Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564.[1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany and developed encouraging relationships with German princes.

The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, which in the 1520s began a great advance into Central Europe, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary. His flexible approach to Imperial problems, mainly religious, finally brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother.

Ferdinand's motto was Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus: "Let justice be done, though the world perish".

Ferdinand I
Hans Bocksberger der Aeltere 001
Reign27 August 1556 – 25 July 1564
Coronation14 March 1558, Frankfurt
PredecessorCharles V
SuccessorMaximilian II
Born10 March 1503
Alcalá de Henares, Castile, Spain
Died25 July 1564 (aged 61)
Vienna, Austria
SpouseAnne of Bohemia and Hungary
see detail...
FatherPhilip I of Castile
MotherJoanna of Castile
ReligionRoman Catholic



Ferdinand was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, the son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara (herself the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon) and Habsburg Archduke Philip the Handsome, who was heir to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. Ferdinand shared his customs, culture, and even his birthday with his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon. He was born, raised, and educated in Spain, and did not learn German when he was young.

In the summer of 1518 Ferdinand was sent to Flanders following his brother Charles's arrival in Spain as newly appointed King Charles I the previous autumn. Ferdinand returned in command of his brother's fleet but en route was blown off-course and spent four days in Kinsale in Ireland before reaching his destination. With the death of his grandfather Maximilian I and the accession of his now 19-year-old brother, Charles V, to title of Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the government of the Austrian hereditary lands, roughly modern-day Austria and Slovenia. He was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Though he supported his brother, Ferdinand also managed to strengthen his own realm. By adopting the German language and culture late in his life, he also grew close to the German territorial princes.

After the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Bohemia and Hungary (1526–1564).[1][3] Ferdinand also served as his brother's deputy in the Holy Roman Empire during his brother's many absences, and in 1531 was elected King of the Romans, making him Charles's designated heir in the empire. Charles abdicated in 1556 and Ferdinand adopted the title "Emperor elect" in 1558,[1][4] while Spain, the Spanish Empire, Naples, Sicily, Milan, the Netherlands, and Franche-Comté went to Philip, son of Charles.

Hungary and the Ottomans

Anonym Kaiser Ferdinand I
Ferdinand as a young boy

According to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515.[5] Both Hungary and Bohemia were elective monarchies[6], where the parliaments had the sovereign right to decide about the person of the king. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Ferdinand immediately applied to the parliaments of Hungary and Bohemia to participate as a candidate in the king elections. On 24 October 1526 the Bohemian Diet, acting under the influence of chancellor Adam of Hradce, elected Ferdinand King of Bohemia under conditions of confirming traditional privileges of the estates and also moving the Habsburg court to Prague. The success was only partial, as the Diet refused to recognise Ferdinand as hereditary lord of the Kingdom.

The throne of Hungary became the subject of a dynastic dispute between Ferdinand and John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania. They were supported by different factions of the nobility in the Hungarian kingdom. Ferdinand also had the support of his brother, the Emperor Charles V.

On 10 November 1526, John Zápolya was proclaimed king by a Diet at Székesfehérvár, John Zápolya was elected in the parliament by the untitled lesser nobility (gentry).

Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of Ferdinand but retained his position with his sister, Queen Dowager Mary. Ferdinand was also elected King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia etc. by the higher aristocracy (the magnates or barons) and the Hungarian Catholic clergy in a rump Diet in Pozsony on 17 December 1526.[7] Ferdinand was crowned as King of Hungary in the Székesfehérvár Basilica on 3 November 1527.

The Croatian nobles unanimously accepted the Pozsony election of Ferdinand I, receiving him as their king in the 1527 election in Cetin, and confirming the succession to him and his heirs.[8] In return for the throne, Archduke Ferdinand promised to respect the historic rights, freedoms, laws and customs of the Croats when they united with the Hungarian kingdom and to defend Croatia from Ottoman invasion.[2]

The Austrian lands were in miserable economic and financial conditions, thus Ferdinand desperately introduced the so-called Turkish Tax (Türken Steuer). In spite of the huge Austrian sacrifices, he was not able to collect enough money to pay for the expenses of the defence costs of Austrian lands. His annual revenues only allowed him to hire 5,000 mercenaries for two months, thus Ferdinand asked for help from his brother, Emperor Charles V, and started to borrow money from rich bankers like the Fugger family.[9]

Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, making Hungary an Ottoman vassal state.

This led to the most dangerous moment of Ferdinand's career, in 1529, when Suleiman took advantage of this Hungarian support for a massive but ultimately unsuccessful assault on Ferdinand's capital: the Siege of Vienna, which sent Ferdinand to refuge in Bohemia. A further Ottoman invasion was repelled in 1532 (see Siege of Güns). In that year Ferdinand made peace with the Ottomans, splitting Hungary into a Habsburg sector in the west and John Zápolya's domain in the east, the latter effectively a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.

Together with the formation of the Schmalkaldic League in 1531, this struggle with the Ottomans caused Ferdinand to grant the Nuremberg Religious Peace. As long as he hoped for a favorable response from his humiliating overtures to Suleiman, Ferdinand was not inclined to grant the peace which the Protestants demanded at the Diet of Regensburg which met in April 1532. But as the army of Suleiman drew nearer he yielded and on July 23, 1532 the peace was concluded at Nuremberg where the final deliberations took place. Those who had up to this time joined the Reformation obtained religious liberty until the meeting of a council and in a separate compact all proceedings in matters of religion pending before the imperial chamber court were temporarily paused.[10]

Coat of arms of Ferdinand, Infant of Spain, Archduke of Austria, KG
Arms of Ferdinand, Infante of Spain and Archduke of Austria, KG, at the time of his installation as a knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter

In 1538, in the Treaty of Nagyvárad, Ferdinand induced the childless Zápolya to name him as his successor. But in 1540, just before his death, Zápolya had a son, John II Sigismund, who was promptly elected King by the Diet. Ferdinand invaded Hungary, but the regent, Frater George Martinuzzi, Bishop of Várad, called on the Ottomans for protection. Suleiman marched into Hungary (see Siege of Buda (1541)) and not only drove Ferdinand out of central Hungary, he forced Ferdinand to agree to pay tribute for his lands in western Hungary.[11]

John II Sigismund was also supported by King Sigismund I of Poland, his mother's father, but in 1543 Sigismund made a treaty with the Habsburgs and Poland became neutral. Prince Sigismund Augustus married Elisabeth of Austria, Ferdinand's daughter.

Suleiman had allocated Transylvania and eastern Royal Hungary to John II Sigismund, which became the "Eastern Hungarian Kingdom", reigned over by his mother, Isabella Jagiełło, with Martinuzzi as the real power. But Isabella's hostile intrigues and threats from the Ottomans led Martinuzzi to switch round. In 1549, he agreed to support Ferdinand's claim, and Imperial armies marched into Transylvania. In the Treaty of Weissenburg (1551), Isabella agreed on behalf of John II Sigismund to abdicate as King of Hungary and to hand over the royal crown and regalia. Thus Royal Hungary and Transylvania went to Ferdinand, who agreed to recognise John II Sigismund as vassal Prince of Transylvania and betrothed one of his daughters to him. Meanwhile, Martinuzzi attempted to keep the Ottomans happy even after they responded by sending troops. Ferdinand's general Castaldo suspected Martinuzzi of treason and with Ferdinand's approval had him killed.

Since Martinuzzi was by this time an archbishop and Cardinal, this was a shocking act, and Pope Julius III excommunicated Castaldo and Ferdinand. Ferdinand sent the Pope a long accusation of treason against Martinuzzi in 87 articles, supported by 116 witnesses. The Pope exonerated Ferdinand and lifted the excommunications in 1555.[12]

The war in Hungary continued. Ferdinand was unable to keep the Ottomans out of Hungary. In 1554, Ferdinand sent Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq to Constantinople to discuss a border treaty with Suleiman, but he could achieve nothing. In 1556 the Diet returned John II Sigismund to the eastern Hungarian throne, where he remained until 1570. De Busbecq returned to Constantinople in 1556, and succeeded on his second try.

The Austrian branch of Habsburg monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary for the Ottoman wars. During the Ottoman wars the territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary shrunk by around 70%. Despite these enormous territorial and demographic losses, the smaller, heavily war-torn Royal Hungary had remained economically more important than Austria or Kingdom of Bohemia even at the end of the 16th century.[13] Out of all his countries, the depleted Kingdom of Hungary was, at that time, Ferdinand’s largest source of revenue.[14]

Consolidation of power in Bohemia

Bemberg Fondation Toulouse - Portrait paintings of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor by Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen Inv.1056
Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans

When he took control of the Bohemian lands in the 1520s, their religious situation was complex. Its German population was composed of Catholics and Lutherans. Some Czechs were receptive to Lutheranism, but most of them adhered to Utraquist Hussitism, while a minority of them adhered to Roman Catholicism. A significant number of Utraquists favoured an alliance with the Protestants.[15] At first, Ferdinand accepted this situation and he gave considerable freedom to the Bohemian estates. In the 1540s, the situation changed. In Germany, while most Protestant princes had hitherto favored negotiation with the Emperor and while many had supported him in his wars, they became increasingly confrontational during this decade. Some of them even went to war against the Empire, and many Bohemian (German or Czech) Protestants or Utraquists sympathized with them.[15]

Ferdinand and his son Maximilian participated in the victorious campaign of Charles V against the German Protestants in 1547. The same year, he also defeated a Protestant revolt in Bohemia, where the estates and a large part of the nobility had denied him support in the German campaign. This allowed him to increase his power in this realm. He centralized his administration, revoked many urban privileges and confiscated properties.[15] Ferdinand also sought to strengthen the position of the Catholic church in the Bohemian lands, and favoured the installation of the Jesuits there.

Ferdinand and the Augsburg Peace 1555

In the 1550s, Ferdinand managed to win some key victories on the imperial scene. Unlike his brother, he opposed Albrecht of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and participated in his defeat.[16] This defeat, along with his German ways, made Ferdinand more popular than the Emperor among Protestant princes. This allowed him to play a critical role in the settlement of the religious issue in the Empire.

After decades of religious and political unrest in the German states, Charles V ordered a general Diet in Augsburg at which the various states would discuss the religious problem and its solution. Charles himself did not attend, and delegated authority to his brother, Ferdinand, to "act and settle" disputes of territory, religion and local power.[17] At the conference, which opened on 5 February, Ferdinand cajoled, persuaded and threatened the various representatives into agreement on three important principles promulgated on 25 September:

  1. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio ("Whose realm, his religion") provided for internal religious unity within a state: the religion of the prince became the religion of the state and all its inhabitants. Those inhabitants who could not conform to the prince's religion were allowed to leave, an innovative idea in the sixteenth century. This principle was discussed at length by the various delegates, who finally reached agreement on the specifics of its wording after examining the problem and the proposed solution from every possible angle.
  2. The second principle, called the reservatum ecclesiasticum (ecclesiastical reservation), covered the special status of the ecclesiastical state. If the prelate of an ecclesiastic state changed his religion, the men and women living in that state did not have to do so. Instead, the prelate was expected to resign from his post, although this was not spelled out in the agreement.
  3. The third principle, known as Declaratio Ferdinandei (Ferdinand's Declaration), exempted knights and some of the cities from the requirement of religious uniformity, if the reformed religion had been practised there since the mid-1520s, allowing for a few mixed cities and towns where Catholics and Lutherans had lived together. It also protected the authority of the princely families, the knights and some of the cities to determine what religious uniformity meant in their territories. Ferdinand inserted this at the last minute, on his own authority.[18]

Problems with the Augsburg settlement

After 1555, the Peace of Augsburg became the legitimating legal document governing the co-existence of the Lutheran and Catholic faiths in the German lands of the Holy Roman Empire, and it served to ameliorate many of the tensions between followers of the "Old Faith" (Catholicism) and the followers of Luther, but it had two fundamental flaws. First, Ferdinand had rushed the article on reservatum ecclesiasticum through the debate; it had not undergone the scrutiny and discussion that attended the widespread acceptance and support of cuius regio, eius religio. Consequently, its wording did not cover all, or even most, potential legal scenarios. The Declaratio Ferdinandei was not debated in plenary session at all; using his authority to "act and settle,"[17] Ferdinand had added it at the last minute, responding to lobbying by princely families and knights.[19]

While these specific failings came back to haunt the Empire in subsequent decades, perhaps the greatest weakness of the Peace of Augsburg was its failure to take into account the growing diversity of religious expression emerging in the so-called evangelical and reformed traditions. Other confessions had acquired popular, if not legal, legitimacy in the intervening decades and by 1555, the reforms proposed by Luther were no longer the only possibilities of religious expression: Anabaptists, such as the Frisian Menno Simons (1492–1559) and his followers; the followers of John Calvin, who were particularly strong in the southwest and the northwest; and the followers of Huldrych Zwingli were excluded from considerations and protections under the Peace of Augsburg. According to the Augsburg agreement, their religious beliefs remained heretical.[20]

Charles V's abdication and Ferdinand's Emperorship

In 1556, amid great pomp, and leaning on the shoulder of one of his favourites (the 24-year-old William, Count of Nassau and Orange),[21] Charles gave away his lands and his offices. The Spanish empire, which included Spain, the Netherlands, Naples, Milan and Spain's possessions in the Americas, went to his son, Philip. His brother, Ferdinand, who had negotiated the treaty in the previous year, was already in possession of the Austrian lands and was also to succeed Charles as Holy Roman Emperor.[22] This course of events had been guaranteed already on 5 January 1531 when Ferdinand had been elected the King of the Romans and so the legitimate successor of the reigning Emperor.

CoA of later Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor as King of the Romans 1536 Hofburg Wien Austria
Coat of arms of Ferdinand I as King of the Romans, 1536, Hofburg palace, Vienna

Charles's choices were appropriate. Philip was culturally Spanish: he was born in Valladolid and raised in the Spanish court, his native tongue was Spanish, and he preferred to live in Spain. Ferdinand was familiar with, and to, the other princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Although he too had been born in Spain, he had administered his brother's affairs in the Empire since 1531.[20] Some historians maintain Ferdinand had also been touched by the reformed philosophies, and was probably the closest the Holy Roman Empire ever came to a Protestant emperor; he remained nominally a Catholic throughout his life, although reportedly he refused last rites on his deathbed.[23] Other historians maintain he was as Catholic as his brother, but tended to see religion as outside the political sphere.[24]

Charles' abdication had far-reaching consequences in imperial diplomatic relations with France and the Netherlands, particularly in his allotment of the Spanish kingdom to Philip. In France, the kings and their ministers grew increasingly uneasy about Habsburg encirclement and sought allies against Habsburg hegemony from among the border German territories, and even from some of the Protestant kings. In the Netherlands, Philip's ascension in Spain raised particular problems; for the sake of harmony, order, and prosperity Charles had not blocked the Reformation, and had tolerated a high level of local autonomy. An ardent Catholic and rigidly autocratic prince, Philip pursued an aggressive political, economic and religious policy toward the Dutch, resulting in a Dutch rebellion shortly after he became king. Philip's militant response meant the occupation of much of the upper provinces by troops of, or hired by, Habsburg Spain and the constant ebb and flow of Spanish men and provisions on the so-called Spanish road from northern Italy, through the Burgundian lands, to and from Flanders.[25]

The abdication did not automatically make Ferdinand the Holy Roman Emperor. Charles abdicated as Emperor in January 1556 in favour of his brother Ferdinand; however, due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the abdication (and thus make it legally valid) until 3 May 1558. Up to that date, Charles continued to use the title of Emperor.


Ferdinand I by Martin Rota
Posthumous engraving of Ferdinand by Martin Rota, 1575

The western rump of Hungary over which Ferdinand retained dominion became known as Royal Hungary. As the ruler of Austria, Bohemia and Royal Hungary, Ferdinand adopted a policy of centralisation and, in common with other monarchs of the time, the construction of an absolute monarchy. In 1527, soon after ascending the throne, he published a constitution for his hereditary domains (Hofstaatsordnung) and established Austrian-style institutions in Pressburg for Hungary, in Prague for Bohemia, and in Breslau for Silesia. Opposition from the nobles in those realms forced him to concede the independence of these institutions from supervision by the Austrian government in Vienna in 1559.

After the Ottoman invasion of Hungary the traditional Hungarian coronation city, Székesfehérvár came under Turkish occupation. Thus, in 1536 the Hungarian Diet decided that a new place for coronation of the king as well as a meeting place for the Diet itself would be set in Pressburg. Ferdinand proposed that the Hungarian and Bohemian diets should convene and hold debates together with the Austrian estates, but all parties refused such an innovation.

In 1547 the Bohemian Estates rebelled against Ferdinand after he had ordered the Bohemian army to move against the German Protestants. After suppressing the revolt, he retaliated by limiting the privileges of Bohemian cities and inserting a new bureaucracy of royal officials to control urban authorities. Ferdinand was a supporter of the Counter-Reformation and helped lead the Catholic response against what he saw as the heretical tide of Protestantism. For example, in 1551 he invited the Jesuits to Vienna and in 1556 to Prague. Finally, in 1561 Ferdinand revived the Archdiocese of Prague, which had been previously liquidated due to the success of the Protestants.

Ferdinand died in Vienna and is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.


Ferdinand's legacy ultimately proved enduring. Though lacking resources, he managed to defend his land against the Ottomans with limited support from his brother, and even secured a part of Hungary that would later provide the basis for the conquest of the whole kingdom by the Habsburgs. In his own possessions, he built a tax system that, though imperfect, would continue to be used by his successors.[26] His handling of the Protestant Reformation proved more flexible and more effective than that of his brother and he played a key part in the settlement of 1555, which started an era of peace in Germany. His statesmanship, overall, was cautious and effective, well-suited to a medium-sized collection of territories facing dangerous threats. On the other hand, when he engaged in more audacious endeavours, like his offensives against Buda and Pest, it often ended in failure.

Ferdinand was also a patron of the arts. He embellished Vienna and Prague, and invited Italian architects to his realm. He also gathered some humanists, many of whom had a big influence on his son Maximilian. He was particularly fond of music and hunting. While not a supremely gifted commander, he was interested in military matters and participated in several campaigns during his reign.

Name in other languages

German, Czech, Slovenian, Slovak, Serbian, Croatian: Ferdinand I.; Hungarian: I. Ferdinánd; Spanish: Fernando I; Turkish: 1. Ferdinand; Polish: Ferdynand I.

Marriage and children

On 26 May 1521 in Linz, Austria, Ferdinand married Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547), daughter of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne de Foix.[5] They had fifteen children, all but two of whom reached adulthood:

Name Birth Death Notes
Elisabeth 9 July 1526 15 June 1545 Married to the future King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland.
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor 31 July 1527 12 October 1576 Married to his first cousin Maria of Spain and had issue.
Anna 7 July 1528 16/17 October 1590 Married to Albert V, Duke of Bavaria.
Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria 14 June 1529 24 January 1595 Married to Philippine Welser and then to his niece Anne Juliana Gonzaga.
Maria 15 May 1531 11 December 1581 Married to Wilhelm, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
Magdalena 14 August 1532 10 September 1590 A nun.
Catherine 15 September 1533 28 February 1572 Married to Duke Francesco III of Mantua and then to King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland.
Eleanor 2 November 1534 5 August 1594 Married to William I, Duke of Mantua.
Margaret 16 February 1536 12 March 1567 A nun.
John 10 April 1538 20 March 1539 Died in childhood.
Barbara 30 April 1539 19 September 1572 Married to Alfonso II, Duke of Ferrara and Modena.
Charles II, Archduke of Austria 3 June 1540 10 July 1590 Father of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Ursula 24 July 1541 30 April 1543 Died in childhood
Helena 7 January 1543 5 March 1574 A nun.
Joanna 24 January 1547 10 April 1578 Married to Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Titles and styles

After ascending the Imperial Throne Ferdinand's full titulature, rarely used, went as follows: Ferdinand, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, etc. Prince-Infante in Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Enns, Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. etc.


Ferdinand I has been the main motif for many collector coins and medals, the most recent one is the Austrian silver 20-euro Renaissance coin issued on 12 June 2002. A portrait of Ferdinand I is shown in the reverse of the coin, while in the obverse a view of the Swiss Gate of the Hofburg Palace can be seen.

See also


  1. ^ Contested by John I (1526–40), and by John II Sigismund (1540–51, 1556–64)


  1. ^ a b c Britannica 2009
  2. ^ a b Milan Kruhek: Cetin, grad izbornog sabora Kraljevine Hrvatske 1527, Karlovačka Županija, 1997, Karslovac
  3. ^ Ferdinand I, Holy Roman emperor. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.
  4. ^ "Rapport établi par M. Alet VALERO" (PDF). Centre National de Documentation Pédagogique. 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
  5. ^ a b Rasmussen 2018, p. 65.
  6. ^ Martyn Rady (2014). The Emperor Charles V. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 9781317880820.
  7. ^ Robert A. Kann (1980). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918. University of California Press. p. 611. ISBN 9780520042063.
  8. ^ R. W. Seton-Watson. The southern Slav question and the Habsburg Monarchy. p. 18.
  9. ^ Jean Berenger; C.A. Simpson (2014). A History of the Habsburg Empire 1273-1700. Routledge. p. 160. ISBN 9781317895701.
  10. ^ article on the Nuremberg Religious Peace, page 351 of the 1899 Lutheran Cyclopedia
  11. ^ Imber, Colin (2002). The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-333-61386-3.
  12. ^ George Martinuzzi entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia
  13. ^ Robert Evans, Peter Wilson (2012). The Holy Roman Empire, 1495-1806: A European Perspective Volume 1 van Brill's Companions to European History. BRILL. p. 263. ISBN 9789004206830.
  14. ^ Dr. István Kenyeres: The Financial Administrative Reforms and Revenues of Ferdinand I in Hungary, English summary at page 92 Link1: [1] Link2: [2]
  15. ^ a b c Between Lipany and White Mountain, Palmitessa
  16. ^ Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, Whaley
  17. ^ a b Holborn, p. 241.
  18. ^ For a general discussion of the impact of the Reformation on the Holy Roman Empire, see Holborn, chapters 6–9 (pp. 123–248).
  19. ^ Holborn, pp. 244–245.
  20. ^ a b Holborn, pp. 243–246.
  21. ^ Lisa Jardine, The Awful End of William the Silent: The First Assassination of a Head of State with A Handgun, London, HarperCollins, 2005, ISBN 0-00-719257-6, Chapter 1; Richard Bruce Wernham, The New Cambridge Modern History: The Counter Reformation and Price Revolution 1559–1610, (vol. 3), 1979, pp. 338–345.
  22. ^ Holborn, pp. 249–250; Wernham, pp. 338–345.
  23. ^ See Parker, pp. 20–50.
  24. ^ Holborn, pp. 250–251.
  25. ^ Parker, p. 35.
  26. ^ History of the Habsburg empire, Jean Bérenger
  27. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 112 – via Wikisource.
  28. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Joanna" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  29. ^ a b Wikisource Holland, Arthur William (1911). "Maximilian I. (emperor)" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  30. ^ a b c d Wikisource Poupardin, René (1911). "Charles, called The Bold, duke of Burgundy" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. templatestyles stripmarker in |title= at position 86 (help)
  31. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ferdinand V. of Castile and Leon and II. of Aragon" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  32. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Isabella of Castile" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  33. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Frederick III., Roman Emperor" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  34. ^ Urban, William (2003). Tannenberg and After. Chicago: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center. p. 191. ISBN 0-929700-25-2.
  35. ^ a b Stephens, Henry Morse (1903). The story of Portugal. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 139. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  36. ^ a b Kiening, Christian. "Rhétorique de la perte. L'exemple de la mort d'Isabelle de Bourbon (1465)". Médiévales (in French). 13 (27): 15–24. doi:10.3406/medi.1994.1307.
  37. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John II of Aragon" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  38. ^ a b Ortega Gato, Esteban (1999). "Los Enríquez, Almirantes de Castilla" (PDF). Publicaciones de la Institución "Tello Téllez de Meneses" (in Spanish). 70: 42. ISSN 0210-7317.
  39. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John II. of Castile" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  40. ^ a b Downey, Kirstin (November 2015). Isabella: The Warrior Queen. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 9780307742162. Retrieved 17 July 2018.


  • Rasmussen, Mikael Bogh (2018). "Vienna, a Habsburg capital redocorated in classical style: the entry of Maximilian II as King of the Romans in 1563". In Mulryne, J.R.; De Jonge, Krista; Martens, Pieter; Morris, R.L.M. (eds.). Architectures of Festival in Early Modern Europe: Fashioning and Re-fashioning Urban and Courtly Space. Routledge.

Further reading

  • Fichtner, Paula S. Ferdinand I of Austria: The Politics of Dynasticism in the Age of the Reformation. Boulder, CO: East European Monographs, 1982. ISBN 0914710958 OCLC 8476035

External links

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 10 March 1503 Died: 25 July 1564
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Charles V
Archduke of Austria
Succeeded by
Maximilian II
as Archduke of Austria proper
Succeeded by
Charles II
as Archduke of Inner Austria
Succeeded by
Ferdinand II
as Archduke of Further Austria
King of the Romans
King in Germany

Succeeded by
Emperor Maximilian II
Holy Roman Emperor
Preceded by
Louis II
King of Hungary and Croatia
With: John I and John II Sigismund as contenders
King of Bohemia
Andreas Perlach

Andreas Perlach, also known as Andreas Perlacher and Andreas Perlachius ex Wittschein Stiriensis, (1490–1551) was born in Svečina, in the Habsburg empire (now in Slovenia). Perlach was the court astrologer to Archduke Ferdinand, later Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, in addition to being a practicing physician and a lecturer of mathematics and astrology at the University of Vienna. He received his doctorate of medicine from the University of Vienna in 1530.Perlach is notable for his support of the use of almanacs, having lectured on their importance and usage. His lectures were printed in outline form in 1519 and in full commentary in 1551. He also composed annual astrological almanacs for most of his career.Perlach lectured on mathematics from 1515 to 1549 as well as astrology and its application in medicine. He became dean of the Faculty of Arts, was appointed four times as dean of the Medical Faculty in Vienna, and as chancellor of the University of Vienna in 1549. His tombstone is built into the wall of the St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna.

Archduchess Eleanor of Austria

Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (2 November 1534 – 5 August 1594) was a Duchess of Mantua by marriage to William I, Duke of Mantua. She was the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.

Archduchess Helena of Austria (1543–1574)

Archduchess Helena of Austria (German: Helena von Österreich-Habsburg) (January 7, 1543 in Vienna – March 5, 1574 in Hall in Tirol), was a member of the House of Habsburg, and co-founder of the convent in Hall in Tirol.

She was the tenth (but ninth surviving) daughter of fifteen children of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Anne of Bohemia and Hungary.

Archduke Maximilian Ernest of Austria

Maximilian Ernest of Austria (17 November 1583 – 18 February 1616), was a German prince member of the House of Habsburg and by birth Archduke of Austria.

He was the son of Archduke Charles II of Austria, in turn son of Emperor Ferdinand I, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. His elder brother Archduke Ferdinand, succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor in 1619.

Armor of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

The Armor of Emperor Ferdinand I is a suit of plate armor created by the Nuremberg armorer Kunz Lochner in 1549 for the future Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor. One of several suits of armor made for the Emperor Ferdinand during the wars of Reformation and conflict with the Ottomans, the etched but functional armor is thought by scholars to symbolize and document the role of the Habsburg Catholic monarchs as warriors on Europe's literal and ideological battlefields.


Ballhausplatz is a square in central Vienna containing the building (with the address Ballhausplatz 2) that for over two hundred years has been the official residence of the most senior Austrian Cabinet Minister, the State Chancellor, today the Chancellor of Austria (Prime Minister). As a result, Ballhausplatz is often used as shorthand for the Austrian Federal Chancellery. Until 1918 the Foreign Ministry of Austria-Hungary was also housed here. Similar to Downing Street or the Hotel Matignon, the word Ballhausplatz (or Ballplatz for short) is a synecdoche for the seat of power.

Ballhausplatz is located in the first district Innere Stadt in central Vienna, a few minutes' walk from the Austrian Parliament Building and on the edge of the grounds of Hofburg Imperial Palace. Until 1754 the square itself did not exist, as an imperial hospital was located there. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor erected a real tennis house there, the Ballhaus (ball house). Later the building was used for the Imperial Court Construction Office (Hofbauamt). At the end of the 18th century the Ballhaus was ripped down.

Catherine of Austria, Queen of Poland

Catherine of Austria (Polish: Katarzyna Habsburżanka; Lithuanian: Kotryna Habsburgaitė; 15 September 1533 – 28 February 1572) was one of the fifteen children of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. In 1553, she married Polish King Sigismund II Augustus and became Queen consort of Poland and Grand Duchess consort of Lithuania. Their marriage was not happy and they had no children together. After a likely miscarriage in 1554 and a bout of illness in 1558, Sigismund became increasingly distant. He tried but failed to obtain a divorce from the pope. In 1565, Catherine returned to Austria and lived in Linz until her death. Sigismund died just a few months after her bringing the Jagiellon dynasty to its end.

Catherine of Habsburg

Catherine of Habsburg or Catherine of Austria may refer to:

Catherine of Habsburg (1256–1282), daughter of Rudolf I of Germany and wife of Otto III, Duke of Bavaria

Catherine of Austria, Duchess of Calabria (1295–1323), daughter of Albert I, Duke of Austria, and wife of Charles, Duke of Calabria

Catherine of Austria, Lady of Coucy (1320–1349), daughter of Leopold I, Duke of Austria, and wife of Enguerrand VI, Lord of Coucy

Catherine of Austria (1420–1493), daughter of Ernest, Duke of Austria, and wife of Charles I, Margrave of Baden-Baden

Catherine of Austria, Queen of Portugal (1507–1578), daughter of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, wife of King John III of Portugal

Catherine of Austria, Queen of Poland (1533–1572), daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and wife of King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland

Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain (1567–1597), daughter of Philip II of Spain and wife of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy

Archduchess Catherine Renata of Austria (1576–1599), daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Austria

Emperor Ferdinand

Emperor Ferdinand may refer to:

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503–1564), Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578–1637), Holy Roman Emperor 1619–1637, King of Bohemia 1617–1619, 1620–1637, and King of Hungary 1618–1625

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1608–1657), Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria

Ferdinand I of Austria (1793–1875), Emperor of Austria, President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia

Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria

Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria (Linz, 14 June 1529 – 24 January 1595, Innsbruck) was ruler of Further Austria including Tirol. The son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, he was married to Philippine Welser in his first marriage. In his second marriage to Anna Juliana Gonzaga, he was the father of Anna of Tyrol, the would-be Holy Roman Empress.

Ferdinand of Austria

Ferdinand of Austria may refer to:

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503 – 1564), Archduke of Austria

Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria (1529 – 1595), son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578 – 1637), aka Ferdinand III, Archduke of Inner Austria

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1608 – 1657), Archduke of Austria, son of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (1609/1610 - 1641)

Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria (1628 – 1662)

Ferdinand I of Austria (1793 – 1875)

Ferdinand of Habsburg

Ferdinand of Habsburg may refer to:

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503–1564)

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578–1637)

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1608–1657)

Ferdinand I of Austria (1793–1875)

Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg (1997)

Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus

Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus is a Latin phrase, meaning "Let justice be done, though the world perish".

This sentence was the motto of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, probably originating from Johannes Jacobus Manlius's book Loci Communes (1563). It characterizes an attitude, which wants to provide justice at any price. Its first documented use in English literature was about half a century later.A famous use is by Immanuel Kant, in his 1795 Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (Zum ewigen Frieden. Ein philosophischer Entwurf), to summarize the counter-utilitarian nature of his moral philosophy, in the form Fiat justitia, pereat mundus, which he paraphrases as "Let justice reign even if all the rascals in the world should perish from it."Ludwig von Mises created a variation on the phrase more in keeping with his philosophy: Fiat justitia, ne pereat mundus ("Let justice be done lest the world perish").This phrase (in the form Fiat justitia piriat mundus) is inscribed on the side of John Constantine's lighter in the 2005 film Constantine (based on the Vertigo comic book series Hellblazer and starring Keanu Reeves).

First Congress of Vienna

The First Congress of Vienna was held in 1515, attended by the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, and the Jagiellonian brothers, Vladislaus II, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia, and Sigismund I, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Previously, Vladislaus and Maximilian had agreed on a Habsburg-Jagiellon mutual-succession treaty in 1506. It became a turning point in the history of central Europe. After the death of Vladislaus, and later his son and heir, the childless King Louis II at the Battle of Mohács against the Ottomans in 1526, the Habsburg-Jagellion mutual succession treaty ultimately increased the power of the Habsburgs and diminished that of the Jagiellonians.

Maximilian had been supporting Vasili III of the Grand Duchy of Moscow against the Jagiellonian rulers of Lithuania, Poland, Hungary and Bohemia, to advance the Habsburg claims to the succession in Hungary and Bohemia. The Jagiellonians had been facing simultaneous threats on all fronts, from the Emperor, the Russians, the Teutonic Order under Albert of Prussia, and the Crimean Tatars. The city of Smolensk fell to the Russians in 1514, and Maximilian planned a congress to cement his claims in central Europe. However, Lithuanian and Polish forces decisively defeated the Russian army at the Battle of Orsha on 8 September 1514, changing the balance of power.

The Congress opened at the Emperor's border, at Bratislava (Pressburg or Pozsony) in Hungary, where Maximilian's representative met Vladislaus and Sigismund, and concluded after they travelled together to Austria where the two kings met the emperor and went on to Vienna. The Emperor promised to cease his support of Moscow against Lithuania and Poland, and to arbitrate in disputes between the Teutonic Order and Poland under the Second Treaty of Thorn. Maximilan and Vladislaus decided in the congress: their mutual succession treaty was further confirmed by a double wedding. Accordingly, Vladislaus's only son, Louis, married the Emperor's granddaughter Mary; and her brother, Archduke Ferdinand, married Vladislaus' daughter, Anna. The Habsburg claims to the succession in Hungary and Bohemia were advanced substantially by the marriages. A woodcut by Albrecht Dürer commemorates the double wedding on 22 July 1515.

Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, he was succeeded as King of Bohemia by Maximilian's grandson, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Hoyos family

The House of Hoyos is a Spanish and Austro-Hungarian noble family. It

derives its name from El Hoyo de Pinares in Ávila, Castile and León, and can be traced to the 9th century.

Juan de Hoyos and his family accompanied the later Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, to Lower Austria in 1525, founding the Austro-Hungarian branch of the family. This branch rose to prominence in Austria and in Hungary as Hungarian magnates over the centuries.

The older line of the family was elevated to imperial counts in 1628, and became extinct in 1718. A younger line was elevated to imperial counts in 1674.

Infante Carlos of Spain (1607–1632)

Infante Carlos of Spain, also known as Infante Charles of Spain (15 September 1607 – 30 July 1632) was infante of Spain, the second son of Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria.

Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski

Count Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski (1 January 1537 – 1 April 1567) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), Leliwa coat of arms. Son of Hetman Jan Tarnowski and Zofia née Szydłowiecka. He was married to Zofia Odrowąż since 1555, but had no issue.

He was educated in the worldly affairs at the court of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, at his father's great expense claimed Orzechowski.

He was owner of Tarnów, Wiewiórka, Przeworsk, Rożnów and Stare Sioło.

Secretary of King Sigismund II Augustus since 1554, held offices of castellan of Wojnicz, starost of Sandomierz, Stryj and Dolina. Poor health disallowed Jan Krzysztof to have a substantial career in the military, Niesiecki said: King was shoving a lesser military command to him during the Muscovy war ( Northern Seven Years' War), but his health weak due to consumption prevented him from achieving knightly deeds.'

Died prematurely, most likely to the ravages of tuberculosis, and was buried next to his father, Piotr Skarga presided over his funeral at Tarnów.

On his person ended the Tarnów line of the Tarnowski family clan.

Poet Jan Kochanowski dedicated his poem Chess to him.

List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 16th century

This is a list of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 16th century. This list currently holds 27 countries.

Wilhelm von Roggendorf

Wilhelm Freiherr von Roggendorf (1481–1541) was an Austrian military commander and Hofmeister.

He was a son of Kaspar von Roggendorf, and thus member of the ancient Von Roggendorf family from Styria, which ruled in Lower Austria since the middle of the 15th century.

Wilhelm von Roggendorf served the Habsburgs starting in 1491. He was Stadtholder of Friesland between 1517 and 1520, and was in the second half of the 1520s Hofmeister of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor. During the Siege of Vienna in 1529 by the Turks, he served as commander of the heavy cavalry under his brother-in-law Nicholas, Count of Salm (1459–1530). In the following years he had an influential role at the Austrian court as Obersthofmeister. He resigned in 1539, but returned as commander of the Austrian Siege of Buda (1541), which ended in disaster. Von Roggendorf was wounded during this battle and died two days later of his wounds.

Heraldry of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Coat of Arms of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Infante of Spain
Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Austria (1503-1564) as King of Hungary and Bohemia
Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I and Maximilian II as Kings of the Romans
Greater Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Coat of arms as Infante of Spain, Archduke of Austria
Coat of arms as King of Hungary & Bohemia
Coat of arms as King of the Romans
Coat of arms as Holy Roman Emperor
Ancestors of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
16. Ernest, Duke of Austria[33]
8. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor[29]
17. Cymburgis of Masovia[34]
4. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor[27]
18. Edward I of Portugal[35]
9. Eleanor of Portugal[29]
19. Eleanor of Aragon[35]
2. Philip I of Castile
20. Philip III, Duke of Burgundy[30]
10. Charles I, Duke of Burgundy[30]
21. Isabella of Portugal[30] (≠ 15)
5. Mary, Duchess of Burgundy[27]
22. Charles I, Duke of Bourbon[36]
11. Isabella of Bourbon[30]
23. Agnes of Burgundy[36]
1. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
24. Ferdinand I of Aragon[37]
12. John II of Aragon[31]
25. Eleanor of Alburquerque[37]
6. Ferdinand II of Aragon[28]
26. Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza[38]
13. Juana Enriquez[31]
27. Mariana Fernández de Córdoba[38]
3. Joanna I of Castile
28. Henry III of Castile[39]
14. John II of Castile[32]
29. Catherine of Lancaster[39]
7. Isabella I of Castile[28]
30. John, Constable of Portugal[40]
15. Isabella of Portugal[32] (≠ 21)
31. Isabel of Barcelos[40]
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