Fennoman movement

The Fennomans, members of the most important political movement (Fennomania) in the 19th-century Grand Duchy of Finland, built on the work of the fennophile interests of the 18th and early-19th centuries.

Kiianmies Kyander graves Tampere 20090818
A set of graves in Tampere, showing the original surname "Kyander" as well as the fennicized "Kiianmies".

History

After the Crimean War, Fennomans founded the Finnish Party and intensified the language strife, yearning to raise the Finnish language and Finnic culture from peasant status to the position of a national language and a national culture. The opposition, the Svecomans, tried to defend the status of Swedish and the ties to the Germanic world.

Although the notion of Fennomans was not as common after the generation of Juho Kusti Paasikivi (born 1870), their ideas have dominated the Finns' understanding of their nation.

The mother tongue of many of the first generation of Fennomans, like Johan Vilhelm Snellman, was Swedish. Some of the originally Swedish-speaking Fennomans learned Finnish, and made a point of using it inside and outside the home.

Several Fennomans were from Finnish or bilingual homes. Some originally had Swedish surnames, common in Finland at that time.

Most of the Fennomans also Finnicized their family names, particularly from the end of the 19th century.

In the last years of the 19th century, and in the first years of the 20th, the Fennoman movement split into two political parties: the Old Finnish Party and the Young Finnish Party.

Motto

The Fennoman motto attributed to Adolf Ivar Arwidsson was actually coined by Johan Vilhelm Snellman: "Svenskar äro vi icke, ryssar vilja vi icke bli, låt oss alltså vara finnar."

"Swedes we are not,
Russians we cannot become,
therefore Finns we must be."[1]

Prominent Fennomans

See also

References

  1. ^ Kari Tarkiainen: Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, in Matti Klinge (ed.): Suomen kansallisbiografia 1. SKS, Helsinki 2003, ISBN 951-746-442-8 (page 406)

External links

Agathon Meurman

Agathon Meurman (9 October 1826, Kangasala – 17 January 1909, Helsinki) was a Finnish politician and journalist. He was one of the key persons of the Fennoman movement and since 1863 the leader of the Finnish Party together with Yrjö Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen.In 1883–1890 Meurman published the first Finnish language encyclopaedia Sanakirja yleiseen sivistykseen kuuluvia tietoja varten. It was mostly based on the German Meyers Encyclopedia.

Anders Josef Europaeus

Anders Josef Europaeus (21 November 1797 – 24 May 1870) was a Finnish priest and vicar.

Europaeus studied in Turku where he got influenced by early Fennoman movement. Following to his appointment as vicar in Liperi in 1832, he developed folk education and library system.

Europaeus was member of committee that planned new ecumenical law to Grand Duchy of Finland. He took part in Diet of Finland 1863–1864 as representative of clergy.

Europaeus was married twice and he got altogether ten children.

Elisabeth Järnefelt

Elisabeth Järnefelt (née Clodt von Jürgensburg; 11 January 1839 – 3 February 1929) was a Finnish salonist, known as "the mother of Finnish art and culture".

Emilie Bergbom

Emilie Sofia Bergbom (1834−1905) was a Finnish theater director. She was a supporter of the Fennoman movement.

She was joint director of the Finnish National Theatre with her brother Kaarlo Bergbom from its foundation in 1872 until her death in 1905. Bergbom was also director of a credit bank, making her the first of her sex in Finland to have an official position.

Finland Swedish

Finland Swedish or Fenno-Swedish (Swedish: finlandssvenska, Finnish: suomenruotsi) is a general term for the variety of Standard Swedish and a closely related group of Swedish dialects spoken in Finland by the Swedish-speaking population as their first language. For the most part, these dialects and the dialects spoken in Sweden are mutually intelligible, although some archaic Swedish dialects in Ostrobothnia are practically unintelligible to Swedish-speaking people in southern Finland (and in Sweden). Most Swedish-speaking Finns emphasize that Finland Swedish is not a language separate from the Swedish of Sweden. The Swedish dialects in Finland are considered varieties of Swedish, and the norm for written Standard Swedish is completely applicable also for Finland Swedish. Today, Swedish dialects are spoken in four different regions in Finland: Ostrobothnia, Åland Islands, Southwest Finland and Uusimaa.

Swedish as spoken in Finland is regulated by the Swedish Department of the Institute for the Languages of Finland. This regulation includes the officially stated aim of keeping Finland Swedish close to the Swedish as spoken in Sweden and strongly phrased advice against loanwords and calques from Finnish, which are usually incomprehensible to Swedes.

An often repeated "fact" is that the municipality with the highest proportion of Swedish speakers in the world, Larsmo (93% as of 2017), is located in Finland. Korsnäs has also held this title and is often cited as such. However, as there are no official statistics on the mother tongue of inhabitants of Sweden, this is hard or impossible to verify. In addition bilingualism is very common for immigrants in Sweden, so the term Swedish-speaking may be diffuse in that sense.

In the spoken vernacular, especially among young people in Finnish-dominated areas, Finnish loanwords as well as calques from Finnish are frequently incorporated into Finland Swedish. There are also some words in Finland Swedish that would be considered slightly archaic in Sweden. Some government and public service terms that have been created in recent centuries also differ. The same is true of other new words, notably loanwords from English.

A common misconception among many Swedes is that Finland Swedish is simply Swedish spoken with a Finnish accent, something that can be a considerable source of frustration to most native Swedish-speakers in Finland. Any language adopts features, especially pronunciation habits, from dominant languages it comes in touch with, but many of the traits of Finland Swedish exist also in monolingual areas and some are in fact preserved features of old Swedish, as with Scots in comparison with English, Afrikaans in comparison with Dutch, or Galician and Brazilian and African dialects in comparison with modern mainland European Portuguese.

Finnish nationalism

Nationalism was a central force in the History of Finland for the last two centuries. The Finnish national awakening in the mid-19th century was the result of members of the Swedish-speaking upper classes deliberately choosing to promote Finnish culture and language as a means of nation building—i.e. to establish a feeling of unity between all people in Finland including (and not of least importance) between the ruling elite and the ruled peasantry. The publication in 1835 of the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, a collection of traditional myths and legends which is the folklore common to the Finns and to the Karelian people (the Finnic Russian Orthodox people who inhabit the Lake Ladoga-region of eastern Finland and present-day NW Russia), stirred the nationalism that later led to Finland's independence from Russia.

Nationalism was contested by the pro-Russian element and by the internationalism of the labor movement. The result was a tendency toward class conflict over nationalism, but in the early 1900s the working classes split into the Valpas (class struggle emphasis) and Mäkelin (nationalist emphasis).

Fredrik Cygnaeus

Fredrik Cygnaeus (1 April 1807 – 7 February 1881) was a Finnish poet, art critic and collector, docent of history and university professor of aesthetics and literature. Cygnaeus was an influential figure in Finnish art and literature, contributed to Finnish nationalism and was a central person in the Fennoman movement (Fennomani).

Helsingin Jalkapalloklubi

Helsingin Jalkapalloklubi (literally The Football Club of Helsinki), commonly known as HJK Helsinki, or simply as HJK, is a professional football club based in Helsinki, Finland. The club competes in the Finnish Veikkausliiga, of which they are the reigning champions. Founded in 1907, the club has spent most of its history in the top tier of Finnish football. The club's home ground is the 10,770-seat Telia 5G -areena, where they have played since 2000.Generally considered Finland's biggest club, HJK is the most successful Finnish club in terms of championship titles with 29. The club has also won 13 Finnish Cups and 5 Finnish League Cups. Many of Finland's most successful players have played for HJK before moving abroad. The club has also similar success with women's Naisten Liiga.

HJK is the only Finnish club that has participated in the UEFA Champions League group stage. In 1998, they beat Metz in the play-off round to clinch their place in the competition for the following season. HJK has also participated in the UEFA Europa League, in 2014–15, defeating Rapid Wien in the play-off round. The club's highest score in a European competition came during the 2011–12 season, with a 13–0 aggregate victory over Welsh champions Bangor City, which included a 10–0 home win.

HJK's regular kit colours have long been blue and white shirts with blue shorts and socks. The club's crest has been nearly untouched for a century, it has only undergone one minor font change in order to modernize it.

Jaakko

Jaakko is a Finnish male first name, etymologically rooted in the Biblical names Jacob or James. The name day of Jaakko in the Finnish calendar is July 25. Jaakko may refer to:

Kings who are in English named James are in Finnish named Jaakko

Jakob De la Gardie in Finnish "Laiska-Jaakko" ("Jakob the lazy"), a Swedish count; nowadays laiskajaakko is the synonym for a lazy person

Jaakko Taneli Autere, Finnish ballet dancer

Jaakko Blomberg (born 1942), Finnish diplomat

Jaakko Elenius, Finnish editor-in-chief and a theologian

Jaakko Forsman (1839–1899), Finnish jurist and politician, leading activist of the Fennoman movement

Jaakko Haavio, Finnish writer and a priest

Jaakko Hallama (born 1917), Finnish former Foreign Ministry official

Jaakko Heinimäki, Finnish writer and a priest

Jaakko Hintikka, Finnish philosopher

Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila, Finnish professor in Arabian language and Islam

Jaakko Ilkka, Finnish rebel

Jaakko Itälä, Finnish politician

Jaakko Jonkka (born 1953), Chancellor of Justice of Finland (from July 2007)

Jaakko Kalela (born 1944), Finnish civil servant and diplomat

Jaakko Kolmonen (born 1941), Finnish chef

Jaakko Kivi, Finnish politician

Jaakko Laajava (born 1947), Finnish Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Security Policy

Jaakko Laakso, Finnish politician

Jaakko Lepola (born 1990), Finnish football player

Jaakko Löytty, Finnish gospel musician

Jaakko Mäntyjärvi (born 1963), Finnish composer of classical music, professional translator

Jaakko Mattila (born 1976), Finnish painter

Jaakko Nyberg (born 1980), Finnish football defender

Jaakko Ojaniemi, Finnish sportsman

Jaakko Paavolainen (1927–2007), Finnish historian

Jaakko Pakkasvirta, Finnish actor

Jaakko Pellinen, Finnish professional ice hockey forward

Jaakko Pöyry, Finnish industrialist

Jaakko Rissanen, Finnish professional ice hockey player

Jaakko Salo, Finnish composer

Jaakko Salovaara, Finnish musician

Jaakko Tallus (born 1981), Nordic combined athlete from Finland and Olympic gold medallist

Jaakko Teppo, Finnish artist

Jaakko Tähtinen, Finnish architect

Jaakko Turtiainen, Finnish professional ice hockey forward

Jaakko Valtanen (born 1925), Finnish general

Jaakko Vuorinen (1923–1982), Finnish Olympic fencer

Jaakko Wallenius (born 1958), Finnish writer and journalist

Jaakko Forsman

Jaakko Forsman (1839, Vähäkyrö — 1899) was a Finnish jurist and politician, as well as a leading activist of the Fennoman movement.

In 1857, he attained his doctorate in law at the University of Helsinki with the first Finnish language dissertation ever submitted to the Faculty of Law there. In 1879, he was appointed professor of law and legal history.

His contributions to the 1889 Finnish Criminal Code and his lectures in criminal law, which came to be regarded as the code's authentic interpretation, earned him the title of "Father of Finnish Criminal Law". Forsman also wrote a seminal text on Finnish legal history, Suomen lainsäädännön historia (1896), and served in the Diet of Finland from 1882 until his death.

Kansallis-Osake-Pankki

Kansallis-Osake-Pankki (KOP) was a Finnish commercial bank operating from 1889 to 1995. It was created by the fennoman movement as a Finnish language alternative to the largely Swedish language bank, Suomen Yhdyspankki (Swedish: Föreningsbanken i Finland). The two banks were merged in 1995 to form the Merita Bank. Merita Bank was later merged with Swedish Nordbanken to form Nordea.

Karelians

Karelians (Karelian: karjalaižet) are a Baltic-Finnic ethnic group who are native to the Northern European historical region of Karelia, which is today split between Finland and Russia.

In Russia, Karelians mostly live in the Republic of Karelia where there are the designated ethnic group and in other adjacent north-western parts of the country. There are also significant Karelian enclaves in the Tver and Novgorod oblasts, as some Karelians migrated to those areas after the Russo-Swedish War of 1656-1658.

In Finland, Karelians traditionally live in the regions of Savonia and Northern and Southern Karelia. The historic homeland of the Karelians is the Karelian Isthmus, Ladoga Karelia, Olonets Karelia in Russia and the regions of North and Southern Karelia and Savonia in Finland.

Svecoman movement

The Svecoman (Swedish: Svekoman, IPA: [sveːkʊˈmɑːn]) movement was a Suecophile or pro-Swedish nationalist movement that arose in the Grand Duchy of Finland at the end of the 19th century chiefly as a reaction to the demands for increased use of Finnish vigorously presented by the Fennoman movement. The Fennoman nationalist movement had demanded that Swedish be replaced by Finnish in public administration, courts, and schools. At the time, Finnish and Swedish were spoken by about 85 and 15 percent respectively of the duchy's population.The ideas of the "Svecomans" were an important part of the public debate of the 1870s and 1880s that was evoked by the reinstatement of the Diet of Finland, which now convened every third year.

Swedish People's Party of Finland

The Swedish People's Party of Finland (Swedish: Svenska folkpartiet i Finland (SFP); Finnish: Suomen ruotsalainen kansanpuolue (RKP)) is a liberal-centrist political party in Finland aiming to represent the interests of the minority Swedish-speaking population of Finland. An ethnic catch-all party, the party's main election issue has been since its inception the Swedish-speaking Finns' right to their own language and to maintain the Swedish language's position in Finland. The party was in governmental position 1979–2015 with one or two seats in the government and collaborated with the centre-right as well as the centre-left in the Parliament of Finland. After the 2015 election SFP was left out of the government formed by the three biggest parties.The fact that both the Finnish centre-right and centre-left have needed the support from the party has meant that they have been able to affect politics of Finland on a larger scale than the party's actual size would suggest. The position of the Swedish language as one of two official languages in Finland and the Swedish-speaking minority's right to the Swedish culture are two of the results of the party's influence in Finnish politics. The party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Party. The youth organisation of the party is called Svensk Ungdom ("Swedish Youth").

Usko Nyström

Zachris Usko Nyström, known as Usko Nyström, (6 September 1861 – 6 January 1925) was a Finnish architect and one of the most influential professors of architecture at Helsinki University of Technology; among his students were later notable architects Eliel Saarinen and Alvar Aalto. One of the pioneering architects of the early Art Nouveau or Jugendstil style in Finland at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, he continued to influence generations of students by introducing them to the style. Many of his key architectural works were made while he was in the architectural partnership Usko Nyström─Petrelius─Penttilä which operated from 1895 to 1908. His most famous work is the Grand Hôtel Cascade (1903) (nowadays known as the Imatran Valtionhotelli) in Imatra.

Young Finnish Party

The Young Finnish Party or Constitutional-Fennoman Party (Finnish: Nuorsuomalainen Puolue or Perustuslaillis-Suomenmielinen Puolue) was a liberal and nationalist political party in the Grand Duchy of Finland. It began as an upper-class reformist movement during the 1870s and formed as a political party in 1894.

Yrjö Jahnsson

Yrjö Jahnsson (1877–1936) was a Finnish economics professor at the University of Helsinki (appointed 1911). In the early 1930s he was openly critical of the strict monetary policy of the "orthodox" government and central bank. Ideologically he was a supporter of the Fennoman movement. During the 1920s and 1930s he was successful in business and made a substantial amount of money, which was used by his wife (Hilma Jahnsson (1882–1975)) to establish the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation.

Yrjö Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen

Baron Yrjö Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen (birth name Georg Zakarias Forsman, author name Yrjö Koskinen, 10 December 1830 in Vaasa – 13 November 1903 in Helsinki) was a friherre, senator, professor, historian, politician and the chairman of the Finnish Party after Johan Vilhelm Snellman. He was a central figure in the fennoman movement. His original name was Georg Zakarias Forsman and his family from his father's side originated from Sweden. He later fennicized his name to Yrjö Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen.

He is buried in the Hietaniemi Cemetery in Helsinki.

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