca de Castilla, condesa de Alburquerque.

Eleanor of Aragon

Eleanor or Leanor of Aragon may refer to:

Infantas of Aragon:

Eleanor of Aragon, Countess of Toulouse (1182–1226), daughter of Alfonso II of Aragon

Eleanor of Aragon (b. 1251), daughter of James I of Aragon

Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Cyprus (1333–1417), daughter of Infante Pedro, Count of Ribagorza, Ampurias and Prades

Eleanor of Aragon (1346-1405), daughter of John, Duke of Randazzo

Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Castile (1358–1382), daughter of Peter IV of Aragon

Eleanor of Aragon (1393–1393), daughter of John I of Aragon

Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Portugal (1402–1445), daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon

Infantas of Aragon known by other regions:

Eleanor of Provence (1223–1291), daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence

Eleanor of Naples (1450–1493), daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples

Eleanor of Navarre (1426–1479), daughter of John II of Aragon

Eleanor of Austria (1498–1558), daughter of Joanna I of Aragon

Four queen consorts of Aragon:

Eleanor of Castile (died 1244), wife of James I of Aragon

Eleanor of Castile (1307–1359), wife of Alfonso IV of Aragon

Eleanor of Sicily, wife of Peter IV of Aragon

Eleanor of Alburquerque, wife of Ferdinand I of Aragon

Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Portugal

Eleanor of Aragon (2 May 1402 – 19 February 1445) was queen consort of Portugal as the spouse of Edward I of Portugal and the regent of Portugal as the guardian of her son. She was the daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque.

Infantes of Aragon

The Infantes of Aragon (Spanish: Los Infantes de Aragón) is an appellation commonly used by Spanish historians to refer to a group of 15th-century infantes (princes) of the House of Trastámara, specifically the sons of King Ferdinand I of Aragon and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque:

Infante Alfonso (1396–1458) - became Alfonso V of Aragon (f. 1416), also king of Sicily and Naples (f.1442)

Infanta Maria (1396–1445) - Maria of Aragon, first wife of John II of Castile (m.1420)

Infante Juan (1398–1479) - King of Navarre (f.1425), later King John II of Aragon (f.1458).

Infante Enrique (1400–1445) - Henry of Aragon, Duke of Villena, Count of Albuquerque, Count of Empúries and Grand Master of the Order of Santiago (f.1409)

Infanta Leonor (1402–1445) - Eleanor of Aragon (Queen of Portugal), consort of Edward I of Portugal (m.1428)

Infante Pedro (1406–1438) - Peter of Aragon, Count of Alburquerque and Duke of Noto

Infante Sancho (1410–1416) - infant master of the Order of Alcántara, died prematurely

List of people known as the Just

The Just is an epithet that may refer to:

Aristides (530 BC-468 BC), Athenian statesman

Simeon the Just (fl. 3rd century BCE), a Jewish High Priest during the time of the Second Temple

Menander II (fl. 90–85 BC), Indo-Greek ruler

James the Just (died 62 or 69), a figure in early Christianity

Rev I of Iberia (189–216), King of a Georgian Kingdom of Iberia

Diarmaid the Just (died 542), Irish abbot and saint

Khosrow I (died 579), also known as Anushiravan the Just, twentieth Sassanid Emperor (Great King) of Persia

Childebert III (670 or probably 683–711), King of the Franks

Harun al-Rashid (763 or 766-809), 5th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, Abbasid Caliph in Ar-Raqqah

Casimir II the Just (1138–1194), Duke of Wiślica, Duke of Sandomierz, Duke of Kraków and High Duke of Poland

James II of Aragon (1267–1327), King of Sicily (as James I), King of Aragon and Valencia, Count of Barcelona, King of Sardinia and Corsica

Peter I of Portugal (1320–1367), King of Portugal and the Algarve

Ferdinand I of Aragon (1380–1416), King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and (nominally) Corsica, and King of Sicily

Matthias Corvinus (1443–1490), King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia, and Duke of Austria

Louis XIII of France (1601–1643), King of France and Navarre

Luís of Portugal, Duke of Beja

Infante Luís of Portugal, Duke of Beja (3 March 1506, in Abrantes – 27 November 1555, in Marvila, in Lisbon) was the second son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his second wife Maria of Aragon (the third daughter of the Catholic Monarchs). He participated in the Conquest of Tunis.

Maria of Aragon

Maria of Aragon may refer to:

Marie of Montpellier (1182–1213), wife of Peter II of Aragon

Maria of Aragon (1248-1267), daughter of James I of Aragon and Violant of Hungary, became a nun

Marie of Lusignan, Queen of Aragon (1273–1319), wife of James II of Aragon

Maria of Aragon (1299-1316), daughter of James II of Aragon, wife of Infante Peter, Lord of Cameros

Maria of Navarre (1329–1347), wife of Peter IV of Aragon

Maria de Luna (1358-1406), wife of Martin I of Aragon

Maria of Aragon, Queen of Castile (1396-1445), daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon, wife of John II of Castile

Maria of Castile (1401-1458), wife of Alfonso V of Aragon

Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal (1482–1517), daughter of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, and second wife of Manuel I of Portugal

Maria d'Aragona (1503-1568), Marchese of Vasto, daughter of Ferdinando di Montalto

Maria of Aragon (1505-1558), daughter of Joanna of Castile and Philip I of Castile, and wife of Louis II of Hungary

Maria of Aragon, Queen of Castile

Maria of Aragon ((1403-02-24)24 February 1403–(1445-02-18)18 February 1445) was the Queen consort of Castile and Leon as the wife of John II of Castile. She was the daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque.

Pere Oller

Pere Oller (fl. 1394 - 1442) was a Catalan Gothic sculptor.

From 1395 to 1399 he served as an apprentice on the choir of Barcelona Cathedral. He then relocated to Girona, where the keystone of a vault from the chapel of Pia Almoina is attributed to him, as well as the tomb of Bishop Berenguer de Anglesola in the Girona Cathedral. Other works thought to be his include the tomb of Pere Roure (died 1413) in Saint Vicente, Besal.A letter of King Alfonso V of Aragon (1416–58) to the Abbot of Poblet, dated 21 January 1417 states that Oller was commissioned to create the tomb of King Ferdinand I of Aragon (reg 1412-16), Alfonso's father, at the Poblet Monastery. The tomb itself is no longer extant, but some fragments survive. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City has a sculpture of a mourner by Oller, from Ferdinand's tomb as does the Loyola University Museum of Art in Chicago.

Also attributed to him are the tomb of Bishop Berenguer de Anglesola, in the Girona Cathedral and the chapel of Sancha Ximenis de Cabrera in the Cathedral of Santa Eulalia.

Pere Tomich

Pere (or Père) Tomich or Tomic (Bagà, Barcelona, fl. 1431–1438) was a Catalan knight and historian. He was son of the mayor of Bagà and attorney for the baronies of Pinós and Mataplana. He was Castilian of the castle of Aristot (Alt Urgell) in the years 1446-47.He wrote a monumental general history of Catalonia from Creation, through the "primers pobladors d'Espanya" (first populators of Spain), to the reign of Ferdinand I of Aragon. His Histories e Conquestes del reyalme Darago e principat de Cathalunya he finished at Bagà in 1438. One of its distinguishing marks is Pere's uncritical acceptance of legend and incorporation of folklore into his otherwise accurate account. Besides legend, Pere especially revels in listing the names of the major noble families of Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia. The events (especially military, with a taste for naval expeditions) in which they were actors accompany their names, and the names of the lords of Pinós and Bagà are heavily favoured. Pere is the sole source for several historical events. He adds to the so-called "Legend of the Cowardly Peasants", in which the cowardice of the peasantry in the face of the Moors is led to explain their servitude, the fact that the Christian leader whose summons to arms they refused to obey was Louis the Pious and that the summons took place in 814. Pere also asserts that Huguet de Mataplana, the troubadour, was present at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. He provides a detailed explanation of how Raymond Berengar I and Almodis codified the Catalan system of rank in their Usatges. Pere also wrote that Martin of Aragon died of the plague, which has been disproved.

In 1431, a lawyer representing the guild of bitmakers of Barcelona arrived in Bagà to obtain a copy of a document authenticating a miracle supposedly performed by Saint Stephen on Galceran de Pinós. Finding the rector of the city away on business, the lawyer obtained the testimony of the oldest and most trustworthy men of Bagà in a public information-gathering session held in front of a notary public. The first sworn testimony recorded was that of Pere Tomich. His recollection is detailed and he adds the story of one hundred young ladies who were rescued through the saint's intervention. All subsequent witnesses simply affirmed Pere's testimony, adding that so had they heard from their fathers and grandfathers.

Rafael de Medina, 20th Duke of Feria

Don Rafael de Medina y Abascal, 20th Duke of Feria, Grandee of Spain (Spanish pronunciation: [rafaˈel de meˈðina i aβaˈskal]) (born 25 September 1978) is the son of the late 19th Duke of Feria and the Spanish top-model Nati Abascal. He belongs to one of the most important families of Spain, the House of Medinaceli, being grandson of Victoria Eugenia Fernández de Córdoba, 18th Duchess of Medinaceli, and is a descendant of King Ferdinand I of Aragon.

Rodrigo de la Guitarra

Rodrigo de la Guitarra ("Rodrigo of the gittern") was a Spanish lutenist and gittern player, active primarily in the first half of the fifteenth century.

Rodrigo was in the service of the House of Trastámara, and was a court composer for Ferdinand I of Aragon when he received the Crown of Aragon in 1412. At Ferdinand's death in 1416, Alfonso V was crowned King of Aragon, and Rodrigo remained in his service under the title ministril de camara. He was sent to visit the Count of Foix and the courts of Navarre and Castile, accompanied by Diego, a singer who also served the Aragonese royalty.Rodrigo accompanied Alfonso on a visit to Naples in 1421; while he was away the following year, his wife, Ines Gonzalez, was kidnapped in Valencia, and his house was robbed. The abductors were caught in Seville and punished. By late 1423 he had returned to Spain, and is recorded as being in Barcelona; he remains in Aragonese records until 1427. He then disappears from the historical record until 1458, when he was one of several instrumentalists who accompanied the Feast of the Assumption in Toledo that year.

No surviving works have definitively been attributed to Rodrigo, though it has been suggested that he is the author of Angelorum psalat, a ballade from the Chantilly Codex. In the manuscript, the piece is listed under the name S Uciredor, or Rodericus spelled backwards, and Rodrigo de la Guitarra is the only known musician of the era with that name.

Ruy López de Dávalos

Ruy López de Dávalos, a.k.a. Rui López Dávalos, (Úbeda, Jaén Province, Spain, 1357 - in exile, Valencia, Spain, 1428), Count of Ribadeo since it was sold by the first count, the Frenchman Pierre de Villaines, who received it from Henry II of Castile on 20 December 1369, Adelantado of Murcia, 1396, Constable of Castile, 1400–1423, during the reigns of kings Henry III of Castile and John II of Castile. He was very attached to king Henry III's uncle, Ferdinand of Antequera, afterwards elected king Ferdinand I of Aragon, king 1412-1416. He was attached then to one of Ferdinand's troublesome sons, Infante Henry of Aragon (1400–1445).

Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque

Sancho Alfonso de Castilla (1342–1374) is known in Spanish as Don Sancho Alfonso de Castilla, Infante de Castilla, I conde de Alburquerque.

He was the ninth of the ten illegitimate children of King Alfonso XI of Castile and Lady Eleanor de Guzmán.

He was born in Seville. He participated in a revolt of the Castilian nobles against the despotic rule of his brother, Pedro of Castile.

In 1373 he married Beatrice of Portugal, daughter of Peter I of Portugal and Inês de Castro. They had two children: Fernando Sánchez, 2nd Count of Alburquerque, and Eleanor of Alburquerque, who married Ferdinand I of Aragon.

He also had an illegitimate daughter, Leonor Sánchez de Castilla, who married Fadrique de Castilla y Ponce de Leon, illegitimate son of Henry II, King of Castile.

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