Feminist method

The feminist method is a means of conducting of scientific investigations and generating theory from an explicitly feminist standpoint.[1] Feminist methodologies are varied, but tend to have a few common aims or characteristics, including seeking to overcome biases in research, bringing about social change, displaying human diversity, and acknowledging the position of the researcher.[2] Questioning normal scientific reasoning is another form of the feminist method..[3] Each of these methods must consist of different parts including: collection of evidence, testing of theories, presentation of data, and room for rebuttals. How research is scientifically backed up affects the results. Like consciousness raising, some feminist methods affect the collective emotions of women, when things like political statistics are more of a structural result When knowledge is either constructed by experiences, or discovered, it needs to both be reliable and valid.[4] Strong feminist supporters of this are Nancy Hartsock, Hilary Rose, and finally Sandra Harding.[5] Feminist sociologists have made important contributions to this debate as they began to criticize positivism as a philosophical framework and, more specifically, its most acute methodological instrument—that of quantitative methods for its practice of detached and objective scientific research and the objectification of research subjects (Graham 1983b; Reinharz 1979). These methodological critiques were well placed against a backdrop of feminist scholarship struggling to find a place for alternative values within the academy. Such concerns emerged from a sense of despair and anger that knowledge, both academic and popular, was based on men’s lives, male ways of thinking, and directed toward the problems articulated by men. Dorothy Smith (1974) argued that “sociology . . . has been based on and built up within the male social universe”

Objectivity and the construction of the Other

Feminist methods have, in large part, been scaffolded as a rebuttal to existing research methods that operate under imperialist, racist, and patriarchal assumptions about the research subject. [6] By pointing out the biased perspectives and assumptions of researchers, feminist scholars work to elucidate the ways in which the idea of objectivity has operated merely as a stand-in for the white, male perspective,[7] and how feminist methods, in contrast, work to produce knowledge in which “the researcher appears to us not as an invisible, anonymous voice of authority, but as a real, historical individual with concrete, specific desires and interests.” [8] Also inherent in the traditional researcher-subject relationship is the subject-object relationship, for the researcher becomes the autonomous subject when they study other humans as objects, as in this case the “subject” is ironically objectified through the process of scientific investigation, which does not take into account their agency or the will of their community.[9] Subjects are also simultaneously “Othered” by Western researchers who exotify their ways of life through “a Western discourse about the Other which is supported by ‘institutions, vocabulary, scholarship, imagery, doctrines, even colonial bureaucracies and colonial styles.’”[10] Reinharz therefore posits that the destruction of the Other and the remodeling of the traditional subject-object relationship must occur simultaneously through explicit engagement with three different actors in feminist research: the researcher, the reader, and the people being studied.[11] In this way, productive, feminist methods attempt to “demystify” and “decolonize” [12] research through recognizing how traditional methods construct the Other and are cloaked in a false objectivity, and subsequently to deconstruct these narratives in order to “talk more creatively about research with particular groups and communities – women, the economically oppressed, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples.”[13]

Questioning gender as a scientific construct

Through questioning science Anne Fausto-Sterling came up with alternatives to the concept of having only two sexes, male and female.[14] She argues that through biological development there is a possibility of having five sexes instead of two.[15] She believes there are male, female, merm (male pseudohermaphrodites, i.e. when testicular tissue is present), ferm (female pseudohermaphrodites, i.e. when ovarian tissue is present), and herm (true hermaphrodites, i.e. when both testicular and ovarian tissue is present).[16]

Emotion

Alison Jaggar disputes the dichotomy between reason and emotion and argues that rationality needs emotion.[17] She states emotions are normally associated with women and rationality is associated with men.[18] She also claims that there are many theories as to the origins of emotions, and in the long run listening to emotions might lead to better decisions.[19]

References

  1. ^ Reinharz, Shulamit; Davidman, Lynn (April 30, 1992). Feminist Methods in Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-19-507386-7.
  2. ^ Reinharz, Shulamit; Davidman, Lynn (April 30, 1992). Feminist Methods in Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 249–269. ISBN 978-0-19-507386-7.
  3. ^ Reinharz, Shulamit; Davidman, Lynn (April 30, 1992). Feminist Methods in Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-19-507386-7.
  4. ^ Bird, Sharon. "Feminist Methods of Research". Iowa State University.
  5. ^ Code, Lorriane. "Feminist Epistomology". Routlage Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  6. ^ Smith, Linda (May 10, 2012). Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-84813-950-3.
  7. ^ Reinharz, Shulamit; Davidman, Lynn (April 30, 1992). Feminist Methods in Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-19-507386-7.
  8. ^ Harding, Sarah (January 22, 1988). Feminism and Methodology: Social Science Issues. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-253-20444-8.
  9. ^ Reinharz, Shulamit; Davidman, Lynn (April 30, 1992). Feminist Methods in Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-19-507386-7.
  10. ^ Smith, Linda (May 10, 2012). Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-84813-950-3.
  11. ^ Reinharz, Shulamit; Davidman, Lynn (April 30, 1992). Feminist Methods in Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 258–268. ISBN 978-0-19-507386-7.
  12. ^ Smith, Linda (May 10, 2012). Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-84813-950-3.
  13. ^ Smith, Linda (May 10, 2012). Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-84813-950-3.
  14. ^ Fausto-Sterling, Anne (Mar–Apr 1993). "The Five Sexes". The Sciences. 33 (2): 20–26. doi:10.1002/j.2326-1951.1993.tb03081.x.
  15. ^ Fausto-Sterling, Anne (Mar–Apr 1993). "The Five Sexes". The Sciences. 33 (2): 20–26. doi:10.1002/j.2326-1951.1993.tb03081.x.
  16. ^ Fausto-Sterling, Anne (Mar–Apr 1993). "The Five Sexes". The Sciences. 33 (2): 20–26. doi:10.1002/j.2326-1951.1993.tb03081.x.
  17. ^ Jaggar, Allison (1989). "Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology". Inquiry. 32 (2): 151–176. doi:10.1080/00201748908602185.
  18. ^ Jaggar, Allison (1989). "Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology". Inquiry. 32 (2): 151–176. doi:10.1080/00201748908602185.
  19. ^ Jaggar, Allison (1989). "Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology". Inquiry. 32 (2): 151–176. doi:10.1080/00201748908602185.
Analytical feminism

Analytical feminism is a line of philosophy that applies analytic concepts and methods to feminist issues and applies feminist concepts and insights to issues that have traditionally been of interest to analytic philosophers. Like all feminists, analytical feminists insist on recognizing and contesting sexism and androcentrism.

Barnard Center for Research on Women

The Barnard Center for Research on Women (BCRW) is a nexus of feminist thought, activism, and collaboration for scholars and activists. Since its founding in 1971, BCRW has promoted women's and social justice issues to its local communities at Barnard College and within New York City. It is a member organization of The National Council for Research on Women.

Cultural feminism

Cultural feminism is the view that there is a "female nature" or "female essence" or related attempts to revalidate attributes ascribed to femaleness. It is also used to describe theories that commend innate differences between women and men.

Feminism and modern architecture

Feminist theory as it relates to architecture has forged the way for the rediscovery of such female architects as Eileen Gray. These women imagined an architecture that challenged the way the traditional family would live. They practiced architecture with what they considered feminist theories or approaches. The rediscovery of architecture through feminist theory is not limited to female architects. Architects like Le Corbusier and Adolf Loos have also had their architecture reexamined through feminist theory.

Feminism in Bangladesh

Feminism in Bangladesh seeks equal rights of women in Bangladesh through social and political change. Article 28 of Bangladesh constitution states that "Women shall have equal rights with men in all spheres of the State and of public life".

Feminism in Taiwan

Taiwan has a complex history of feminist and women's-rights movements with periods of progressiveness where feminism and strong female icons flourished and periods of strict authoritarianism where equality and individual rights were devalued.

Feminist constructivism

Feminist constructivism is an international relations theory which builds upon the theory of constructivism. Feminist constructivism focuses upon the study of how ideas about gender influence global politics. It is the communication between two postcolonial theories; feminism and constructivism, and how they both share similar key ideas in creating gender equality globally.

Feminist epistemology

Feminist epistemology is an examination of the subject matter of epistemology from a feminist standpoint. Elizabeth Anderson describes feminist epistemology as being concerned with the way in which gender influences our concept of knowledge and "practices of inquiry and justification". It is generally regarded as falling under the umbrella of social epistemology.

Feminist metaphysics

Where metaphysics tries to explain what is the universe and what it is like, feminist metaphysics questions how metaphysical answers have supported sexism. Are ideas we have about fundamental subjects like: the self, mind and body, nature, essence, and identity formed with gendered bias? For instance, feminist metaphysics would ask if Cartesian dualism—the concept of humans having minds separate from our bodies—privileges men or masculinity.

Feminist political theory

Feminist political theory is a diverse subfield of feminist theory working towards three main goals:

To understand and critique the role of gender in how political theory is conventionally construed.

To re-frame and re-articulate conventional political theory in light of feminist issues (especially gender equality).

To support political science presuming and pursuing gender equality.Feminist political theory encompasses a broad scope of approaches. It overlaps with related areas including feminist jurisprudence/feminist legal theory; feminist political philosophy; female-centered empirical research in political science; and feminist research methods (feminist method) for use in political science the social sciences. Indeed, one scholar notes that, insofar as almost all versions of feminism involve "demonstrating the ways in which politics, understood as power relations, is present in our everyday lives," one could reasonably "describe feminist theory as a whole as a kind of political philosophy." What frequently distinguishes feminist political theory from feminism broadly is the specific examination of the state and its role in the reproduction or redressing of gender inequality. In addition to being broad and multidisciplinary, the field is relatively new, inherently innovative, and still expanding; the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy explains that "feminist political philosophy serves as a field for developing new ideals, practices, and justifications for how political institutions and practices should be organized and reconstructed."

Feminist revisionist mythology

Feminist revisionist mythology is feminist literature informed by feminist literary criticism, or by the politics of feminism more broadly and that engages with mythology, fairy tales, religion, or other areas.

List of ecofeminist authors

An alphabetized list of ecofeminist writers includes the following:

Carol J. Adams

Carol P. Christ

Chris Cuomo

Mary Daly

Françoise d'Eaubonne

Barbara Ehrenreich

Clarissa Pinkola Estes

Alice Fulton

Greta Gaard

Chellis Glendinning

Mary Grey

Susan Griffin

Donna Haraway

Allison Hedge Coke

Stephanie Kaza

Petra Kelly

Anna Kingsford

Winona LaDuke

Joanna Macy

Wangari Muta Maathai

Maria Mies

Carolyn Merchant

Gloria Feman Orenstein

Judith Plaskow

Val Plumwood

Arundhati Roy

Rosemary Radford Ruether

Ariel Salleh

Carol Lee Sanchez

Vandana Shiva

Charlene Spretnak

Starhawk

Merlin Stone

Sheri S. Tepper

Douglas Vakoch

Anne Waldman

Alice Walker

Barbara Walker

Marilyn Waring

Karen J. Warren

Laura WrightLiterature/Poetry

Margaret Atwood

Jean Auel

Marion Zimmer Bradley

Octavia Butler

Annie Dillard

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Sue Monk Kidd

Ursula K. Le Guin

Barbara Kingsolver

Toni Morrison

Mary Oliver

Alice Walker

Nandini Sahu

List of women's studies journals

This is a list of peer-reviewed, academic journals in field of women's studies.

Note: there are many important academic magazines that are not true peer-reviewed journals. They are not listed here.

Neofeminism

Neofeminism describes an emerging view of women as becoming empowered through the celebration of attributes perceived to be conventionally feminine, that is, it glorifies a womanly essence over claims to equality with men. It is a term that has come into use in the early 21st century to refer to a popular culture trend, what critics see as a type of "lipstick feminism" that confines women to stereotypical roles, while it erodes cultural freedoms women gained through the second-wave feminism of the 1960s and 1970s in particular.

Reclaiming (Neopaganism)

Reclaiming is a modern witchcraft tradition, aiming to combine the Goddess movement with feminism and political activism (in the peace and anti-nuclear movements). Reclaiming was founded in 1979, in the context of the Reclaiming Collective (1978–1997), by two Neopagan women of Jewish descent, Starhawk and Diane Baker, in order to explore and develop feminist Neopagan emancipatory rituals.Today, the organization focuses on progressive social, political, environmental and economic activism. Guided by a shared, "Principles of Unity, a document that lists the core values of the tradition: personal authority, inclusivity, social and environmental justice and a recognition of intersectionality".

Stop Porn Culture

Stop Porn Culture is an international feminist anti-porn organization with branches in the United States, Norway, and the United Kingdom. It works as an advisory body, trains trainers, and builds public health educational materials based on empirical research. It has a network of volunteers and activists and collaborates with other organizations in the U.S. and Europe. Some of its work is grassroots activist work.

Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries

This timeline lists the dates of the first women's suffrage in Muslim majority countries. Dates for the right to vote, suffrage, as distinct from the right to stand for election and hold office, are listed.

Some countries with majority Muslim populations established universal suffrage upon national independence, such as Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Malaysia. In most North Africa countries, women participated in the first national elections or soon following. Some dates relate to regional elections and, where possible, the second date of general election has been included. Even countries listed may not have universal suffrage for women, and some may have regressed in women's rights since the initial granting of suffrage.

White feminism

White feminism is an epithet used to describe feminist theories that focus on the struggles of white women without addressing distinct forms of oppression faced by ethnic minority women and women lacking other privileges.

Women's studies

Women's studies is an academic field that draws on feminist and interdisciplinary methods in order to place women’s lives and experiences at the center of study, while examining social and cultural constructs of gender; systems of privilege and oppression; and the relationships between power and gender as they intersect with other identities and social locations such as race, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, and disability.Popular theories within the field of women's studies include feminist theory, standpoint theory, intersectionality, multiculturalism, transnational feminism, social justice, affect studies, agency, biopolitics, materialisms, and embodiment. Research practices and methodologies associated with women's studies include ethnography, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, community-based research, discourse analysis, and reading practices associated with critical theory, post-structuralism, and queer theory. The field researches and critiques societal norms of gender, race, class, sexuality, and other social inequalities.

Women's studies is closely related to the fields of gender studies, feminist studies, and sexuality studies, and more broadly related to the fields of cultural studies, ethnic studies, and African-American studies. Women's studies courses are offered in over seven hundred institutions in the United States, and globally in more than forty countries.

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