Fennoscandia (Finnish: Fennoskandia; Swedish: Fennoskandien; Norwegian: Fennoskandia; Russian: Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya) or the Fennoscandian Peninsula is the geographical peninsula comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula. It encompasses Finland, Norway and Sweden, as well as Murmansk Oblast, much of the Republic of Karelia, and parts of northern Leningrad Oblast in Russia. Its name comes from the Latin words Fennia (Finland) and Scandia (Scandinavian). The term was first used by the Finnish geologist Wilhelm Ramsay in 1898. Geologically, the area is distinct because its bedrock is Archean granite and gneiss with very little limestone, in contrast to adjacent areas in Europe.
Fennoscandia in March 2002
Map highlighting the Fennoscandian, Scandinavian and the Kola Peninsulas
|Adjacent bodies of water||Arctic Sea, Atlantic Ocean|
|Highest elevation||2,469 m (8,100 ft)|
|Whole or part of the mainland area of Murmansk Oblast, Republic of Karelia, and Leningrad Oblast|
The Amazonian Craton is a geologic province located in South America. It occupies a large portion of the central, north and eastern part of the continent. The Guiana Shield and Central Brazil Shield (Guaporé Shield) constitutes respectively the northern and southern exhumed parts of the craton. Between the two shields lies the Amazon Rift, a zone of weakness within the craton. Smaller cratons of Precambrian rocks south of the Amazonian Shield are the Río de la Plata Craton and the São Francisco Craton, which lies to the east.
The Río Apa Craton at the Paraguay-Brazil border is considered be likely just the southern part of the Amazonian Craton. The rocks of Río Apa were deformed during the Sunsás orogeny.It has been suggested that the Late Mesoproterozoic–Early Neoproterozoic aged Sveconorwegian Orogen in Fennoscandia could have been caused by a continent–continent collision between the Amazonia and Baltica. The question is open if Telemarkia terrane in Norway was derived from the Amazonian Craton but this possibility does not imply necessarily that there was a continental collision.Arctic warbler
The Arctic warbler (Phylloscopus borealis) is a widespread leaf warbler in birch or mixed birch forest near water throughout its breeding range in Fennoscandia and northern Asia. It has established a foothold in North America, breeding in Alaska. This warbler is strongly migratory; the entire population winters in southeast Asia. It therefore has one of the longest migrations of any Old World insectivorous bird.
It traditionally included populations that breed in Kamchatka, the Kuril Islands and Japan, but genetic and vocal evidence strongly suggested these should be treated as separate species, and are all now considered distinct with the Kamchatka leaf warbler in Kamchatka, Hokkaido and the Kuril Islands, and the Japanese leaf warbler in Japan (except Hokkaido).The nest is on the ground in a low shrub. Like most Old World warblers, this small passerine is insectivorous.
This is a typical leaf warbler in appearance, greyish-green above and off-white below. Its single wing bar distinguishes it from most similar species except the greenish warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides. It is larger than that species and has a heavier, dagger-like bill, with a dark tip to the lower mandible. Its song is a fast trill.
This species occurs as an autumn vagrant in western Europe and is annual on Great Britain. There were 225 confirmed arctic warbler sightings in Britain between 1958 and 2001.The genus name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch"). The specific borealis is from Latin and means "northern".Baltic Shield
The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earth's crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea. It is composed mostly of Archean and Proterozoic gneisses and greenstone which have undergone numerous deformations through tectonic activity. It contains the oldest rocks of the European continent with a thickness of 250-300 km.
The Baltic Shield is divided into five provinces: the Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian (or Southwestern gneiss) provinces in Fennoscandia, and the Karelian, Belomorian and Kola provinces in Russia. The latter three are divided further into several blocks and complexes and contain the oldest of the rocks, at 2500-3100 Ma (million years) old. The youngest rocks belong to the Sveconorwegian province, at 900-1700 Ma old.
Thought to be formerly part of an ancient continent, the Baltic Shield grew in size through collisions with neighbouring crustal fragments. The mountains created by this tectonic processes have since been eroded to their bases, the region being largely flat today. Through five successive Pleistocene glaciations and subsequent retreats, the Baltic Shield has been scoured clean of its overlying sediments, leaving expansive areas (most within Scandinavia) exposed. It is therefore of importance to geophysicists studying the geologic history and dynamics of eastern Europe.
The scouring and compression of the Baltic Shield by glacial movements created the area's many lakes and streams, the land retaining only a thin layer of sandy sediment collected in depressions and eskers. Most soil consists of moraine, a grayish yellow mixture of sand and rocks, with a thin layer of humus on top. Vast forests, featuring almost exclusively the three species pine, spruce and birch, dominate the landscape, clearly demarcating its boundaries. The soil is acidic and has next to no carbonates such as limestone. The scouring by the ancient glaciers and the acidity of the soil have destroyed all palaentologically interesting materials, such as fossils.
The Baltic Shield yields important industrial minerals and ores, such as those of iron, nickel, copper and platinum group metals. Because of its similarity to the Canadian Shield and cratons of southern Africa and Western Australia, the Baltic Shield had long been a suspected source of diamonds and gold. Currently, especially the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in the north is considered to be an unexplored area that has the potential to hold exploitable gold deposits.
Recent exploration has revealed a significant number of diamond-bearing kimberlites in the Kola Peninsula, and (possibly extensive) deposits of gold in Finland.Cap of the North
The Cap of the North (Nordkalotten in Norwegian and Swedish, or Pohjoiskalotti in Finnish) consists of the counties Finnmark, Nordland and Troms in Norway, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Lapland/Lappi Region in Finland and Murmansk Oblast in Russia.
This area is roughly equal to the parts of Fennoscandia (including the Kola Peninsula in Russia) lying north of the Arctic Circle. The region has a subarctic climate and is home to the majority of the Sámi people.
Historian Per Guttorm Kvenanger has criticized the term Nordkalotten for displacing the overlapping term Sápmi and hiding the "Sami character" of northern Fennoscandia.Coleophora graminicolella
Coleophora graminicolella is a moth of the family Coleophoridae. It is found in Europe. It has been recorded from Andorra, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Poland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Fennoscandia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, southern Russia and the Near East.
The wingspan is 15–17 mm.East European Craton
The East European Craton (EEC) is the core of the Baltica proto-plate and consists of three crustal regions/segments: Fennoscandia to the northwest, Volgo-Uralia to the east, and Sarmatia to the south. Fennoscandia includes the Baltic Shield (also referred to as the Fennoscandian Shield) and has a diversified accretionary Archaean and early Proterozoic crust, while Sarmatia has an older Archaean crust. The Volgo-Uralia region has a thick sedimentary cover, however deep drillings have revealed mostly Archaean crust. There are two shields in the East European Craton: the Baltic/Fennoscandian shield and the Ukrainian shield. The Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Massif consists of 3.2-3.8 Ga Archaean crust in the southwest and east, and 2.3-2.1 Ga Early Proterozoic orogenic belts.
The Ural Mountains are the eastern margin of the East European Craton and mark the Late Paleozoic orogenic collision of the East European Craton with the Siberian cratons. The southern margin of the craton is where Sarmatia is buried beneath thick Phanerozoic sediments and the Alpine orogens. The intervening Late Palaeozoic Donbass Fold Belt, also known as part of the Dnieper-Donets Rift, transects Sarmatia, dividing it into the Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Massif. The southwestern boundary is known as the Trans European Suture Zone and separates the East European craton from the Phanerozoic orogens of Western Europe (e.g. Carpathians). The northwestern margin of the craton is overlaid by the fold-and-thrust Early Paleozoic Caledonian orogen.Elophos vittaria
Elophos vittaria is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found in two separate areas in Europe. Subspecies mendicaria is found in the Alps and Mountains in central Europe, while ssp. vittaria is found from Fennoscandia, east through Russia and Asia to Japan.
The wingspan is 32–38 mm in central Europe and 25–36 mm in Fennoscandia. Adults are on wing from June to July.
The larvae feed on various low-growing plants, including Vaccinium and Betula species.Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica
Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica is a scientific book series of entomological identification manuals for insects (and other terrestrial arthropods) in North-West Europe, mainly Fennoscandia and Denmark. The series is used by a number of groups, such as ecologists, biologists, and insect collectors. The books are in English, and published by the Dutch academic publishing house Brill.Fell
A fell (from Old Norse fell, fjall, "mountain") is a high and barren landscape feature, such as a mountain range or moor-covered hills. The term is most often employed in Fennoscandia, the Isle of Man, parts of Northern England, and Scotland.Geology of Finland
The geology of Finland is made up of a mix of geologically very young and very old materials. Common rock types are orthogneiss, granite, metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks. On top of these lies is a widespread thin layer of unconsolidated deposits formed in connection to the Quaternary ice ages, for example eskers, till and marine clay. The topographic relief is rather subdued because mountain massifs were worn down to a peneplain long ago.Glacial landform
Glacial landforms are landforms created by the action of glaciers. Most of today's glacial landforms were created by the movement of large ice sheets during the Quaternary glaciations. Some areas, like Fennoscandia and the southern Andes, have extensive occurrences of glacial landforms; other areas, such as the Sahara, display rare and very old fossil glacial landforms.Gothian orogeny
The Gothian orogeny (Swedish: Gotiska orogenesen) or Kongsberg orogeny was an orogeny in western Fennoscandia that occurred between 1750 and 1500 millions years ago. It precedes the younger Sveconorwegian orogeny that has overprinted much of it. The Gothian orogeny formed along a subduction zone and resulted in the formation of calc-alkaline igneous rocks 1700 to 1550 million years ago, including some of the younger members of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt.The deformation associated with the orogeny can be seen in metatonalite, paragneiss and biotite orthogneisses in southeast Norway. These rocks were all subject to amphibolite facies metamorphism.Karelia
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish, and Estonian: Karjala; Russian: Карелия, Karelija, historically Корела, Korjela; Swedish: Karelen), the land of the Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden. It is currently divided among the northwestern Russian Federation (the federal subjects of the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast) and Finland (the regions of South Karelia and North Karelia).Murmansk Oblast
Murmansk Oblast (Russian: Му́рманская о́бласть, tr. Murmanskaya oblast, IPA: [ˈmurmənskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia, located in the northwestern part of the country. Its administrative center is the city of Murmansk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 795,409.Republic of Karelia
The Republic of Karelia (Russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия, tr. Respublika Kareliya, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə]; Karelian: Karjalan tazavaldu; Finnish: Karjalan tasavalta; Veps: Karjalan Tazovaldkund) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the northwest of Russia. Its capital is the city of Petrozavodsk. Its population in 2010 was 643,548.The modern Karelian Republic was founded as an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR by the Resolution of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) of June 27, 1923, and by the Decree of the VTsIK and the Council of People's Commissars of July 25, 1923, from the Karelian Labor Commune.
From 1940 to 1956, it was known as the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the union republics in the Soviet Union. In 1956, it was once again an autonomous republic and remains as a part of Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.Rhyacian
The Rhyacian Period ( ; Greek: ῥύαξ, translit. rhýax, meaning "stream of lava") is the second geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from 2300 Mya to 2050 Mya (million years ago). Instead of being based on stratigraphy, these dates are defined chronometrically.The Bushveld Igneous Complex and other similar intrusions formed during this period.The Huronian (Makganyene) global glaciation began at the start of the Rhyacian lasted 100 million years.The first known eukaryotes began to evolve in the Rhyacian period. The multicellular Francevillian Group Fossils, at 2.1-Gyr are from the Rhyacian period.For the time period from 2250 Ma to 2060 Ma, an alternative period based on stratigraphy rather than chronometry, named either the Jatulian or the Eukaryian, was suggested in the geological timescale review 2012 edited by Gradstein et al., but as of February 2017, this has not yet been officially adopted by the IUGS. The term Jatulian is, however, used in the regional stratigraphy of the Paleoproterozoic rocks of Fennoscandia.Rogen moraine
A Rogen moraine (also called ribbed moraine) is a subglacially (i.e. under a glacier or ice sheet) formed type of moraine landform, that mainly occurs in Fennoscandia, Scotland, Ireland and Canada. They cover large areas that have been covered by ice, and occur mostly in what is believed to have been the central areas of the ice sheets. Rogen moraines are named after Lake Rogen in Härjedalen, Sweden, the landform's type locality. Rogen Nature Reserve serves to protect the unusual area.
The landform occurs in groups that are often closely and regularly spaced. They consist of glacial drift, with till being the most common constituent. The individual moraines are large, wavy ridges orientated transverse to ice flow. Drumlins are often found in close proximity of Rogen moraines, and are often interpreted to be formed at the same time as the Rogen moraines. Although Rogen moraines can span a large range of sizes, the most common distribution seems to be 10–30 metres high, 150–300 metres wide and 300-1,200 metres long.The exact mechanics of Rogen moraine formation are not known, but since the 1970s, several theories on the formation have been proposed:
Megaripples eroded in the basal ice fill during subglacial outburst floods.
Already existing landforms, such as drumlins and flutes or marginal moraines are reshaped due to a ≈90° change in the direction of the ice flow.
Debris-rich basal ice or pre-existing sediments are sheared and stacked, or folded during compressive ice flow.
Sediment sheets become fractured and extended during a transition of the overlying glacier from being cold based ice to warm based.However, it has been suggested that, due to the diversity of morphological characteristics displayed by Rogen moraine, different processes might be able to create the landform. This means that all four of the processes mentioned above might be correct. The different theories that proposed a formation near or at the glacial margin have largely been abandoned. Some of these theories proposed that Rogen moraines had an origin as a series of end moraines, that they formed in association with calving ice termini in glacial lakes, or that Rogen moraines formed in dead-ice, where supraglacial material fell down into crevasses in the ice.Scandinavian Peninsula
The Scandinavian Peninsula (Swedish: Skandinaviska halvön; Norwegian: Den skandinaviske halvøy (Bokmål) or Nynorsk: Den skandinaviske halvøya; Finnish: Skandinavian niemimaa; Russian: Скандинавский полуостров, Skandinavsky poluostrov) is a peninsula of Eurasia located in Northern Europe, which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway (with the exception of a small coastal area bordering Russia), the northwestern area of Finland, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia.
The name of the peninsula is derived from the term Scandinavia, the cultural region of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. That cultural name is in turn derived from the name of Scania, the region at the southern extremity of the peninsula which was for centuries a part of Denmark, which is the ancestral home of the Danes, and which is now part of Sweden. The derived term "Scandinavian" also refers to the Germanic peoples who speak North Germanic languages, considered to be a dialect continuum derived from Old Norse. These modern North Germanic languages found in Scandinavia are Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish; additionally Faroese and Icelandic belong to the same language group, but they are not part of the modern Scandinavian dialect continuum and are not intelligible with the other languages.
The Scandinavian Peninsula is the largest of the well-known peninsulas of Europe, with a greater area than the Balkan, Iberian and Italian peninsulas. During the Ice Ages, the sea level of the Atlantic Ocean dropped so much that the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland disappeared, and the countries now surrounding them, including Germany, Poland, the other Baltic countries and Scandinavia, were directly joined by land.