Feng shui

Feng shui or fengshui (traditional Chinese: 風水; simplified Chinese: 风水, pronounced [fə́ŋ.ʂwèi] (listen)), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.[1] The term feng shui literally translates as "wind-water" in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from the passage of the now-lost Book of Burial recorded in Guo Pu's commentary:[2] Feng shui is one of the Five Arts of Chinese Metaphysics, classified as physiognomy (observation of appearances through formulas and calculations). The feng shui practice discusses architecture in terms of "invisible forces" that bind the universe, earth, and humanity together, known as qi.

Historically, feng shui was widely used to orient buildings—often spiritually significant structures such as tombs, but also dwellings and other structures—in an auspicious manner. Depending on the particular style of feng shui being used, an auspicious site could be determined by reference to local features such as bodies of water, or stars or the compass.

Fengshui Compass
A feng shui compass (luopan)
Feng shui
Feng shui (Chinese characters)
"Feng shui" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Literal meaning"wind-water"
Vietnamese name
Vietnamesephong thủy
Hán-Nôm風水
Thai name
Thaiฮวงจุ้ย (Huang Jui)
Korean name
Japanese name
Hiraganaふうすい
Filipino name
TagalogPungsóy, Punsóy
Khmer name
Khmerហុងស៊ុយ (hongsaouy)

History

Origins

As of 2013 the Yangshao and Hongshan cultures provide the earliest known evidence for the use of feng shui. Until the invention of the magnetic compass, feng shui apparently relied on astronomy to find correlations between humans and the universe.[3] In 4000 BC, the doors of Banpo dwellings aligned with the asterism Yingshi just after the winter solstice—this sited the homes for solar gain.[4] During the Zhou era, Yingshi was known as Ding and used to indicate the appropriate time to build a capital city, according to the Shijing. The late Yangshao site at Dadiwan (c. 3500–3000 BC) includes a palace-like building (F901) at the center. The building faces south and borders a large plaza. It stands on a north–south axis with another building that apparently housed communal activities. Regional communities may have used the complex.[5]

A grave at Puyang (around 4000 BC) that contains mosaics— actually a Chinese star map of the Dragon and Tiger asterisms and Beidou (the Big Dipper, Ladle or Bushel)— is oriented along a north–south axis.[6] The presence of both round and square shapes in the Puyang tomb, at Hongshan ceremonial centers and at the late Longshan settlement at Lutaigang,[7] suggests that gaitian cosmography (heaven-round, earth-square) existed in Chinese society long before it appeared in the Zhoubi Suanjing.[8]

Cosmography that bears a striking resemblance to modern feng shui devices and formulas appears on a piece of jade unearthed at Hanshan and dated around 3000 BC. Archaeologist Li Xueqin links the design to the liuren astrolabe, zhinan zhen, and luopan.[9]

Beginning with palatial structures at Erlitou,[10] all capital cities of China followed rules of feng shui for their design and layout. During the Zhou era, the Kaogong ji (simplified Chinese: 考工记; traditional Chinese: 考工記; "Manual of Crafts") codified these rules. The carpenter's manual Lu ban jing (simplified Chinese: 鲁班经; traditional Chinese: 魯班經; "Lu ban's manuscript") codified rules for builders. Graves and tombs also followed rules of feng shui, from Puyang to Mawangdui and beyond. From the earliest records, the structures of the graves and dwellings seem to have followed the same rules.

Early instruments and techniques

La-chinatown-spiral
A feng shui spiral at LA Chinatown's Metro station

The history of feng shui covers 3,500+ years[11] before the invention of the magnetic compass. It originated in Chinese astronomy.[12] Some current techniques can be traced to Neolithic China,[13] while others were added later (most notably the Han dynasty, the Tang, the Song, and the Ming).[14]

The astronomical history of feng shui is evident in the development of instruments and techniques. According to the Zhouli, the original feng shui instrument may have been a gnomon. Chinese used circumpolar stars to determine the north–south axis of settlements. This technique explains why Shang palaces at Xiaotun lie 10° east of due north. In some of the cases, as Paul Wheatley observed,[15] they bisected the angle between the directions of the rising and setting sun to find north. This technique provided the more precise alignments of the Shang walls at Yanshi and Zhengzhou. Rituals for using a feng shui instrument required a diviner to examine current sky phenomena to set the device and adjust their position in relation to the device.[16]

The oldest examples of instruments used for feng shui are liuren astrolabes, also known as shi. These consist of a lacquered, two-sided board with astronomical sightlines. The earliest examples of liuren astrolabes have been unearthed from tombs that date between 278 BC and 209 BC. Along with divination for Da Liu Ren[17] the boards were commonly used to chart the motion of Taiyi through the nine palaces.[18] The markings on a liuren/shi and the first magnetic compasses are virtually identical.[19]

The magnetic compass was invented for feng shui[20] and has been in use since its invention. Traditional feng shui instrumentation consists of the Luopan or the earlier south-pointing spoon (指南針 zhinan zhen)—though a conventional compass could suffice if one understood the differences. A feng shui ruler (a later invention) may also be employed.

Foundational concepts

Definition and classification

The goal of feng shui as practiced today is to situate the human-built environment on spots with good qi, an imagined form of "energy". The "perfect spot" is a location and an axis in time.[21][22]

Feng shui is not a science, but is classified as a pseudoscience since it exhibits a number of classic pseudoscientific aspects such as making claims about the functioning of the world which are not amenable to testing with the scientific method.[1]

Qi (ch'i)

Lingshan Islamic Cemetery - turtle tomb - DSCF8492
A traditional turtle-back tomb of southern Fujian, surrounded by an omega-shaped ridge protecting it from the "noxious winds" from the three sides[23]

Qi(氣)(pronounced "chee" in English) is a movable positive or negative life force which plays an essential role in feng shui.[24]

The Book of Burial says that burial takes advantage of "vital qi". Wu Yuanyin[25] (Qing dynasty) said that vital qi was "congealed qi", which is the state of qi that engenders life. The goal of feng shui is to take advantage of vital qi by appropriate siting of graves and structures.[22] Some people destroyed graveyards of their enemies to weaken their qi.[26][27][28][29][30]

Polarity

Polarity is expressed in feng shui as yin and yang theory. Polarity expressed through yin and yang is similar to a magnetic dipole. That is, it is of two parts: one creating an exertion and one receiving the exertion. Yang acting and yin receiving could be considered an early understanding of chirality. The development of this theory and its corollary, five phase theory (five element theory), have also been linked with astronomical observations of sunspots.[31]

The Five Elements or Forces (wu xing) – which, according to the Chinese, are metal, earth, fire, water, and wood – are first mentioned in Chinese literature in a chapter of the classic Book of History. They play a very important part in Chinese thought: ‘elements’ meaning generally not so much the actual substances as the forces essential to human life.[32] Earth is a buffer, or an equilibrium achieved when the polarities cancel each other. While the goal of Chinese medicine is to balance yin and yang in the body, the goal of feng shui has been described as aligning a city, site, building, or object with yin-yang force fields.[33]

Bagua (eight trigrams)

Eight diagrams known as bagua (or pa kua) loom large in feng shui, and both predate their mentions in the Yijing (or I Ching). The Lo (River) Chart (Luoshu) was developed first,[34] and is sometimes associated with Later Heaven arrangement of the bagua. This and the Yellow River Chart (Hetu, sometimes associated with the Earlier Heaven bagua) are linked to astronomical events of the sixth millennium BC, and with the Turtle Calendar from the time of Yao.[35] The Turtle Calendar of Yao (found in the Yaodian section of the Shangshu or Book of Documents) dates to 2300 BC, plus or minus 250 years.[36]

In Yaodian, the cardinal directions are determined by the marker-stars of the mega-constellations known as the Four Celestial Animals:[36]

The diagrams are also linked with the sifang (four directions) method of divination used during the Shang dynasty.[37] The sifang is much older, however. It was used at Niuheliang, and figured large in Hongshan culture's astronomy. And it is this area of China that is linked to Yellow Emperor (Huangdi) who allegedly invented the south-pointing spoon (see compass).[38]

Traditional feng shui

Traditional feng shui is an ancient system based upon the observation of heavenly time and earthly space. The literature of ancient China, as well as archaeological evidence, provide some idea of the origins and nature of the original feng shui techniques.

Form School

The Form School is the oldest school of feng shui. Qing Wuzi in the Han dynasty describes it in the "Book of the Tomb" [1] and Guo Pu of the Jin dynasty follows up with a more complete description in The Book of Burial.

The Form School was originally concerned with the location and orientation of tombs (Yin House feng shui), which was of great importance.[21] The school then progressed to the consideration of homes and other buildings (Yang House feng shui).

The "form" in Form School refers to the shape of the environment, such as mountains, rivers, plateaus, buildings, and general surroundings. It considers the five celestial animals (phoenix, green dragon, white tiger, black turtle, and the yellow snake), the yin-yang concept and the traditional five elements (Wu Xing: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water).

The Form School analyses the shape of the land and flow of the wind and water to find a place with ideal qi.[39] It also considers the time of important events such as the birth of the resident and the building of the structure.

Compass School

The Compass School is a collection of more recent feng shui techniques based on the eight cardinal directions, each of which is said to have unique qi. It uses the Luopan, a disc marked with formulas in concentric rings around a magnetic compass.[40][41][42]

The Compass School includes techniques such as Flying Star and Eight Mansions.

Transmission of traditional feng shui techniques

Aside from the books written throughout history by feng shui masters and students, there is also a strong oral history. In many cases, masters have passed on their techniques only to selected students or relatives.[43]

Current usage of traditional schools

There is no contemporary agreement that one of the traditional schools is most correct. Therefore, modern practitioners of feng shui generally draw from multiple schools in their own practices.

Western forms of feng shui

More recent forms of feng shui simplify principles that come from the traditional schools, and focus mainly on the use of the bagua.

Aspirations Method

The Eight Life Aspirations style of feng shui is a simple system which coordinates each of the eight cardinal directions with a specific life aspiration or station such as family, wealth, fame, etc., which come from the Bagua government of the eight aspirations. Life Aspirations is not otherwise a geomantic system.

List of specific feng shui schools

Ti Li (Form School)

Popular Xingshi Pai (形势派) "forms" methods

  • Luan Tou Pai, 巒頭派, Pinyin: luán tóu pài, (environmental analysis without using a compass)
  • Xing Xiang Pai, 形象派 or 形像派, Pinyin: xíng xiàng pài, (Imaging forms)
  • Xingfa Pai, 形法派, Pinyin: xíng fǎ pài

Liiqi Pai (Compass School)

Popular Liiqi Pai (理气派) "Compass" methods

San Yuan Method, 三元派 (Pinyin: sān yuán pài)

  • Dragon Gate Eight Formation, 龍門八法 (Pinyin: lóng mén bā fǎ)
  • Xuan Kong, 玄空 (time and space methods)
  • Xuan Kong Fei Xing 玄空飛星 (Flying Stars methods of time and directions)
  • Xuan Kong Da Gua, 玄空大卦 ("Secret Decree" or 64 gua relationships)
  • Xuan Kong Mi Zi, 玄空秘旨 (Mysterious Space Secret Decree)
  • Xuan Kong Liu Fa, 玄空六法 (Mysterious Space Six Techniques)
  • Zi Bai Jue, 紫白诀 (Purple White Scroll)

San He Method, 三合派 (environmental analysis using a compass)

  • Accessing Dragon Methods
  • Ba Zhai, 八宅 (Eight Mansions)
  • Yang Gong Feng Shui, 杨公风水
  • Water Methods, 河洛水法
  • Local Embrace

Others

  • Yin House Feng Shui, 阴宅风水 (Feng Shui for the deceased)
  • Four Pillars of Destiny, 四柱命理 (a form of hemerology)
  • Zi Wei Dou Shu, 紫微斗数 (Purple Star Astrology)
  • I-Ching, 易经 (Book of Changes)
  • Qi Men Dun Jia, 奇门遁甲 (Mysterious Door Escaping Techniques)
  • Da Liu Ren, 大六壬 (Divination: Big Six Heavenly Yang Water Qi)
  • Tai Yi Shen Shu, 太乙神数 (Divination: Tai Yi Magical Calculation Method)
  • Date Selection, 择日 (Selection of auspicious dates and times for important events)
  • Chinese Palmistry, 掌相学 (Destiny reading by palm reading)
  • Chinese Face Reading, 面相学 (Destiny reading by face reading)
  • Major & Minor Wandering Stars (Constellations)
  • Five phases, 五行 (relationship of the five phases or wuxing)
  • BTB Black (Hat) Tantric Buddhist Sect (Westernised or Modern methods not based on Classical teachings)
  • Symbolic Feng Shui, (New Age Feng Shui methods that advocate substitution with symbolic (spiritual, appropriate representation of five elements) objects if natural environment or object/s is/are not available or viable)
  • Pierce Method of Feng Shui ( Sometimes Pronounced : Von Shway ) The practice of melding striking with soothing furniture arrangements to promote peace and prosperity

Contemporary uses of traditional feng shui

Taipei.101.fountain.altonthompson
A modern "feng shui fountain" at Taipei 101, Taiwan
  • Landscape ecologists often find traditional feng shui an interesting study.[44] In many cases, the only remaining patches of old forest in Asia are "feng shui woods",[45] associated with cultural heritage, historical continuity, and the preservation of various flora and fauna species.[46] Some researchers interpret the presence of these woods as indicators that the "healthy homes",[47] sustainability[48] and environmental components of ancient feng shui should not be easily dismissed.[49][50]
  • Environmental scientists and landscape architects have researched traditional feng shui and its methodologies.[51][52][53]
  • Architects study feng shui as an ancient and uniquely Asian architectural tradition.[54][55][56][57]
  • Geographers have analyzed the techniques and methods to help locate historical sites in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada,[58] and archaeological sites in the American Southwest, concluding that ancient Native Americans also considered astronomy and landscape features.[59]

Criticisms

Traditional feng shui

Traditional feng shui relies upon the compass to give accurate readings.[60][61] However, critics point out that the compass degrees are often inaccurate as fluctuations caused by solar winds have the ability to greatly disturb the electromagnetic field of the earth.[62] Determining a property or site location based upon Magnetic North will result in inaccuracies because true magnetic north fluctuates.[63]

Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), one of the founding fathers of Jesuit China missions, may have been the first European to write about feng shui practices. His account in De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas... tells about feng shui masters (geologi, in Latin) studying prospective construction sites or grave sites "with reference to the head and the tail and the feet of the particular dragons which are supposed to dwell beneath that spot". As a Catholic missionary, Ricci strongly criticized the "recondite science" of geomancy along with astrology as yet another superstitio absurdissima of the heathens: "What could be more absurd than their imagining that the safety of a family, honors, and their entire existence must depend upon such trifles as a door being opened from one side or another, as rain falling into a courtyard from the right or from the left, a window opened here or there, or one roof being higher than another?".[64]

Victorian-era commentators on feng shui were generally ethnocentric, and as such skeptical and derogatory of what they knew of feng shui.[65] In 1896, at a meeting of the Educational Association of China, Rev. P.W. Pitcher railed at the "rottenness of the whole scheme of Chinese architecture," and urged fellow missionaries "to erect unabashedly Western edifices of several stories and with towering spires in order to destroy nonsense about fung-shuy".[66]

Sycee-Incense
Sycee-shaped incense used in feng shui

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, feng shui was officially considered a "feudalistic superstitious practice" and a "social evil" according to the state's ideology and was discouraged and even banned outright at times.[67][68] Feng shui remained popular in Hong Kong, and also in the Republic of China (Taiwan), where traditional culture was not suppressed.[69]

Persecution was the most severe during the Cultural Revolution, when feng shui was classified as a custom under the so-called Four Olds to be wiped out. Feng shui practitioners were beaten and abused by Red Guards and their works burned. After the death of Mao Zedong and the end of the Cultural Revolution, the official attitude became more tolerant but restrictions on feng shui practice are still in place in today's China. It is illegal in the PRC today to register feng shui consultation as a business and similarly advertising feng shui practice is banned. There have been frequent crackdowns on feng shui practitioners on the grounds of "promoting feudalistic superstitions" such as one in Qingdao in early 2006 when the city's business and industrial administration office shut down an art gallery converted into a feng shui practice.[70] Some communist officials who had previously consulted feng shui were terminated and expelled from the Communist Party.[71]

Partly because of the Cultural Revolution, in today's mainland China less than one-third of the population believe in feng shui, and the proportion of believers among young urban Chinese is said to be much lower[72] Learning feng shui is still somewhat considered taboo in today's China.[73][74][75] Nevertheless, it is reported that feng shui has gained adherents among Communist Party officials according to a BBC Chinese news commentary in 2006,[76] and since the beginning of Chinese economic reforms the number of feng shui practitioners is increasing. A number of Chinese academics permitted to research on the subject of feng shui are anthropologists or architects by profession, studying the history of feng shui or historical feng shui theories behind the design of heritage buildings, such as Cao Dafeng, the Vice-President of Fudan University,[77] and Liu Shenghuan of Tongji University.

Contemporary feng shui

Westerners were criticized at the start of the anti-Western Boxer Rebellion for violating the basic principles of feng shui in the construction of railroads and other conspicuous public structures throughout China. However, today, feng shui is practiced not only by the Chinese, but also by Westerners and still criticized by Christians around the world. Many modern Christians have an opinion of feng shui similar to that of their predecessors:[78]

It is entirely inconsistent with Christianity to believe that harmony and balance result from the manipulation and channeling of nonphysical forces or energies, or that such can be done by means of the proper placement of physical objects. Such techniques, in fact, belong to the world of sorcery.[79]

Still others are simply skeptical of feng shui. Evidence for its effectiveness is based primarily upon anecdote and users are often offered conflicting advice from different practitioners. Feng shui practitioners use these differences as evidence of variations in practice or different schools of thought. Critical analysts have described it thus: "Feng shui has always been based upon mere guesswork".[80][81] Some are skeptical of feng shui's lasting impact.[82] Mark Johnson:[83]

This present state of affairs is ludicrous and confusing. Do we really believe that mirrors and flutes are going to change people's tendencies in any lasting and meaningful way? ... There is a lot of investigation that needs to be done or we will all go down the tubes because of our inability to match our exaggerated claims with lasting changes.

Nonetheless, after Richard Nixon journeyed to the People's Republic of China in 1972, feng shui became marketable in the United States and has since been reinvented by New Age entrepreneurs for Western consumption. Critics of contemporary feng shui are concerned that with the passage of time much of the theory behind it has been lost in translation, not paid proper consideration, frowned upon, or even scorned. Robert T. Carroll sums up what feng shui has become in some instances:

...feng shui has become an aspect of interior decorating in the Western world and alleged masters of feng shui now hire themselves out for hefty sums to tell people such as Donald Trump which way his doors and other things should hang. Feng shui has also become another New Age "energy" scam with arrays of metaphysical products...offered for sale to help you improve your health, maximize your potential, and guarantee fulfillment of some fortune cookie philosophy.[84]

Others have noted how, when feng shui is not applied properly, it can even harm the environment, such as was the case of people planting "lucky bamboo" in ecosystems that could not handle them.[85]

Feng shui practitioners in China find superstitious and corrupt officials easy prey, despite official disapproval. In one instance, in 2009, county officials in Gansu, on the advice of feng shui practitioners, spent $732,000 to haul a 369-ton "spirit rock" to the county seat to ward off "bad luck."[86]

The stage magician duo Penn and Teller dedicated an episode of their Bullshit! television show to criticise the construal of contemporary practice of Feng Shui in the Western World as science. In this episode, they devised a test in which the same dwelling was visited by five different Feng Shui consultants, all five producing different opinions about said dwelling, by which means it was attempted to show there is no consistency in the professional practice of Feng Shui.

Contemporary practice

Many Asians, especially people of Chinese descent, believe it is important to live a prosperous and healthy life as evident by the popularity of Fu Lu Shou in the Chinese communities. Many of the higher-level forms of feng shui are not easily practiced without having connections in the community or a certain amount of wealth because hiring an expert, altering architecture or design, and moving from place to place requires a significant financial outlay. This leads some people of the lower classes to lose faith in feng shui, saying that it is only a game for the wealthy.[87] Others, however, practice less expensive forms of feng shui, including hanging special (but cheap) mirrors, forks, or woks in doorways to deflect negative energy.[88]

In recent years, a new brand of easier-to-implement DIY Feng Shui known as Symbolic Feng Shui, which is popularized by best-selling author Lillian Too, is being practised by Feng Shui enthusiasts. It entails placements of auspicious (and preferably aesthetically pleasing) Five Element objects, such as Money God and tortoise, at various locations of the house so as to achieve a pleasing and substitute-alternative Productive-Cycle environment if a good natural environment is not already present or is too expensive to build and implement.

Feng shui is so important to some strong believers, that they use it for healing purposes (although there is no empirical evidence that this practice is in any way effective) in addition to guide their businesses and create a peaceful atmosphere in their homes,[89] in particular in the bedroom where a number of techniques involving colours and arrangement are used to achieve enhanced comfort and more peaceful sleep. In 2005, even Disney acknowledged feng shui as an important part of Chinese culture by shifting the main gate to Hong Kong Disneyland by twelve degrees in their building plans, among many other actions suggested by the master planner of architecture and design at Walt Disney Imagineering, Wing Chao, in an effort to incorporate local culture into the theme park.[90]

At Singapore Polytechnic and other institutions, many working professionals from various disciplines (including engineers, architects, property agents and interior designers) take courses on feng shui and divination every year with a number of them becoming part-time or full-time feng shui (or geomancy) consultants eventually.[91]

See also

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Further reading

  • Ernest John Eitel (1878). Feng-shui: or, The rudiments of natural science in China. Hongkong: Lane, Crawford. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  • Koch, Master Aaron Lee. Feng Shui Q&A. 8 Feng Shui Publishing, 2014. ISBN 978-1-312-61845-9.
  • Ole Bruun. "Fengshui and the Chinese Perception of Nature", in Asian Perceptions of Nature: A Critical Approach, eds. Ole Bruun and Arne Kalland (Surrey: Curzon, 1995) 173–88.
  • Ole Bruun. An Introduction to Feng Shui. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Bruun, Ole (2003), Fengshui in China: Geomantic Divination between State Orthodoxy and Popular Religion, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press
  • Yoon, Hong-key. Culture of Fengshui in Korea: An Exploration of East Asian Geomancy. Lexington Books, 2006.
  • Xie, Shan Shan. Chinese Geographic Feng Shui Theories and Practices. National Multi-Attribute Institute Publishing, Oct. 2008. ISBN 1-59261-004-8.
  • Charvatova, I., Klokocnik, J., Kolmas, J., & Kostelecky, J. (2011). Chinese tombs oriented by a compass: Evidence from paleomagnetic changes versus the age of tombs. Studia Geophysica Et Geodaetica, 55(1), 159–74. doi:10.1007/s11200-011-0009-2. Abstract: "Extant written records indicate that knowledge of an ancient type of compass in China is very old – dating back to before the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) to at least the 4th century BC. Geomancy (feng shui) was practised for a long time (for millennia) and had a profound influence on the face of China's landscape and city plans. The tombs (pyramids) near the former Chinese capital cities of Xi'an and Luoyang (together with their suburban fields and roads) show strong spatial orientations, sometimes along a basic south–north axis (relative to the geographic pole), but usually with deviations of several degrees to the East or West. The use of the compass means that the needle was directed towards the actual magnetic pole at the time of construction, or last reconstruction, of the respective tomb. However the magnetic pole, relative to the nearly 'fixed' geographic pole, shifts significantly over time. By matching paleomagnetic observations with modeled paleomagnetic history we have identified the date of pyramid construction in central China with the orientation relative to the magnetic pole positions at the respective time of construction. As in Mesoamerica, where according to the Fuson hypothesis the Olmecs and Maya oriented their ceremonial buildings and pyramids using a compass even before the Chinese, here in central China the same technique may have been used. We found a good agreement of trends between the paleodeclinations observed from tomb alignments and the available global geomagnetic field model CALS7K.2."
  • Chen, X., & Wu, J. (2009). Sustainable landscape architecture: Implications of the Chinese philosophy of 'unity of man with nature' and beyond. Landscape Ecology, 24(8), 1015–26. doi:10.1007/s10980-009-9350-z
  • Lacroix, R., & Stamatiou, E. (2006). Feng shui and spatial planning for a better quality of life. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, 2(5), 578–83. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/290374661
  • Kereszturi, A., & Sik, A. (2000). Feng-shui on mars; history of geomorphological effects of water and wind. Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 31, abstr. no. 1216
2015 FAMAS Awards

The 63rd Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences Awards Night was held at the Newport Performing Arts Theater inside the Resorts World Manila in Pasay City on September 20, 2015 with the theme "Throwback Glam Day, A Look Back At Six Glorious Decades of Philippine Cinema". The awards night was hosted by Sam Concepcion and Coleen Garcia, it was aired on ABS-CBN's "Sunday's Best" at 11:30pm on September 27, 2015.

Ask Dr. Rin!

Ask Dr. Rin! (Dr.リンにきいてみて!, Dr. Rin ni Kiite Mite!) is an eight-volume manga series by Kiyoko Arai about a young girl named Meilin Kanzaki who is endowed with Feng shui powers which allow her to read people's fortunes and give advice on how to receive good luck. She does this on a website under the pseudonym of "Dr. Rin." She loves her friend Asuka Yuuki, who is a star on the school soccer team. However, she constantly bothers him with her Feng shui advice when he doesn't believe in any of that.

Ask Dr. Rin! was serialized in Ciao and later adapted into a 51 episode anime series by Studio Comet, directed by Shin Misawa and with music by Takanori Arisawa. It was broadcast by TV Tokyo from March 5, 2001 to February 25, 2002. In Indonesia, this anime Originally Broadcast by SCTV since year 2003-2004 and Global TV started in 2016.

Bagua

The Bagua or Pa Kua are eight symbols used in Taoist cosmology to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts. Each consists of three lines, each line either "broken" or "unbroken", respectively representing yin or yang. Due to their tripartite structure, they are often referred to as Eight Trigrams in English.

The trigrams are related to Taiji philosophy, Taijiquan and the Wu Xing, or "five elements". The relationships between the trigrams are represented in two arrangements, the Primordial (先天八卦), "Earlier Heaven" or "Fu Xi" bagua (伏羲八卦), and the Manifested (後天八卦), "Later Heaven," or "King Wen" bagua. The trigrams have correspondences in astronomy, astrology, geography, geomancy, anatomy, the family, and elsewhere.The ancient Chinese classic, I Ching (Pinyin: Yi Jing), consists of the 64 pairwise permutations of trigrams, referred to as "hexagrams", along with commentary on each one.

Feng Shui (2004 film)

Feng Shui is a 2004 Filipino supernatural horror movie starring Kris Aquino. The film centers on a cursed Bagua mirror where a person gets killed if they stare at the Bagua mirror, with their death relating at any way to their Chinese zodiac. The film grossed Php 114,236,563 and was the highest grossing film of 2004 in the Philippines. The Hollywood version of the movie is still frozen and it is unknown if Star Cinema have decided to have a contract with Hollywood. A sequel, Feng Shui 2, was released on December 25, 2014 as the official entry to the 2014 Metro Manila Film Festival.

Feng Shui (role-playing game)

Feng Shui is a martial arts-themed role-playing game, designed by Robin Laws, published first by Daedalus Entertainment and now by Atlas Games. The game shares its setting with the collectible card game Shadowfist. The system is simple, with most detail being in the game's combat system. Combat is made to flow quickly, moving from one action scene to another very quickly. It was inspired and based on Hong Kong style action movies.

The characters begin at a high level of skill, as appropriate for protagonists in the source films.

In 1999 Pyramid magazine named Feng Shui on its list of "The Millennium's Best Role-playing Games". Editor Scott Haring said that "Feng Shui found the way to do over-the-top cinematic roleplaying without turning it into an exercise in dice rolling and power trips".

After a successful Kickstarter, Atlas Games released a Second Edition of Feng Shui in late 2015, on the eve of the game's 20th anniversary of publication.

Feng Shui 2

Feng Shui 2 (stylized Feng Shui 二) is a 2014 Philippine supernatural horror film. It is the sequel of the first film in 2004. Kris Aquino reprises her role as Joy Ramirez and Coco Martin plays Lester Anonuevo, the new owner of the 'cursed bagua'. The film co-stars Cherry Pie Picache, Carmi Martin, Ian Veneracion, and Joonee Gamboa. It focuses on Lester (Martin) who, upon getting the cursed bagua, starts to have luck and prosperity, but with deadly consequences. This film was Star Cinema's official entry in the 2014 Metro Manila Film Festival.It is also the first Filipino movie to be rendered in 4D and was exclusively shown at the XD Theater of SM Mall of Asia under a partnership of SM Lifestyle Entertainment and Star Cinema.

Feng shui (disambiguation)

Feng shui is the ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space to achieve harmony with the environment.

Feng shui may also refer to:

Feng Shui (role-playing game), an action movie role-playing game

Feng Shui (2004 film), a Filipino supernatural horror film

Feng Shui 2, a 2014 Filipino film and the sequel of the 2004 film

Feng Shui (2012 film), a Chinese film

Fengshui (2018 film), a South Korean period film

"Feng Shui", a song on the Gnarls Barkley album St. Elsewhere

"Boogie Woogie Feng Shui", episode 21 of Cowboy Bebop (anime)

Heap feng shui, a technique for manipulating a computer's storage heap

Feng Shui (album), a 2000 album by Doldrums

Fengshui (2018 film)

Fengshui (also referred as Feng Shui) is a 2018 South Korean period film directed by Park Hee-gon. It stars Cho Seung-woo, Ji Sung, Kim Sung-kyun, Baek Yoon-sik and Moon Chae-won. The film tells the story of a pungsu expert, Park Jae-sang, who can determine the land that bring good fortune and people around him who compete to occupy the land in order to change their fate and become king.

The film is the third and final installment of Jupiter Film's three-part film project on the Korean fortune-telling traditions, following The Face Reader (2013) and The Princess and the Matchmaker (2018). It was released in South Korea on September 19, 2018.

Flying Star Feng Shui

Xuan Kong Flying Star feng shui or Xuan Kong Fei Xing is a discipline in Feng Shui, and is an integration of the principles of Yin Yang, the interactions between the five elements, the eight trigrams, the Lo Shu numbers, and the 24 Mountains, by using time, space and objects to create an astrological chart to analyze positive auras and negative auras of a building.These include analyzing wealth, mental and physiological states, success, relationships with external parties, and health of the inhabitant.During the Qing Dynasty, it was popularized by grandmaster Shen Zhu Ren, with his book Mr. Shen's Study of Xuan Kong, or Shen Shi Xuan Kong Xue.Flying Star Feng Shui does not limit itself to buildings for the living or Yang Zhai, where rules pertaining to directions equally apply to all built structures; it also applies to grave sites and buildings for spirits or Yin Zhai.

Guo Pu

Guo Pu (Chinese: 郭璞; AD 276 – 324), was a Chinese historian, poet, and writer during the Eastern Jin period, and is best known as one of China's foremost commentators on ancient texts. Guo was a Taoist mystic, geomancer, collector of strange tales, editor of old texts, and erudite commentator. He was the first commentator of the Shan Hai Jing and so probably, with the noted Han bibliographer Liu Xin, was instrumental in preserving this valuable mythological and religious text. Guo Pu was the well educated son of a governor. He was a natural historian and a prolific writer of the Jin dynasty. He is the author of The Book of Burial, the first-ever and the most authoritative source of feng shui doctrine and the first book to address the concept of feng shui in the history of China, making Guo Pu the first person historically to define feng shui, and therefore, Guo Pu is usually called the father of feng shui in China.

HSBC Building (Hong Kong)

HSBC Main Building (Chinese: 香港滙豐總行大廈) is a headquarters building of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, which is today a wholly owned subsidiary of London-based HSBC Holdings. It is located on the southern side of Statue Square near the location of the old City Hall, Hong Kong (built in 1869, demolished in 1933). The previous HSBC building was built in 1935 and pulled down to make way for the current building. The address remains as 1 Queen's Road Central (the north facing side of the building was served by Des Voeux Road, which was the seashore, making Queen's Road the main entrance, in contrast to the current primary access coming from Des Voeux Road). The building can be reached from Exit K of Central MTR Station.

Jin Chan

The Jin Chan (Chinese: 金蟾; pinyin: jīn chán; literally: 'Golden Toad'), also called Chan Chu (Chinese: 蟾蜍; pinyin: chánchú; literally: 'Toad') or "Zhaocai Chan Chu" (Chinese: 招财蟾蜍; pinyin: zhāocái chánchú; literally: 'wealth-beckoning toad'), is most commonly translated as "Money Toad" or "Money Frog". It represents a popular Feng Shui charm for prosperity.

This mythical creature is said to appear during the full moon, near houses or businesses that will soon receive good news (most of the time, the nature of this good news is understood to be wealth-related).

The money toad is associated with Liu Haichan, as the sennin's animal companion.

The Jin Chan is usually depicted as a bullfrog with red eyes, flared nostrils and only one hind leg (for a total of three legs), sitting on a pile of traditional Chinese cash, with a coin in its mouth. On its back, it often displays seven diamond spots . According to Feng Shui beliefs, Jin Chan helps attract and protect wealth, and guards against bad luck. Because it symbolizes the flow of money, Feng Shui lore insists that a Jin Chan statue should not be positioned facing the main door ("outward"). It also "should never be kept in the bathroom, bedroom, dining room or kitchen".

Jingshan

Jingshan may refer to the following locations:

The Jing Mountains (荊山), Hubei

Jingshan, Hubei (京山市), county-level city of Jingmen, Hubei

Jingshan Park (景山公园), in Beijing

Beijing Jingshan School, in Beijing

Beijing–Shanhaiguan railway, or Jingshan railway (京山铁路), railway from Beijing to Shanhaiguan, HebeiSubdistrictsJingshan Subdistrict, Wuhu (荆山街道), subdivision of Jinghu District, Wuhu, Anhui

Jingshan Subdistrict, Nanchang (京山街道), subdivision of Qingyunpu District, Nanchang, JiangxiWritten as "景山街道":

Jingshan Subdistrict, Beijing, subdivision of Dongcheng District, Beijing

Jingshan Subdistrict, Wenzhou, subdivision of Ouhai District, Wenzhou, ZhejiangTownsJingshan, Jilin (景山镇), subdivision of Jingyu County, Jilin

Jingshan, Hangzhou (径山镇), subdivision of Yuhang District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang

Lillian Too

Lillian Too is an author, television personality and feng shui practitioner from Malaysia. She has written over 200 books on the subject of feng shui, which have been translated into more than 30 languages. Her books have sold more 6 million copies around the globe.A graduate with an MBA from the Harvard Business School in 1976, Too embarked on a career in the corporate world and became the first woman in Malaysia to head a public listed company. In 1982, she became the first woman in Asia to be appointed CEO of a bank (Hong Kong's Dao Heng bank). After her stint in banking, she worked with prominent Hong Kong tycoon, Dickson Poon (former husband of Michelle Yeoh), as executive deputy chairman of his group of companies.She is married, with one daughter Jennifer.

Luopan

The luopan or geomantic compass is a Chinese magnetic compass, also known as a Feng Shui compass. It is used by a Feng Shui practitioner to determine the precise direction of a structure or other item. Since the invention of the compass for use in Feng Shui, traditional feng shui has required its use.

Pixiu

Pixiu (Chinese: 貔貅; pinyin: píxiū; Wade–Giles: P'i-hsiu), is a Chinese mythical hybrid creature, commonly (but incorrectly) referred to in the West by the Greek word "chimera", and considered a powerful protector of practitioners of Feng Shui. It resembles a strong, winged lion. Pixiu is an earth and sea variation, particularly an influential and auspicious creature for wealth. It is said to have a voracious appetite towards only gold, silver and jewels. Therefore, traditionally to the Chinese, Pixiu have always been regarded as auspicious creatures that possessed mystical powers capable of drawing Cai Qi (財氣wealth) from all directions. Because of this, according to Chinese zodiac, it is especially helpful for those who are going through a bad year.

There are two different types of Pixiu, a male and a female. The physical difference is seen by their antlers. The one with two antlers is the female of the species and is called a "Bìxié" and the one with one antler is the male of the species and is called a "Tiān lù".

Bìxié (Chinese: 辟邪; pinyin: bìxié; Wade–Giles: pi-hsieh; lit. "to ward off evil spirits") - The female of the species; wards off evil. It is also believed that Bìxié has the ability of assisting anyone who is suffering from bad Feng Shui that is due to having offended the Grand Duke Jupiter (also called as Tai Sui (太岁)).

Tiān lù (Chinese: 天祿; pinyin: tiānlù; Wade–Giles: t'ien-lu) - The male of the species; in charge of wealth. Tiān lù is said to go out into the world in search of gold and other forms of wealth and, bringing it home to its Master, the Bìxié is then said to hold onto it, guarding it within the home of the Master. Displaying Tiān lù at home or in the office is said to prevent wealth from flowing away.Pixiu crave the smell of gold and silver and like to bring their masters money in their mouth. Statues of this creature are often used to attract wealth in feng shui.Today, Pixiu are also a popular design on jade pendants. It was also featured as a design on the sword of Fa Mulan's character in the 1998 Disney animated feature Mulan.

Sim-Feng Shui

Sim-Feng Shui (シム・フースイ, Shimu-Fūsui) is a supernatural fiction literary series about the exploits of a group of feng shui experts and their conflicts with various spiritual disturbances across Japan. Volume 4.0 of the series has been adapted into a live action film and a video game for the PlayStation. The series is a spin off of Hiroshi Aramata's Teito Monogatari series.

Stephen Skinner (author)

Dr Stephen Skinner (born 22 March 1948) is an Australian author, editor, publisher and lecturer. He is known for authoring books on magic, feng shui, sacred geometry and alchemy. He has published more than 46 books in more than 20 languages.

Wu Xing

The Wu Xing (Chinese: 五行; pinyin: wǔxíng), also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity (Mars: 火, Mercury: 水, Jupiter: 木, Venus: 金, and Saturn: 土) is the short form of "Wǔ zhǒng liúxíng zhī qì" (五種流行之氣) or "the five types of chi dominating at different times". It is a fivefold conceptual scheme that many traditional Chinese fields used to explain a wide array of phenomena, from cosmic cycles to the interaction between internal organs, and from the succession of political regimes to the properties of medicinal drugs. The "Five Phases" are Wood (木 mù), Fire (火 huǒ), Earth (土 tǔ), Metal (金 jīn), and Water (水 shuǐ). This order of presentation is known as the "mutual generation" (相生 xiāngshēng) sequence. In the order of "mutual overcoming" (相剋/相克 xiāngkè), they are Wood, Earth, Water, Fire, and Metal.The system of five phases was used for describing interactions and relationships between phenomena. After it came to maturity in the second or first century BCE during the Han dynasty, this device was employed in many fields of early Chinese thought, including seemingly disparate fields such as geomancy or Feng shui, astrology, traditional Chinese medicine, music, military strategy, and martial arts. The system is still used as a reference in some forms of complementary and alternative medicine and martial arts.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinfēngshuǐ
Bopomofoㄈㄥ   ㄕㄨㄟˇ
Wade–Gilesfêng1-shui3
Tongyong Pinyinfongshuěi
Yale Romanizationfēngshwěi
IPA[fə́ŋ.ʂwèi]
Wu
Romanizationfon sy
Gan
RomanizationFung1 sui3
Hakka
Romanizationfung24 sui31
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanizationfùngséui or fūngséui
IPA[fôŋ.sɵ̌y] or [fóŋ.sɵ̌y]
Jyutpingfung1seoi2
Southern Min
Hokkien POJhong-suí
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUChŭng-cūi
Transcriptions
Revised Romanizationpungsu
McCune–Reischauerp'ungsu
Transcriptions
Revised Hepburnfūsui
Kunrei-shikihûsui
Amulets
Talismans
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Non-exclusive
themes
Proponents or
individual
influences
Other
influences
Terminology
Examples
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