Ferdinand II of Aragon

Ferdinand II (Aragonese: Ferrando; Catalan: Ferran; Basque: Errando; Spanish: Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic (Spanish: el Católico), was King of Aragon[1] from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy."[2] As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, and her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth; had the child survived, the personal union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile would have ceased.

Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus (1451–1506), in 1492. That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe. This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. For that Christian victory, Pope Alexander VI, born in the Kingdom of Valencia, awarded the royal couple the title of Catholic Monarchs. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, who was co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, "queen of Castile".[3]

Ferdinand the Catholic
Michel Sittow 004
Portrait by Michael Sittow
Reign20 January 1479 – 23 January 1516
PredecessorJohn II
SuccessorJoanna I and Charles I
King of Castile
Reign15 January 1475 – 26 November 1504
PredecessorIsabella I
SuccessorJoanna I
Co-monarchIsabella I
Born10 March 1452
Sada Palace, Sos, Aragon
Died23 January 1516 (aged 63)
Madrigalejo, Extremadura
Isabella I of Castile
(m. 1469; died 1504)

Germaine of Foix
(m. 1506)
FatherJohn II of Aragon and Navarre
MotherJuana Enríquez
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Ferdinand the Catholic's signature


Acquiring titles and powers

Ferdinand was born in Sada Palace, Sos del Rey Católico, Kingdom of Aragon, as the son of John II of Aragon (whose family was a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara) by his second wife, Juana Enríquez.[4] He married Infanta Isabella, the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, on 19 October 1469 in Valladolid, Kingdom of Castile and Leon. Isabella also belonged to the royal House of Trastámara, and the two were cousins by descent from John I of Castile. They were married with a clear prenuptial agreement on sharing power, and under the joint motto "tanto monta, monta tanto." He became jure uxoris King of Castile when Isabella succeeded her deceased brother in 1474 to be crowned as Queen Isabella I of Castile. The two young monarchs were initially obliged to fight a civil war against Joan of Castile (also known as Juana la Beltraneja), the purported daughter of Henry IV, and were swiftly successful.[5] When Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown of Castile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union. The various states were not formally administered as a single unit, but as separate political units under the same Crown.[6] (The legal merging of Aragon and Castile into a single Spain occurred under Philip V in 1707–1715.)

Ferdinand the Catholic swearing the fueros of Biscay as their Lord at Guernica in 1476
Columbian Issue 1893-5c
Columbus soliciting aid of Ferdinand's wife Isabella.

The first years of Ferdinand and Isabella's joint rule saw the Spanish conquest of the Nasrid dynasty of the Emirate of Granada (Moorish Kingdom of Granada), the last Islamic al-Andalus entity on the Iberian peninsula, completed in 1492.[7]

The completion of the Reconquista was not the only significant act performed by Ferdinand and Isabella in that year. In March 1492, the monarchs issued the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews, also called the Alhambra Decree,[8] a document which ordered all Jews either to be baptised and convert to Christianity or to leave the country.[9] It allowed Mudéjar Moors (Islamic) and converso Marrano Jews to stay, while expelling all unconverted Jews from Castile and Aragon (most Jews either converted or moved to Islamic lands of North Africa and the Ottoman Empire). 1492 was also the year in which the monarchs commissioned Christopher Columbus to find a westward maritime route for access to Asia, which resulted in the Spanish arrival in the Americas.

In 1494 the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the entire world beyond Europe between Portugal and Castile (Spain) for conquest and dominion purposes – by a north–south line drawn down the Atlantic Ocean.

Forced conversions

Ferdinand violated the 1491 Treaty of Granada peace treaty in 1502 by dismissing the clearly guaranteed religious freedom for Mudéjar Muslims. Ferdinand forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert, converso Moriscos, to Catholicism, or else be expelled. Some of the Muslims who remained were mudéjar artisans, who could design and build in the Moorish style. This was also practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. The main architect behind the Spanish Inquisition was King Ferdinand II.

Ferdinand destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone, burning them.

Fernando e Isabel
Wedding portrait of King Ferdinand II of Aragón and Queen Isabella of Castile.

The latter part of Ferdinand's life was largely taken up with disputes with successive Kings of France over control of Italy, the so-called Italian Wars. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and expelled Alfonso II, who was Ferdinand's first cousin once removed and stepson of Ferdinand's sister, from the throne of Naples. Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with Emperor Maximilian I to expel the French by 1496 and install Alfonso's son, Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. In 1501, following the death of Ferdinand II of Naples and accession of his uncle Frederick, Ferdinand signed an agreement with Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII, who had just successfully asserted his claims to the Duchy of Milan, to partition Naples between them, with Campania and the Abruzzi, including Naples itself, going to the French and Ferdinand taking Apulia and Calabria. The agreement soon fell apart and, over the next several years, Ferdinand's great general Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba fought to take Naples from the French, finally succeeding by 1504.

The King of France complains that I have twice deceived him. He lies, the fool; I have deceived him ten times and more.

— Ferdinand the Catholic.[10]

Some time before 1502 Andreas Palaiologos, the last exiled claimant to the Byzantine throne of his house, sold his titles and royal and imperial rights to Ferdinand. Those, however, had never been made use of, due to the doubtful nature of the deal[11].

After Isabella

Isabella made her will on 12 October 1504, in advance of her 26 November 1504 death. In it she spelled out the succession to the crown of Castile, leaving it to Joanna and then to Joanna's son Charles. Isabella was dubious of Joanna's ability to rule and was not confident of Joanna's husband Archduke Philip. Ferdinand moved quickly after his wife's death to continue his role in Castile. "On the day of his wife's death, Ferdinand formally renounced his title as king of Castile, which he had held since 1474, and instead became governor (gobernador) of the kingdom," as a way to become regent. Philip deemed his wife sane and fit to rule. A compromise was forged between Philip and Ferdinand, which gave Ferdinand a continued role in Castile.[12] Ferdinand II had served as the latter's regent during her absence in the Netherlands, ruled by her husband Archduke Philip. Ferdinand attempted to retain the regency permanently, but was rebuffed by the Castilian nobility and replaced with Joanna's husband, who became Philip I of Castile.

In the Treaty of Villafáfila of 1506, Ferdinand renounced not only the government of Castile in favor of his son-in-law Philip I of Castile but also the lordship of the Indies, withholding a half of the income of the kingdoms of the Indies.[13] Joanna of Castile and Philip immediately added to their titles the kingdoms of Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea. But the Treaty of Villafáfila did not hold for long because of the death of Philip; Ferdinand returned as regent of Castile and as "lord the Indies".[14]

The widowed Ferdinand made an alliance with France in July 1505 and married Germaine of Foix, also of the house of Trastámara, cementing the alliance with France. She was the granddaughter of his half-sister Queen Eleanor of Navarre and niece of Louis XII of France. Had Ferdinand's son with Germaine, John, Prince of Girona, born on 3 May 1509, survived, "the crown of Aragon would inevitably been separated from Castile."[12] and denied his grandson Charles the crown of Aragon. But the infant Prince John died within hours and was buried in the convent of Saint Paul in Valladolid, Kingdom of Castile and Leon, and later transferred to Poblet Monastery, Vimbodí i Poblet, Catalonia, Kingdom of Aragon, traditional burial site of the kings of Aragon.[15]

Ferdinand had no legal position in Castile with the cortes of Toro recognizing Joanna and her children as heirs and Ferdinand left Castile in July 1506. After his son-in-law Philip's untimely death in September 1506, Castile was in crisis. Joanna was allegedly mentally unstable, and Joanna's and Philip's son, Charles, the future Emperor Charles V, was only six years old. Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, the Chancellor of the Kingdom, was made regent, but the upper nobility reasserted itself. Ferdinand led an army against the marquis of Priego of Córdoba, who had seized control there by force.[16]

Fernando el Católico 01
Statue of Ferdinand in the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid

In 1508 war resumed in Italy, this time against the Republic of Venice, which all the other powers with interests on the Italian peninsula, including Louis XII, Ferdinand II, Maximilian, and Pope Julius II joined together against as the 'League of Cambrai'. Although the French were victorious against Venice at the Battle of Agnadello, the League of Cambrai soon fell apart, as both the Pope and Ferdinand II became suspicious of French intentions. Instead, the 'Holy League' was formed, in which now all the powers joined together against Louis XII and France.

In November 1511 Ferdinand II and his son-in-law King Henry VIII of England signed the Treaty of Westminster, pledging mutual aid between the two against Navarre and France ahead of the Castilian invasion of Navarre as of July 1512. After the fall of Granada in 1492, he had manoeuvred for years to take over the throne of the Basque kingdom, ruled by Queen Catherine of Navarre and King John III of Navarre, also lords of Béarn and other sizeable territories of the Pyrenees and western Gascony. Ferdinand annexed Navarre first to the Crown of Aragon, but later, under the pressure of Castilian noblemen, to the Crown of Castile. The Holy League was generally successful in Italy, as well, driving the French from Milan, which was restored to its Sforza dukes by the peace treaty in 1513. The French were successful in reconquering Milan two years later, however.

Ferdinand II died on 23 January 1516 in Madrigalejo, Extremadura, Kingdom of Castile and Leon. He is entombed at Capilla Real, Granada, Kingdom of Castile and Leon. His wife Isabella I, daughter Joanna I, and son-in-law Philip I rest beside him there.

Legacy and succession

Capilla real tombs
Ferdinand of Aragon
Ferdinand by an unknown painter, c. 1520s
Ferdinand the Catholic, by the "Meister der Magdalenen-Legende"

Ferdinand and Isabella established a highly effective sovereignty under equal terms. They utilised a prenuptial agreement to lay down their terms. During their reign they supported each other effectively in accordance to his joint motto of equality: "Tanto monta (or monta tanto), Isabel como Fernando", ("They amount to the same, Isabel and Ferdinand"). Isabella and Ferdinand's achievements were remarkable: Spain was united, or at least more united than it ever had been, the crown power was centralised, at least in name, the reconquista was successfully concluded, the groundwork for the most dominant military machine of the next century and a half was laid, a legal framework was created, the church reformed. Even without the benefit of the American expansion, Spain would have been a major European power. Columbus' discovery set the country on the course for the first modern world power.

During the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain pursued alliances through marriage with Portugal, Habsburg Austria, and Burgundy. Their first-born daughter Isabella was married to Alfonso of Portugal, and their first-born son John was married to Margaret of Austria. However, the deaths of these children, and the death of Isabella, altered the succession plan forcing Ferdinand to yield the government of Castile to Philip of Habsburg the husband of his second daughter Joanna.[17]

In 1502, the members of the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Zaragoza, and Parliaments of the Kingdom of Valencia and the Principality of Catalonia in Barcelona, as members of the Crown of Aragon, swore an oath of loyalty to their daughter Joanna as heiress, but Alonso de Aragón, Archbishop of Saragossa, stated firmly that this oath was invalid and did not change the law of succession which could only be done by formal legislation by the Cortes with the King.[18][19] So, when King Ferdinand died on 23 January 1516, his daughter Joanna inherited the Crown of Aragon, and his grandson Charles became Governor General (regent).[20] Nevertheless, the Flemish wished that Charles assume the royal title, and this was supported by his paternal grandfather the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and by Pope Leo X. Consequently, after Ferdinand II's funeral on 14 March 1516, Charles I was proclaimed King of Castile and of Aragon jointly with his mother. Finally, the Castilian Regent, Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros accepted the fait accompli, and the Castilian and Aragonese Cortes paid homage to him[21] as King of Aragon jointly with his mother.[22]

Ferdinand's grandson and successor Charles, was to inherit not only the Spanish lands of his maternal grandparents, but the Austrian and Burgundian lands of his paternal family, which would make his heirs the most powerful rulers on the continent and, with the discoveries and conquests in the Americas and elsewhere, of the first truly global Empire.


With his wife Isabella I the Catholic (whom he married 19 October 1469), King Ferdinand had seven children:

  1. Isabella (1470–1498), Princess of Asturias (1497–1498). She married first Afonso, Prince of Portugal, then after his death married his uncle Prince Manuel, the future King Emanuel I of Portugal. She died in childbirth delivering her son Miguel da Paz (Michael of Peace), Crown Prince of both Portugal and Spain who, in turn, died in infancy.
  2. A son miscarried on 31 May 1475 in Cebreros
  3. John (1478–1497), Prince of Asturias (1478–1497). He married Margaret of Habsburg (daughter of Emperor Maximilian I). He died of tuberculosis and his posthumous child with Margaret was stillborn.
  4. Joanna I (1479–1555), Princess of Asturias (1500–1504), Queen of Castile (1504–1555), Queen of Aragon (1516–1555). She married Philip I (Philip the handsome) (son of Emperor Maximilian I); and was the mother of King Charles I of Spain (also known as Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor). Ferdinand made her out to be mentally unstable and she was incarcerated by him, and then by her son, in Tordesillas for over 50 years. Her grandson, Philip II of Spain, was crowned in 1556.
  5. Maria (1482–1517). She married King Emanuel I of Portugal, the widower of her elder sister Isabella, and was the mother of King John III of Portugal and of the Cardinal-King, Henry I of Portugal.
  6. A stillborn daughter, twin of Maria. Born 1 July 1482 at dawn.
  7. Catalina, later known Catherine of Aragon, queen of England, (1485–1536). She married first Arthur, Prince of Wales, son of and heir to King Henry VII of England and, after Prince Arthur's death, she married his brother Henry, Duke of York, who also became Prince of Wales and then King Henry VIII. She thus became Queen of England and was the mother of Queen Mary I.

With his second wife, Germaine of Foix, niece of Louis XII of France (whom he married on 19 October 1505 in Blois, Kingdom of France), King Ferdinand had one son:

  • John, Prince of Girona, who died hours after being born on 3 May 1509.

He also left several illegitimate children, two of them were born before his marriage to Isabella:

With Aldonza Ruiz de Iborre y Alemany, a Catalan noblewoman of Cervera, he had:

With Joana Nicolaua:

With Toda de Larrea:

  • María Esperanza de Aragón (? – 1543). Abbess of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas.

With Beatriz Pereira:

  • (? – 1550). Nun at Madrigal de las Altas Torres.

Depiction in film and television

Year Film Director(s) Actor
1951 Hare We Go Robert McKimson Mel Blanc
1976 La espada negra Francisco Rovira Beleta Juan Ribó
1985 Christopher Columbus Alberto Lattuada Nicol Williamson
1992 Christopher Columbus: The Discovery John Glen Tom Selleck
1992 1492: Conquest of Paradise Ridley Scott Fernando García Rimada
1992 Carry On Columbus Gerald Thomas Leslie Phillips
1990 Shaheen Mohsin Ali Rashid Mehmood (actor)
2001 Juana la Loca Vicente Aranda Héctor Colomé
2016 Assassin's Creed Justin Kurzel Thomas Camilleri
TV series
Year Series Channel
1991 Réquiem por Granada TVE
2004 Memoria de España TVE
2011 Muhteşem Yüzyıl Show TV
2012 Isabel, mi reina TVE

See also


  1. ^ Aragonese crown included the kingdoms of Majorca, Sardinia, Sicily, and Valencia, as well as the Principality of Catalonia.
  2. ^ Bethany Aram, "Monarchs of Spain" in Iberia and the Americas, vol. 2, p. 725. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio 2006.
  3. ^ Aram, "Monarchs of Spain", p. 725.
  4. ^ Edwards, John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. xiii
  5. ^ Edwards, John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, pp. 1–37
  6. ^ Edwards, John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, pp. 38–39
  7. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan, A History of Medieval Spain (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1983), 24. ISBN 0-8014-9264-5. Preview of cited page available on Google Books as of 10 March 2011. See also: Richard Fletcher, "The Early Middle Ages, 700–1250," in Spain: A History, ed. Raymond Carr (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). ISBN 0-19-280236-4.
  8. ^ Michael C. Thomsett, The Inquisition: A History (Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, Inc., 2010), 158.
  9. ^ Bernard Lewis, Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims and Jews in the Age of Discovery (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 35–6. ISBN 0-19-509026-8
  10. ^ Miles H. Davidson, Columbus then and now: a life reexamined, University of Oklahoma Press 1997, ISBN 0-8061-2934-4, p. 474.
  11. ^ Norwich, John Julius, Byzantium - The Decline and Fall, p.446
  12. ^ a b Edwards, The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs, p. 288.
  13. ^ Memoria del Segundo Congreso Venezolano de Historia, del 18 al 23 de noviembre de 1974 (in Spanish). Academia Nacional de la Historia (Venezuela). 1975. p. 404.
  14. ^ Sánchez Prieto, Ana Belén (2004). La intitulación diplomática de los Reyes Católicos: un programa político y una lección de historia (PDF) (in Spanish). III Jornadas Científicas sobre Documentación en época de los Reyes Católicos. p. 296.
  15. ^ De Francisco Olmos, José María: Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517), Revista General de Información y Documentación 13, 133–153, 2003. URL: L. Külső hivatkozások
  16. ^ Edwards, The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs, pp. 288–89.
  17. ^ Elliot, J. H. Imperial Spain 1469–1716. Penguin Books (New York: 2002), pg. 208. ISBN 0-14-100703-6
  18. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Revista General de Información y Documentación 2003, vol 13, núm.2 (Universidad complutense de Madrid), page 137
  19. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Juana la Loca fabricada en los Países Bajos (1505–1506); José María de Francisco Olmos Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Revista General de Información y Documentación 2002, vol 12, núm.2 (Universidad complutense de Madrid), page 299
  20. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Revista General de Información y Documentación 2003, vol 13, núm.2 (Universidad complutense de Madrid) page 138
  21. ^ Historia general de España; Modesto Lafuente (1861), pp. 51–52.
  22. ^ Fueros, observancias y actos de corte del Reino de Aragón; Santiago Penén y Debesa, Pascual Savall y Dronda, Miguel Clemente (1866) Archived 10 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine, page 64 Archived 10 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John II of Aragon" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  24. ^ a b c d e Ortega Gato, Esteban (1999). "Los Enríquez, Almirantes de Castilla" [The Enríquezes, Admirals of Castille] (PDF). Publicaciones de la Institución "Tello Téllez de Meneses" (in Spanish). 70: 42. ISSN 0210-7317.
  25. ^ a b Ferdinand I, King of Aragon at Encyclopædia Britannica
  26. ^ a b c d e f de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisboa Occidental. p. 497.
  27. ^ a b "Mariana de Ayala Córdoba y Toledo". Ducal House of Medinaceli Foundation. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  28. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John I of Castile" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  29. ^ a b Louda, Jirí; MacLagan, Michael (1999), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (2nd ed.), London: Little, Brown and Company
  30. ^ a b "Juana de Mendoza". Diccionario Biográfico Español (in Spanish). Real Academia de Historia. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  31. ^ a b "Diego Fernández de Córdoba". Ducal House of Medinaceli Foundation. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  32. ^ a b "Inés de Ayala y Toledo". Ducal House of Medinaceli Foundation. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Menéndez Pidal de Navascués, Faustino (2004) «Los Reyes Católicos», El escudo de España, Madrid, Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía; Ediciones Hidalguia. ISBN 978-84-88833-02-0

External links

Ferdinand the Catholic
Born: 10 March 1452 Died: 23 January 1516
Regnal titles
Preceded by
John the Great
King of Sicily
Succeeded by
Joanna the Mad
King of Aragon, Valencia, and Majorca,
Count of Barcelona

Preceded by
Isabella the Catholic
as sole monarch
King of Castile and León
with Isabella the Catholic
Preceded by
Charles the Affable
Count of Roussillon and Cerdagne
Preceded by
Louis III
King of Naples
Preceded by
Catherine and John III
King of Navarre
Titles of nobility
Preceded by
Charles of Viana
Prince of Girona
Succeeded by
John of Asturias
Preceded by
John the Great
Lord of Balaguer
Duke of Gandía
Merged with the Crown
Preceded by
Juana Enríquez
Lord of Casarrubios del Monte
Coat of Arms of Queen Isabella of Castile (1474-1492)


Coat of Arms of Queen Isabella of Castile (1492-1504)

After the conquest of Granada.
With the arms of Granada.

Blasón de Fernando II de Aragón en la Aljafería

Coat of arms of Ferdinand II, in La Aljafería in Zaragoza.[33]

Coat of Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon (1479-1492)

Common Design

Coat of Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon with supporters (1513-1516)

Version with supporters

Arms of the Catholic Monarchs (1474-1492)


Arms of the Catholic Monarchs (1492-1504)


Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon (1504-1513)


Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon (1513-1516)


Coat of Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon as Lord of Biscay
Alhambra Decree

The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year. The primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain's large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain's Jews had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391. Due to continuing attacks, around 50,000 more had converted by 1415. A further number of those remaining chose to convert to avoid expulsion. As a result of the Alhambra decree and persecution in prior years, over 200,000 Jews converted to Catholicism and between 40,000 and 100,000 were expelled, an indeterminate number returning to Spain in the years following the expulsion.:17The edict was formally and symbolically revoked on 16 December 1968, following the Second Vatican Council. This was a full century after Jews had been openly practicing their religion in Spain and synagogues were once more legal places of worship under Spain's Laws of Religious Freedom.

In 1924, the regime of Primo de Rivera granted Spanish citizenship to the entire Sephardic Jewish diaspora. In 2014, the government of Spain passed a law allowing dual citizenship to Jewish descendants who apply, to "compensate for shameful events in the country's past." Thus, Sephardi Jews who can prove they are the descendants of those Jews expelled from Spain because of the Alhambra Decree can "become Spaniards without leaving home or giving up their present nationality."

Castilla de Oro

Castilla de Oro or del Oro (Spanish: [kasˈtiʎa ðe ˈoɾo]) was the name given by the Spanish settlers at the beginning of the 16th century to the Central American territories from the Gulf of Urabá, near today's Colombian-Panamanian border, to the Belén River. Beyond that river, the region was known as Veragua, and was disputed by the Spanish crown along with the Columbus family. The name "Castilla de Oro" was made official in May 1513 by King Ferdinand II of Aragon, then regent of the Crown of Castile.

After Vasco Núñez de Balboa's discovery of the Pacific Ocean, Castilla de Oro's jurisdiction was broadened to include the Pacific coasts of Panama, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua.

With the creation, in 1527, of the Province of Nicaragua, which included today's Nicaragua as well as the Nicoya Peninsula, Castilla de Oro's jurisdiction was reduced. In 1537, once the conflict between the crown and the Columbus family was settled, Castilla de Oro was split up, divided by the Duchy of Veragua.

The western portion, which comprised most of Panama's and Costa Rica's Pacific coasts, was merged in 1540 with Royal Veragua, to create the Province of Nuevo Cartago y Costa Rica.

The eastern part, the last remnant of Castilla de Oro, in time became known as the Realm of Tierra Firme, or Panamá, especially after the creation of the Royal Academy of Panamá in 1538. In 1560, the new Province of Veragua, created by Philip II out of the now defunct Duchy of Veragua, was merged with Castilla de Oro.

Catholic Monarchs

The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; on marriage they were given a papal dispensation to deal with consanguinity by Sixtus IV. They married on October 19, 1469, in the city of Valladolid; Isabella was eighteen years old and Ferdinand a year younger. It is generally accepted by most scholars that the unification of Spain can essentially be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. Some newer historical opinions propose that under their rule, what later became Spain was still a union of two crowns rather than a unitary state, as to a large degree Castile and Aragon remained separate kingdoms, with most of their own separate institutions, for decades to come. The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was constantly on the move, in order to bolster local support for the crown from local feudal lords.

The title of "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on Ferdinand and Isabella by Pope Alexander VI in 1494, in recognition of their defense of the Catholic faith within their realms.

"Catholic monarchs" or "kings" can also be used in a generic sense (e.g., "the Pope had authority over Catholic monarchs..."); the particular or generic use can be distinguished from the context.

Christopher Columbus (miniseries)

Christopher Columbus was a television mini-series broadcast in Italy and the United States in 1985. In six hours, the series told the story of the life of Christopher Columbus, with Gabriel Byrne starring as the explorer.

Conquest of Tunis (1574)

The Conquest of Tunis in 1574 marked the final conquest of Tunis by the Ottoman Empire over the Spanish Empire. This was an event of great significance as it decided that North Africa would be under Muslim rather than Christian rule and ended the Spanish Conquista of Northern Africa started under Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. The capture of Tunis in 1574 "sealed the Ottoman domination of the eastern and central Maghreb".

Descendants of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile

Ferdinand II of Aragon's marriage to Isabella I of Castile produced many children, five of whom survived to adulthood. They arranged strategic political marriages for all of these children to powerful monarchs and well-connected women. In time, many of their grandchildren became emperors and kings of various countries, and their first and second generation of descendants caused the genealogical lines of Isabella I and Ferdinand II to spread throughout Europe.

Among the living descendants of Isabella I and Ferdinand II include all of the current European monarchs. The current line of Kings of Spain are descended from their union, with their current major dynastic heir being King Felipe VI of Spain, who reigns in their native territories. Also among their descendants are King Albert II of Belgium, Grand-Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Queen Elizabeth II of the U.K., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, King Harald V of Norway, King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, and King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands – descend from Isabella I and Ferdinand II. This is also true of the Sovereign Princes of Europe: Albert II, Prince of Monaco and Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein.

Albert II of Belgium and Grand-Duke Henri of Luxembourg are, given the frequent intermarriage between Catholic dynasties, both descended from the medieval monarchs through multiple lines. The non-Catholic dynasties also share several lines of descent – the following are but a few examples. Elizabeth II of the U.K. descends from the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha family and that line descends from Isabella I and Ferdinand II beginning with the 1636 marriage of Princess Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg (1619–1680) to Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1601–1675) (Elisabeth Sophie being a descendant through Isabella and Ferdinand's daughter Joanna of Castile). Margrethe II of Denmark, Harald V of Norway, and Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden also trace their mutual descent from Isabella I and Ferdinand II through that same line as Elizabeth II of the U.K. In addition, Margrethe II, Harald V, and Carl XVI Gustaf also trace their descent from the Iberian couple through Josephine of Leuchtenberg, Queen-consort to King Oscar I of Sweden. Josephine, like Queen Beatrix discussed in the following sentence, is descended from the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt and that family is also descended from the Iberian couple. Beatrix of the Netherlands is descended from Isabella I and Ferdinand II through her great-great-great grandmother Wilhelmine of Prussia, wife of the first king of the Netherlands, William I. Queen Wilhelmine descends from the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt and the Landgraves are descendants by virtue of the aforementioned 1636 marriage of Princess Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg and Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (Elisabeth Sophie and Ernest I's daughter, Elisabeth Dorothea, married Louis VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt).

The Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt connection also provides the descent of Albert II, Prince of Monaco from Isabella I and Ferdinand II. Prince Albert's great-great-great grandmother, Princess Marie of Baden, was in turn the granddaughter of Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein is descended from Isabella I and Ferdinand II through his grandmother, Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria; Elisabeth Amalie descends from the Iberian couple via the Spanish and Hesse-Darmstadt houses, as well as through the formerly-reigning Catholic imperial or royal houses of Austria-Hungary, Portugal, and Bavaria (these formerly-reigning houses all descend from Isabella I and Ferdinand II).

Duke of Frías

Duke of Frías is a hereditary title created in 1492 by King Ferdinand II of Aragon and conferred to his son-in-law Don Bernardino Fernández de Velasco, 2nd Count of Haro, Constable of Castille, and Viceroy of Granada. It is one of the most important titles in Spain and one of the first titles to receive the honor of Grandee of Spain by Emperor Charles V in 1520.

The House of Velasco was one of the most powerful and influential noble Castilian families of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Era. Its original territories were situated around Burgos, Álava and eastern Cantabria. The lineage was of distant royal origin, being the Velascos a minor branch of the Astur-Leonese dynasty, but re-elevated when Don Juan de Velasco (1368–1418), was appointed hereditary Lord High Chamberlain-Chancellor or Camarero mayor to the Kings of Castile. His elder son, Pedro Fernández de Velasco, became the first Count of Haro.

When the 1st Count died in the 1470s, he was succeeded by his eldest son Pedro Fernández de Velasco, 2nd Count of Haro who became the hereditary Constable of Castile, the highest ranking military office in Spain not considering the King. His son, Don Bernardino de Velasco, 3rd Count of Haro and second hereditary Constable of Castile, received the title of Duke of Frías. After becoming a widow, he then married Doña Juana de Aragón, illegitimate daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon.

In 1520, Emperor Charles V made the 2nd Duke of Frías one of the first Grandees of Spain, thus making the Dukedom of Frías one of the 25 most important titles in the Kingdom of Spain, known as of "Grandeza Inmemorial" or "Inmemorial Grandeeship".

Duke of Gandía

The hereditary Spanish title duke of Gandía (Valencian: Ducat de Gandia, IPA: [duˈkad de ɣanˈdi.a]) has its origin in the "Manorialism of Gandía" founded in 1323 by James II of Aragon and was created in 1399 as Duke of Gandía by Martin of Aragon and granted to Alfonso of Aragon and Foix. Later, having no direct descendants, the title passed from the House of Aragon to the House of Trastámara. The title was re-established in 1483 by Ferdinand II of Aragon as a favour to Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia for his son Pedro Luis (Pier Luigi de Borgia).The dukedom went to Pier Luigi's half-brother Juan Borgia. He was assassinated, and his young son became Duke. The fourth duke was the religious figure Francesco Borgia. After the death of his wife, with whom he had a large family, he became a Jesuit.

Germaine of Foix

Germaine of Foix (Catalan: Germana de Foix; French: Germaine de Foix; 1488 – 15 October 1536) was queen consort of Aragon as the second wife of Ferdinand II of Aragon, whom she married in 1506 after the death of his first wife, Isabella I of Castile.

Germaine's father was John of Foix, Viscount of Narbonne and son of Queen Eleanor of Navarre. Her mother, Marie of Orléans, was the sister of King Louis XII of France.

Italian War of 1499–1504

The Second Italian War (1499–1504), sometimes known as Louis XII's Italian War or the War over Naples, was the second of the Italian Wars; it was fought primarily by Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon, with the participation of several Italian powers. In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Louis was determined to press his claim on the thrones of Milan and Naples. And in 1499, Louis XII invaded Lombardy and seized Milan, to which he had a claim in right of his paternal grandmother Valentina Visconti, Duchess of Orléans.

John, Prince of Asturias

John, Prince of Asturias (Spanish: Juan; 30 June 1478 – 4 October 1497), was the only son of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon who survived to adulthood.

Juan II Coloma, 1st Lord of Elda

Juan II Coloma, 1st Lord of Elda, Salinas and Petrer, 2nd Lord of Alfajarin, also known as Mosen Coloma (d. 1517) was a court functionary of the Spanish noble house.

List of Spanish monarchs

This is a list of Spanish monarchs, that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. The forerunners of the monarchs of the Spanish throne were the following:

Kings of the Visigoths

Kings of Asturias

Kings of Navarre

Kings of León

Kings of Galicia

Kings of Aragon

Kings of CastileThese seven lineages were eventually united by the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon (king of the Crown of Aragon) and Isabella I of Castile (queen of the Crown of Castile). Although their kingdoms continued to be separate, with their personal union they ruled them together as one dominion. Ferdinand also conquered the southern part of Navarre and annexed it to what was to become Spain. Isabella left her kingdom to her daughter Joanna of Castile. Ferdinand served as her regent during her insanity; though rebuffed by the Castilian nobility and replaced by Joanna's husband Philip the Handsome, he resumed his regency after Philip's death. In 1516, after Ferdinand II's death, his daughter Joanna inherited the kingdom of Aragon, but was kept prisoner at Tordesillas as insane. As Joanna's son, the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, did not want to be merely a regent, he was proclaimed king of Castile and Aragon jointly with his mother in Brussels. Subsequently, Castilian and Aragonese Cortes alleged oath to him as co-king with his mother. Upon her death, he became sole King of Castile and Aragon, and the thrones were thereafter united permanently.

Louis de Beaumont, 2nd Count de Lerín

Louis of Beaumont (c. 1430 – 1508) was a medieval noble of the kingdom of Navarre. He was the 2nd Count of Lerín in Southern Navarre, Marquis of Huesca and Connetable de Navarre.

Mad Love (2001 film)

Mad Love (Spanish: Juana la Loca, literally Juana the Madwoman) is a 2001

period drama film written and directed by Vicente Aranda starring Pilar López de Ayala and Daniele Liotti. The plot follows the tragic fate of Queen Joanna of Castile madly in love to an unfaithful husband, Philip the Handsome, Archduke of Austria.

The film received 3 Goya awards, in the categories of Best Actress, Best Wardrobe, and Best Makeup and Hair.

Rex Catholicissimus

The Latin title Rex Catholicissimus, rendered as Most Catholic King and Most Catholic Majesty, was awarded by the Pope to the Sovereigns of Spain. It was first used by Pope Alexander VI in the papal bull Inter caetera in 1493.

One of the rights of a "Most Catholic" queen – either regnant or consort – is the privilège du blanc, meaning that she may wear white when meeting the Pope rather than the normal black used by other consorts and heads of state.

The best-known example of this title is the Catholic Monarchs (Los Reyes Católicos), used solely in reference to Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon.

Sant Mori

Sant Mori is a municipality in the comarca of Alt Empordà, Girona, Catalonia, Spain.

Situated on the right bank of the river Fluvià, it is limited on the north by Sant Miquel de Fluvià, on the east by Ventalló, on the south by Saus and on the west by Palau de Santa Eulàlia.

The economy is based on agriculture and animal husbandry, it has a small electricity generator and tourism is becoming more important.

Sant Mori was a barony in the 15th century and in 1893 it became a marquisate. The regent queen Juana Enríquez and her son Ferdinand II of Aragon spent some days in the castle of Sant Mori at the height of the war against John II of Aragon. There the Parliament of the Corts Catalanes were invoked on October 1466.

Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando

Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando (pronounced [ˈtanto ˈmonta, ˈmonta ˈtanto, isaˈβel ˈkomo feɾˈnando]) or simply Tanto monta, monta tanto ("They amount to the same, the same they amount to") was the alleged motto of a prenuptial agreement made by the Spanish Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. During their joint reign they did in fact support each other effectively in accordance with their motto of equality. Still, the wording "Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando" is actually a popular saying invented many centuries later, not the real motto. Besides, and contrary to popular belief, Tanto monta was only the motto of King Ferdinand of Aragon, and never used by Isabella. Both the full version of the slogan and the unsourced idea that it referred to the two monarchs was a Romantic myth, aimed at fostering the idea that Isabella and Ferdinand ruled over a unified monarchy. In truth, both realms remained separate during their lives.

The Catholic Monarchs' great sword kept in the Royal Armoury of Madrid, made in the 15th century, was used during the reign of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabelle of Castile and in all solemn court occasions until the 18th century. With this sword, the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella knighted Christopher Columbus on his return from his first voyage to America. In the Throne Hall of the Royal Palace in Barcelona, Columbus was named "Admiral of the Ocean" and "Viceroy of the Indies". This ceremonial sword was used as the symbol of the royal power in all religious and political ceremonies starting with the conquest of Granada and the beginning of Spain as a nation. On its hand guard it bears the inscription "Tanto monta, monta tanto" that translates roughly to "As much as the one is worth, so too is the other."

Treaty of Alcáçovas

The Treaty of Alcáçovas (also known as Treaty or Peace of Alcáçovas-Toledo) was signed on 4 September 1479 between the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon on one side and Afonso V and his son, Prince John of Portugal, on the other side.

It put an end to the War of the Castilian Succession, which ended with a victory of the Catholic Monarchs on land and a Portuguese victory on the sea. The four peace treaties signed at Alcáçovas reflected that outcome: Isabella was recognized as Queen of Castile while Portugal reached hegemony in the Atlantic Ocean.

The treaty intended to regulate:

The renunciation of Afonso V and Catholic Monarchs to the Castilian throne and Portuguese throne, respectively

The division of the Atlantic Ocean and overseas territories into two zones of influence

The destiny of Juana de Trastámara

The contract of marriage between Isabella, the eldest daughter of the Catholic Monarchs, with Afonso, heir of Prince John. This was known as Tercerias de Moura, and included the payment to Portugal of a war compensation by the Catholic Monarchs in the form of marriage dowry.

The pardon of the Castilian supporters of Juana

Ancestors of Ferdinand II of Aragon
16. Henry II of Castile[28]
8. John I of Castile[25]
17. Juana Manuel[28]
4. Ferdinand I of Aragon[23]
18. Peter IV of Aragon[29]
9. Eleanor of Aragon[25]
19. Eleanor of Sicily[29]
2. John II of Aragon
20. Alfonso XI of Castile[26]
10. Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque[26]
21. Eleanor of Guzman[26]
5. Eleanor of Alburquerque[23]
22. Peter I of Portugal[26]
11. Beatrice of Portugal[26]
23. Inês de Castro[26]
1. Ferdinand II of Aragon
24. Fadrique Alfonso[24]
12. Alonso Enríquez[24]
6. Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza[24]
26. Pedro González de Mendoza (es)[30]
13. Juana de Mendoza (es)[24]
27. Aldonza de Ayala[30]
3. Juana Enríquez
28. Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba[31]
14. Diego Fernández de Córdoba (es)[27]
29. María García Carrillo[31]
7. Mariana Fernández de Córdoba[24]
30. Pedro Suárez de Toledo (es)[32]
15. Inés de Ayala (es)[27]
31. Juana Meléndez de Orozco[32]
1st Generation
2nd Generation
3rd Generation
4th Generation
5th Generation
6th Generation
7th Generation
8th Generation
9th Generation
10th Generation
11th Generation
12th Generation
13th Generation
14th Generation
15th Generation
16th Generation
17th Generation
House of Jiménez
House of Barcelona
House of Trastámara
House of Habsburg
House of Jiménez
House of Burgundy
House of Trastámara
House of Habsburg
Astur-Leonese house
House of Jiménez
House of Burgundy
House of Trastámara
House of Habsburg

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