Feodosia (Russian: Феодосия, Feodosiya; Ukrainian: Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from Greek: Θεοδοσία), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Feodosia serves as the administrative center of Feodosia Municipality, one of the regions into which Crimea is divided. During much of its history the city was known as Caffa (Ligurian: Cafà) or Kaffa. Population: 69,145 (2014 Census).
Genoese fortress of Caffa
Coat of arms
Location of Feodosiya within Crimea
|Elevation||50 m (160 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK)|
|Former names||Kefe (until 1784), Caffa (until the 15th century)|
The city was founded as Theodosia (Θεοδοσία) by Greek colonists from Miletos in the 6th century BC. Noted for its rich agricultural lands, on which its trade depended, it was destroyed by the Huns in the 4th century AD.
Theodosia remained a minor village for much of the next nine hundred years. It was at times part of the sphere of influence of the Khazars (excavations have revealed Khazar artifacts dating back to the 9th century) and of the Byzantine Empire.
In the late 13th century, traders from the Republic of Genoa arrived and purchased the city from the ruling Golden Horde. They established a flourishing trading settlement called Kaffa, which virtually monopolized trade in the Black Sea region and served as a major port and administrative center for the Genoese settlements around the Sea. It came to house one of Europe's biggest slave markets. From 1266 and on, Kaffa was governed by a Genoese consul, who since 1316 was in charge of all Genoese Black Sea colonies. Between 1204–1261 and again in 1296–1307, the city of Kaffa was ruled by Republic of Genoa's chief rival, the Republic of Venice.
Ibn Battuta visited the city, noting it was a "great city along the sea coast inhabited by Christians, most of them Genoese." He further stated, "We went down to its port, where we saw a wonderful harbor with about two hundred vessels in it, both ships of war and trading vessels, small and large, for it is one of the world's celebrated ports."
In early 1318 Pope John XXII established a Latin Church diocese of Kaffa, as a suffragan of Genoa. The papal bull of appointment of the first bishop attributed to him a vast territory: "a villa de Varna in Bulgaria usque Sarey inclusive in longitudinem et a mari Pontico usque ad terram Ruthenorum in latitudinem" ("from the city of Varna in Bulgaria to Sarey inclusive in longitude, and from the Black Sea to the land of the Ruthenians in latitude"). The first bishop was Fra' Gerolamo, who had already been consecrated seven years before as a missionary bishop ad partes Tartarorum. The diocese ended as a residential bishopric with the capture of the city by the Ottomans in 1475. Accordingly, Kaffa is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
It is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Kaffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was reportedly withering from the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants, in one of the first cases of biological warfare. Fleeing inhabitants may have carried the disease back to Italy, causing its spread across Europe. However, the plague appears to have spread in a stepwise fashion, taking over a year to reach Europe from Crimea. Also, there were a number of Crimean ports under Mongol control, so it is unlikely that Kaffa was the only source of plague-infested ships heading to Europe. Additionally, there were overland caravan routes from the East that would have been carrying the disease into Europe as well.
Kaffa eventually recovered. The thriving, culturally diverse city and its thronged slave market have been described by the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, who was there in the 1430s. In 1462 Caffa placed itself under the protection of King Casimir IV of Poland. However, Poland did not offer significant help due to reinforcements sent being massacred in Bar fortress (modern day Ukraine) by Duke Czartoryski after quarrel with locals.
Following the fall of Constantinople, Amasra, and lastly Trebizond, the position of Caffa had become untenable and attracted the attention of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. He was at no loss for a pretext to extinguish this last Genoese colony on the Black sea. In 1473, the tudun (or governor) of the Crimean Khanate died and a fight developed over the appointment of his successor. The Genoese involved themselves in the dispute, and the Tatar notables who favored the losing candidate finally asked Mehmed to settle the dispute. Mehmed dispatched a fleet under the Ottoman commander Gedik Ahmet Pasha, which left Constantinople 19 May 1475. It anchored before the walls of the city on 1 June, started the bombardment the next day, and on 6 June the inhabitants capitulated. Over the next few days the Ottomans proceeded to extract the wealth of the inhabitants, and abduct 1,500 youths for service in the Sultan's palace. On 8 July the final blow was struck when all inhabitants of Latin origin were ordered to relocate to Istanbul, where they founded a quarter (Kefeli Mahalle) which was named after the town they had been forced to leave. Renamed Kefe, Caffa became one of the most important Turkish ports on the Black Sea.
In 1615 Zaporozhian Cossacks under the leadership of Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny destroyed the Turkish fleet and captured Caffa. Having conquered the city, the cossacks released the men, women and children who were slaves.
Ottoman control ceased when the expanding Russian Empire took over Crimea between 1774 and 1783. It was renamed Feodosiya (Ѳеодосія, reformed spelling: Феодосия), after the traditional Russian reading of the ancient Greek name. In 1900 Zibold constructed the first air well (dew condenser) on mount Tepe-Oba near Feodosiya.
The city was occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany during World War II, sustaining significant damage in the process. The Jewish population numbering 3,248 before the German occupation was murdered by SD-Einsatzgruppe D between November 16 and December 15, 1941. A witness interviewed by Yahad-In Unum described how the Jews were rounded-up in the city: "Posters announced that the Jews had to go to jail with food reserves for three days because they will be taken to Israel." A monument commemorating the Holocaust victims is situated at the crossroads of Kerchensky and Symferopolsky highways. On Passover eve, April 7, 2012, unknown persons desecrated, for the sixth time, the monument, allegedly as an anti-Semitic act. All native Tatar inhabitants were arrested by Russian forces as, according to Stalin, several thousand Tartars had fought side-by-side with the Nazis against Soviet forces and had participated in the Jewish genocide. No reliable source or proof exists of Stalin's allegations. Following Stalin orders, all Tartars were sent to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and other Central Asian republics of the USSR.
Modern Feodosiya is a resort city with a population of about 85,000 people. It has beaches, mineral springs, and mud baths, sanatoria, and rest homes. Apart from tourism, its economy rests on agriculture and fisheries, local industries include fishing, brewing and canning. As with much of the Crimea, most of its population is ethnically Russian; the Ukrainian language is infrequently used. In June 2006, Feodosiya made the news with the 2006 anti-NATO port riot.
While most beaches in Crimea are made of pebbles, there is a unique Golden Beach (Zolotoy Plyazh) made of small seashells in Feodosiya area. Golden Beach stretches for 15 km.
The city is sparsely populated during the winter months. Most cafes and restaurants are closed. Business and tourism increase in mid-June and peak during July and August. Like in the other resort towns in Crimea, the tourists come mostly from the C.I.S. countries of the former Soviet Union. Feodosiya was the city where the seascape painter Ivan Aivazovsky lived and worked all his life, and where general Pyotr Kotlyarevsky and the writer Alexander Grin spent their declining years. Popular tourist locations include the Aivazovsky National Art Gallery and the Genoese fortress.
Crimea was annexed by Russia in early 2014 and the peninsula, Ukrainian territory since 1991, is now administered as two Russian federal subjects - the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The international community has overwhelmingly condemned the Russian Federation's acts in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol. United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 68/262 of 27 March 2014 , 71/205 of 19 December 2016  and 72/190 of 19 December 2017  confirmed the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine, condemned the occupation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and reaffirmed the non-recognition of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. The United Nations also called upon all States, international organizations and specialized agencies not to recognize any alteration of the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and to refrain from any action or dealing that might be interpreted as recognizing any such altered status.
The late-medieval city of Caffa is the locale in a section of the novel Caprice and Rondo by Dorothy Dunnett.
An early 14th-century bishop of Caffa appears in Umberto Eco's novel The Name of the Rose, making several sharp replies in a long, tempestuous debate within a group of monks and clerics; he is portrayed as aggressive and somewhat narrow-minded.
1048 Feodosia, provisional designation 1924 TP, is a carbonaceous asteroid from the middle region of the asteroid belt, approximately 70 kilometers in diameter.
It was discovered on 29 November 1924, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany, and named for the Crimean city of Feodosiya.157th Motor Rifle Division
The 157th Motor Rifle Division was a motorized infantry division of the Soviet Army. It existed from 1969 to 1987 and was based in Feodosia. In 1987 it became the 710th Territorial Training Center. In 1989, the training center became a storage base.2006 anti-NATO protests in Feodosia
Anti-NATO protests (including one riot) took place in the Ukrainian port city of Feodosia from late May to early June 2006, partially disrupting a joint Ukrainian-U.S. military exercise, which was canceled 20 July 2006.Aivazovsky National Art Gallery
The Aivazovsky National Art Gallery is a national art museum in Feodosia, Crimea. The first exhibition was privately organised by Ivan Aivazovsky's in his house in 1845. The basis collection included his 49 paintings. In 1880 an additional exhibition hall was attached to the house. The gallery became the third museum in the Russian Empire, after the Hermitage Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery. After Aivazovsky's death in 1900, the ownership of the gallery was transferred to the city according to his testament.
Towards the end of 1920, the house was occupied by the Feodosia department of Cheka. Several paintings were damaged at that time.
Since 1922, the gallery became a state museum in the USSR. The collection consists of about 12 thousand nautical theme works, including the world's largest collection of works by Ivan Aivazovsky himself (417 paintings). The gallery exposition introduces the works of Aivazovsky, his family history, and the history of the gallery. A separate building (artist's sister house) presents mythological and biblical paintings, foreign marine paintings of the 18th-19th centuries, and the Cimmerian school of painting including Maximilian Voloshin, Lev Lagorio, Konstantin Bogaevsky, Mikhail Lattry, Adolf Faessler, and Arkhip Kuindzhi.
In 1930 a monument to Aivazovsky, by Ilya Ginzburg, with the inscription "Feodosia to Aivazovsky" was erected in front of the main building.Armenians in Crimea
Armenians have maintained a presence in the Crimea since the Middle Ages. The first wave of Armenian immigration into this area began during the mid-eleventh century and, over time, as political, economic and social conditions in Armenia proper failed to improve, newer waves followed them. Today, between 10 and 20 thousand Armenians live in the peninsula.Battle of the Kerch Peninsula
The Battle of the Kerch Peninsula, which commenced with the Soviet Kerch-Feodosia landing operation (Russian: Керченско-Феодосийская десантная операция, Kerchensko-Feodosiyskaya desantnaya operatsiya) and ended with the German Operation Bustard Hunt (German: Unternehmen Trappenjagd), was a World War II battle between Erich von Manstein's German and Romanian 11th Army and the Soviet Crimean Front forces in the Kerch Peninsula, in the eastern part of the Crimean Peninsula. It began on 26 December 1941 with an amphibious landing operation by two Soviet armies intended to break the Siege of Sevastopol. Axis forces first contained the Soviet beachhead throughout the winter and interdicted its naval supply lines through aerial bombing. From January through April, the Crimean Front launched repeated offensives against the 11th Army, all of which failed with heavy losses. The Red Army lost 352,000 men in the attacks, while the Axis suffered 24,120 casualties. Superior German artillery firepower was largely responsible for the Soviet debacle.On 8 May 1942, the Axis struck with great force in a major counteroffensive codenamed Trappenjagd which concluded by around 19 May 1942 with the liquidation of the Soviet defending forces. Manstein used a large concentration of airpower, heavily armed infantry divisions, concentrated artillery bombardments and amphibious assaults to break through the Soviet front in its southern portion in 210 minutes, swing north with the 22nd Panzer Division to encircle the Soviet 51st Army on 10 May and annihilate it on 11 May. The remnants of the 44th and 47th Armies were pursued to Kerch, where the last pockets of organized Soviet resistance were eradicated through German aerial and artillery firepower by 19 May. The decisive element in the German victory was the campaign of airstrikes against the Crimean Front by Wolfram von Richthofen's 800 aircraft-strong VIII. Fliegerkorps, which flew an average of 1,500 sorties per day in support of Trappenjagd and constantly attacked Soviet field positions, armored units, troop columns, Medical evacuation ships, airfields, and supply lines. German bombers used up to 6,000 canisters of SD-2 anti-personnel cluster munitions to kill masses of fleeing Soviet infantrymen.
Manstein's outnumbered 11th Army suffered 7,588 casualties, while the Crimean Front lost 176,566 men, 258 tanks, 1,133 artillery pieces and 315 aircraft in three armies comprising twenty-one divisions. Total Soviet casualties during the five month-long battle amounted to 570,000 men, while Axis losses were 38,000. Trappenjagd was one of the battles immediately preceding the German summer offensive (Case Blue). Its successful conclusion allowed the Axis to concentrate their forces on Sevastopol, which was conquered within six weeks. The Kerch Peninsula was used as a launching pad by German forces to cross the Kerch Strait on 2 September 1942 during Operation Blücher II, a part of the German drive to capture the Caucasus oilfields.FC More Feodosia
FC More Feodosia (Ukrainian: ФК Море Феодосія) was a football club from Feodosia, Ukraine.
The club existed before transfer of Crimea as FC More Yuzhnaya Tochka. Sometimes in 1952 it moved to a town of Prymorskyi where it played until 1989. Just before dissolution of the Soviet Union, it moved to the main city of Feodosia in 1989 and in 1992 was admitted to the 1992 Ukrainian Transitional League. The club was not successful and soon was relegated to regional competitions in 1993. Sometimes after that it was dissolved.
In 1992 and 1992–93 it participated in semi-professional competitions of Ukrainian league competitions. After 1993 More withdrew from competitions. Its games the club played in Prymorsky, Feodosia municipal commune.
The club was overshadowed after 1995 by another club FC Kafa that existed in 1995-2008 and competed at the Crimea regional competitions.Feodor I of Russia
Fyodor I Ivanovich (Russian: Фёдор I Иванович) or Feodor I Ioannovich (Russian: Феодор I Иоаннович); 31 May 1557 – 16 January (NS) 1598), also known as Feodor the Bellringer, was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598).
Feodor's mother died when he was three, and he grew up in the shadow of his father, Ivan the Terrible. A pious man of retiring disposition, Feodor took little interest in politics, and the country was effectively administered in his name by Boris Godunov, the brother of his beloved wife Irina. His childless death left the Rurikid dynasty extinct, and spurred Russia's descent into the catastrophic Time of Troubles.
In Russian documents, Feodor is sometimes called blessed (Russian: Блаженный). He is also listed in the "Great Synaxaristes" of the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 7 (OS).Feodosia Alekseyevna of Russia
Tsarevna Feodosia Alekseyevna (Russian: Феодосия Алексеевна; 29 March 1662 – 14 December 1713) was the seventh daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.
Feodosia Alekseyevna was described as modest and sacrificial, with a need to be of use to those closest to her, and she lived a life in seclusion in the terem (Russia) with her sisters and aunts, to whom she was devoted, and reportedly took no part in politics or the intrigues of the court. In 1683, it was noted that she lived in the household of her aunt Tsarevna Tatyana Mikhailovna of Russia and as devoted as a nun. In 1698, she became a nun under the name Susanna.Feodosia Morozova
Feodosia Prokopiyevna Morozova (Russian: Феодо́сия Проко́пьевна Моро́зова) (21 May 1632 – 1 December 1675) was one of the best-known partisans of the Old Believer movement. She was perceived as a martyr after she was arrested and died in prison.Feodosia Municipality
Feodosia City Municipality (Ukrainian: Феодосійська міськрада, Feodosijśka miśkrada; Russian: Феодосийский горсовет, Feodosijskij gorsovet; Crimean Tatar: Kefe şeer şurası), officially "the territory governed by the Feodosia city council", is one of the 25 regions of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. Population: 100,962 (2014 Census).It is a resort region, located in southeastern Crimea—one of the most popular recreational territories of the former Soviet Union. Besides its capital Feodosia, the region is famous for the resort town of Koktebel.Ivan Aivazovsky
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Russian: Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 1817 – 2 May 1900) was a Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art. Baptized as Hovhannes Aivazian (Armenian: Յովհաննէս Այվազեան) he was born into an Armenian family in the Black Sea port of Feodosia in Crimea and was mostly based there.
Following his education at the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, Aivazovsky traveled to Europe and lived briefly in Italy in the early 1840s. He then returned to Russia and was appointed the main painter of the Russian Navy. Aivazovsky had close ties with the military and political elite of the Russian Empire and often attended military maneuvers. He was sponsored by the state and was well-regarded during his lifetime. The saying "worthy of Aivazovsky's brush", popularized by Anton Chekhov, was used in Russia for describing something lovely. He remains highly popular in Russia.One of the most prominent Russian artists of his time, Aivazovsky was also popular outside Russia. He held numerous solo exhibitions in Europe and the United States. During his almost 60-year career, he created around 6,000 paintings, making him one of the most prolific artists of his time. The vast majority of his works are seascapes, but he often depicted battle scenes, Armenian themes, and portraiture. Most of Aivazovsky's works are kept in Russian, Ukrainian and Armenian museums as well as private collections.Koktebel
Koktebel (Ukrainian: Коктебéль, Russian: Коктебéль, Crimean Tatar: Köktöbel), formerly known as Planerskoye, is an urban-type settlement and one of the most popular resort townlets in South-Eastern Crimea. Koktebel is situated on the shore of the Black Sea about halfway between Feodosia and Sudak and is subordinated to the Feodosia Municipality. Population: 2,807 (2014 Census).Konstantin Bogaevsky
Konstantin Fyodorovich Bogaevsky (Russian: Константин Фёдорович Богаевский, 24 January [O.S. 12 January] 1872 - 17 February 1943) was a Russian painter notable for his Symbolist landscapes.Lev Lagorio
Lev Feliksovich Lagorio (Russian: Лев Феликсович Лагорио; 9 December 1826, Feodosia, Ukraine - 17 November 1905, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian Empire painter and watercolorist, known primarily for his seascapes and maritime scenes. He was associated with the "Cimmerian" school of painting, composed of artists who worked in Southern Crimea.Léon Barsacq
Léon Barsacq (18 October 1906 – 23 December 1969) was a Russian-born and naturalized French production designer, art director and set decorator. He was nominated for an Academy Award in the category Best Art Direction for the film The Longest Day. He was the brother of French theatre director André Barsacq and the father of film actor Yves Barsacq.More (Feodosiya)
PO More Shipyard (Russian: Судостроительный Завод «Море», originally Yuzhnaya Toka, Southern Stream) is a shipyard located in Feodosia, Crimea.
Its most prominent productions are the Zubr-class LCAC ship, military corvettes patrol boats and hydrofoil, and civilian Raketa, Meteorit, Kometa, Zarya and Voskhod fast hydrofoil boats.Prymorskyi
Primorskyi (Crimean Tatar: Hafuz, Russian: Приморский, Ukrainian: Приморський) is an urban-type settlement in the Feodosia Municipality of, de facto, the Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, but annexed by Russia in 2014. Population: 12,560 (2014 Census).Siege of Theodosia (389 BC)
The Siege of Theodosia in 389 BC was the first of three sieges carried out against the city of Theodosia (modern day Feodosia) by the rulers of the Bosporan Kingdom, who attempted time and time again to annex the city to their dominions during the long Bosporan-Heracleote War. The first of these sieges was carried out by Satyros I, the father of Leukon I.
|Climate data for Feodosia|
|Record high °C (°F)||19.1
|Average high °C (°F)||4.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−25.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||36
|Average rainy days||12||8||10||11||9||7||7||6||9||8||12||12||111|
|Average snowy days||8||8||6||0.3||0.1||0||0||0||0||0.1||2||6||31|
|Average relative humidity (%)||82||80||79||75||71||69||64||64||70||77||81||83||75|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||63||72||129||182||252||283||308||287||246||166||85||51||2,124|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net.|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961−1990)|
Administrative center: Feodosia