Felt

Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool or animal fur, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic or acrylonitrile or wood pulp-based rayon. Blended fibers are also common.[1][2][3]

Colored felt cloth
Samples of felt in different colours
Making a felt robe for Bakhtiari shepherds
Making a felt robe for Bakhtiari shepherds
Felting in Maymand
Felt in Maymand, Kerman Province, Iran

History

Felt from wool is considered to be the oldest known textile.[4] Many cultures have legends as to the origins of felt making. Sumerian legend claims that the secret of feltmaking was discovered by Urnamman of Lagash.[5] The story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters while fleeing from persecution. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks.[6][7]

Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples (Altaic people: Mongols; Turkic people) in Central Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made.[8] Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt (Gers),[9] while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers.[10] In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in both textile art and contemporary art[6] and design, where it has significance as an ecologically responsible textile and building material.[11]

Manufacturing methods

Wet felting

Wool Felt making KG.jpeg
Wooden rolling pin used during the wet felting process

In the wet felting process, hot water is applied to layers of animal hairs, while repeated agitation and compression causes the fibers to hook together or weave together into a single piece of fabric.[12] Wrapping the properly arranged fiber in a sturdy, textured material, such as a bamboo mat or burlap, will speed up the felting process. The felted material may be finished by fulling.

Only certain types of fiber can be wet felted successfully. Most types of fleece, such as those taken from the alpaca or the Merino sheep,[13] can be put through the wet felting process. One may also use mohair (goat), angora (rabbit),[14] or hair from rodents such as beavers and muskrats.[15] These types of fiber are covered in tiny scales, similar to the scales found on a strand of human hair.[16] Heat, motion, and moisture of the fleece causes the scales to open, while agitating them causes them to latch onto each other, creating felt.[17][18] There is an alternative theory that the fibers wind around each other during felting.[19] Plant fibers and synthetic fibers will not wet felt.[20]

Needle felting

Needle-felt-making-1080204
Needle felting process to create small animal figurines

Needle felting is a method of creating felted objects without using water. The special needles used to make 3D sculpture, jewelry, adornments and 2D art have notches along the shaft of the needle that catch fibers and tangle them with other fibers to produce felt. These notches are sometimes erroneously called "barbs", but barbs are protrusions (like barbed wire) and would be too difficult to thrust into the wool and nearly impossible to pull out. There are many sizes and types of notched needles for different uses while working. Needle felting is used in industrial processes as well as in individual crafting.

Needles used for crafting are often very thin needles, sometimes fitted in holders that allow the user to utilize 2 or more needles at one time to sculpt wool objects and shapes. The single thin needles are used for detail and the multiple needles that are paired together are used for larger areas or to form the base of the project. At any point in time a variety of fiber colors may be added for detail and individuality, using needles to incorporate them into the project.

The kawaii style of needle felting was made popular by the Japanese culture. Kawaii means cute in Japanese and to felt in the kawaii style just means to make the object cute. Most kawaii needle felt sculptures have small, minimal detail, faces and are brightly colored. They are more cute and playful compared to the more traditional needle felt which is more rustic and earthy.[21][22][23] Ikuyo Fujita(藤田育代 Fujita Ikuyo)is a Japanese artist who works primarily in needle felt painting and mogol (pipe cleaner) art.

Carroting

Invented in the mid 17th century[24][25] and used until the mid-20th centuries, a process called "carroting" was used in the manufacture of good quality felt for making men's hats. Beaver, rabbit or hare skins were treated with a dilute solution of the mercury compound mercuric nitrate.[25] The skins were dried in an oven where the thin fur at the sides turned orange, the color of carrots.[24] Pelts were stretched over a bar in a cutting machine, and the skin was sliced off in thin shreds, with the fleece coming away entirely.[26] The fur was blown onto a cone-shaped colander and then treated with hot water to consolidate it.[27] The cone then peeled off and passed through wet rollers to cause the fur to felt. These 'hoods' were then dyed and blocked to make hats. The toxic solutions from the carrot and the vapours it produced resulted in widespread cases of mercury poisoning among hatters.[24] This may be the origin of the phrase "mad as a hatter" which was used to humorous effect by Lewis Carroll in the chapter "A Mad Tea Party" of the novel Alice in Wonderland.

Uses

Mosen-textile-Tibet
Mosen felt textile, Tibet, 19th century. Similar textiles from western China were used as rugs.[28] Shibori-dyed.

Felt is used in a wide range of industries and manufacturing processes, from the automotive industry and casinos to musical instruments and home construction, as well as in gun wads, either inside cartridges or pushed down the barrel of a muzzleloader.

Felt in musical instruments

Many musical instruments use felt. It is often used as a damper.[29] On drum cymbal stands, it protects the cymbal from cracking and ensures a clean sound. It is used to wrap bass drum strikers and timpani mallets.[30] Felt is used extensively in pianos; for example, piano hammers are made of wool felt around a wooden core. The density and springiness of the felt is a major part of what creates a piano's tone.[31][32] As the felt becomes grooved and "packed" with use and age, the tone suffers.[33] Felt is placed under the piano keys on accordions to control touch and key noise; it is also used on the pallets to silence notes not sounded by preventing air flow.[34][35][36]

Industrial uses

Felt is frequently used in industry as a sound or vibration damper,[37] and in machinery for cushioning and padding moving parts.[38]

Felt in arts and crafts

Felt is used for framing paintings. It is laid between the slip mount and picture as a protective measure to avoid damage from rubbing to the edge of the painting. This is commonly found as a preventive measure on paintings which have already been restored or professionally framed. It is widely used to protect paintings executed on various surfaces including canvas, wood panel and copper plate.

A felt-covered board can be used in storytelling to small children. Small felt cutouts or figures of animals, people, or other objects will adhere to a felt board, and in the process of telling the story, the storyteller also acts it out on the board with the animals or people. Puppets can also be made with felt. Felt pressed dolls, such as Lenci dolls, were very popular in the nineteenth century and just after the first world war.

Felt in art and design

German artist Josef Beuys, among others, used felt prominently in a number of works.[6][39]

Валенки обрезиненные
Russian valenki with attached a waterproof sole.

Felt in fashion

During the 18th and 19th centuries gentlemen's top hats made from beaver felt were popular.[26][40][41] In the early part of the 20th century, cloth felt hats, such as fedoras, trilbies[42] and homburgs,[43] were worn by many men in the western world. Felt is often used in footwear as boot liners, with the Russian valenki being an example.[44][45]

See also

References

  1. ^ "What's the difference between wool, acrylic, wool blend, and eco felt? Part 1 Wool". 31 March 2009.
  2. ^ "Acrylic felt & eco- felt (I.E eco spun) same damn thing! Part 2 of whats the difference between wool, acrylic, wool blend, and eco felt?". 1 April 2009.
  3. ^ "Wool Felt Blends- part 3 of Whats the difference between wool, acrylic, wool blend, and eco felt?". 4 April 2009.
  4. ^ Chad Alice Hagen (2005). Fabulous Felt Hats: Dazzling Designs from Handmade Felt. Lark Books. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-1-57990-542-2.
  5. ^ Dan Howard (2011). Bronze Age Military Equipment. Casemate Publishers. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-84884-293-9.
  6. ^ a b c Chris Thompson (2011). Felt: Fluxus, Joseph Beuys, and the Dalai Lama. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-0-8166-5354-6.
  7. ^ The Recent Development of American Industries. University of Pennsylvania Press. 1891. pp. 63–.
  8. ^ Melvyn C. Goldstein; Cynthia M. Beall (1994). The Changing World of Mongolia's Nomads. University of California Press. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-520-08551-0.
  9. ^ Becky Kemery (2006). Yurts: Living in the Round. Gibbs Smith. pp. 160–. ISBN 978-1-58685-891-9.
  10. ^ Front Lines. U.S. Agency for International Development. 2006.
  11. ^ Maria Block; Varis Bokalders (9 February 2010). The Whole Building Handbook: "How to Design Healthy, Efficient and Sustainable Buildings". Routledge. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-1-136-54328-9.
  12. ^ Forestry Leaves. 1963.
  13. ^ Sabine Fouchier (12 February 2009). Felt. A&C Black. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-7136-8494-0.
  14. ^ Teachers World. Bemis Publishing Company. 1893. pp. 219–.
  15. ^ O. J. Petrie (1995). Harvesting of Textile Animal Fibres. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-92-5-103759-1.
  16. ^ The Chemical News. Mitchell. 1860. pp. 257–.
  17. ^ Sarah E. White (1 January 2008). Picture Yourself Felting Your Knitting: Step-by-step Instruction for Perfectly Felted Crafts. Course Technology. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-59863-665-9.
  18. ^ Krishan Chawla (2 June 2016). Fibrous Materials. Cambridge University Press. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-1-107-02972-9.
  19. ^ Technical educator (1871). The technical educator, an encyclopædia. pp. 1–.
  20. ^ Andrea Price; Patti Pierce Stone (13 September 2011). Knitspeak: An A to Z Guide to the Language of Knitting Patterns. STC Craft, Melanie Falick Books. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-1-4532-2078-8.
  21. ^ “Everything You Need to Know to Start Needle Felting.” Wunderlabel, 22 Aug. 2017, wunderlabel.com/blog/everything-need-know-start-needle-felting.
  22. ^ Alicia Kennedy; Emily Banis Stoehrer; Jay Calderin (1 February 2013). Fashion Design, Referenced: A Visual Guide to the History, Language, and Practice of Fashion. Rockport Publishers. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-1-59253-677-1.
  23. ^ Wonderful West Virginia. Department of Natural Resources. 2005.
  24. ^ a b c Jack Larkin (23 November 2010). Where We Worked: A Celebration Of America's Workers And The Nation They Built. Lyons Press. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-1-4617-4592-1.
  25. ^ a b Mary Ellen Snodgrass (17 March 2015). World Clothing and Fashion: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence. Routledge. pp. 251–. ISBN 978-1-317-45167-9.
  26. ^ a b Beverly Chico (3 October 2013). Hats and Headwear around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia: A Cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-1-61069-063-8.
  27. ^ Bonnier Corporation (November 1941). Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. pp. 52–. ISSN 0161-7370.
  28. ^ Cooper-Hewitt museum description of Mosen rug.
  29. ^ Ethan Winer (12 November 2012). The Audio Expert: Everything You Need to Know About Audio. CRC Press. pp. 629–. ISBN 978-1-136-12614-7.
  30. ^ Hugo Pinksterboer (1 January 1993). The Cymbal Book. Hal Leonard. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-1-4768-6639-0.
  31. ^ Steven L. Schweizer (28 June 2010). Timpani Tone and the Interpretation of Baroque and Classical Music. Oxford University Press. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-0-19-975041-2.
  32. ^ Nicholas J. Giordano (8 September 2016). Physics of the Piano. OUP Oxford. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-0-19-250663-4.
  33. ^ Robert Palmieri (1 June 2004). The Piano: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-1-135-94964-8.
  34. ^ David C Wickens (1 December 1987). The Instruments of Samuel Green. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-1-349-09059-4.
  35. ^ Arthur W. J. G. Ord-Hume (1978). Barrel organ: the story of the mechanical organ and its repair. A. S. Barnes, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-498-01482-6.
  36. ^ Thomas Campbell Young (1947). The Making of Musical Instruments. Oxford University Press.
  37. ^ Deborah Schneiderman; Alexa Griffith Winton (28 January 2016). Textile Technology and Design: From Interior Space to Outer Space. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-1-4742-6196-8.
  38. ^ Beverly Gordon (May 1980). Feltmaking. Watson-Guptill Publications.
  39. ^ Joseph Beuys; Volker Harlan (2004). What is Art?: Conversation with Joseph Beuys. CLAIRVIEW BOOKS. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-1-905570-07-2.
  40. ^ Dietland Muller-Schwarze (7 April 2011). The Beaver: Its Life and Impact. Cornell University Press. pp. 156–. ISBN 0-8014-5010-1.
  41. ^ Eric Jay Dolin (5 July 2011). Fur, Fortune, and Empire: The Epic History of the Fur Trade in America. W. W. Norton. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-0-393-34002-0.
  42. ^ Bernard A. Drew (22 December 2009). Literary Afterlife: The Posthumous Continuations of 325 Authors' Fictional Characters. McFarland. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-0-7864-5721-2.
  43. ^ Brenda Grantland (1 June 2016). Hatatorium: An Essential Guide for Hat Collectors. Brenda Grantland. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-9847859-0-2.
  44. ^ Russia Beyond The Headlines (12 December 2014). Russian Winter: Photo album. Russia Beyond The Headlines. pp. 91–. GGKEY:G7NRFZX3WQF.
  45. ^ Symposium on Antarctic Logistics, Held at Boulder, Colorado, August 13-17, 1962. National Academies. 1963. pp. 637–. NAP:12264.

Bibliography

  • E.J.W. Barber. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
  • Lise Bender Jørgensen. North European Textiles until AD 1000. Aarchus: Aarchus University Press, 1992.
Aaliyah

Aaliyah Dana Haughton (; January 16, 1979 – August 25, 2001) was an American singer, actress, and model. Born in Brooklyn, New York, and raised in Detroit, Michigan, she first gained recognition at the age of 10, when she appeared on the television show Star Search and performed in concert alongside Gladys Knight. At the age of 12, Aaliyah signed with Jive Records and her uncle Barry Hankerson's Blackground Records. Hankerson introduced her to R. Kelly, who became her mentor, as well as lead songwriter and producer of her debut album, Age Ain't Nothing but a Number. The album sold three million copies in the United States and was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). After facing allegations of an illegal marriage with Kelly, Aaliyah ended her contract with Jive and signed with Atlantic Records.

Aaliyah worked with record producers Timbaland and Missy Elliott for her second album, One in a Million, which sold 3 million copies in the United States and over eight million copies worldwide. In 2000, Aaliyah appeared in her first film, Romeo Must Die. She contributed to the film's soundtrack, which spawned the single "Try Again". The song topped the Billboard Hot 100 solely on airplay, making Aaliyah the first artist in Billboard history to achieve this goal. "Try Again" also earned Aaliyah a Grammy Award nomination for Best Female R&B Vocalist. After completing Romeo Must Die, Aaliyah filmed her role in Queen of the Damned, and released her self-titled third and final studio album in 2001.

On August 25, 2001, Aaliyah and eight others were killed in a plane crash in the Bahamas after filming the music video for the single "Rock the Boat". The pilot, Luis Morales III, was unlicensed at the time of the accident and toxicology tests revealed that he had traces of cocaine and alcohol in his system. Aaliyah's family later filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Blackhawk International Airways, which was settled out of court. Aaliyah's music continued to achieve commercial success with several posthumous releases, and has sold an estimated 24 to 32 million albums worldwide. She has been credited for helping redefine contemporary R&B, pop and hip hop, earning her the nicknames "Princess of R&B" and "Queen of Urban Pop". Billboard lists her as the tenth most successful female R&B artist of the past 25 years, and the 27th most successful in history.

Bituminous waterproofing

Bituminous waterproofing systems are designed to protect residential and commercial buildings. Bitumen (asphalt or coal-tar pitch) is a mixed substance made up of organic liquids that are highly sticky, viscous, and waterproof. These systems are sometimes used to construct roofs, in the form of roofing felt or roll roofing products.

Black Panther (film)

Black Panther is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is the eighteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film is directed by Ryan Coogler, who co-wrote the screenplay with Joe Robert Cole, and stars Chadwick Boseman as T'Challa / Black Panther, alongside Michael B. Jordan, Lupita Nyong'o, Danai Gurira, Martin Freeman, Daniel Kaluuya, Letitia Wright, Winston Duke, Angela Bassett, Forest Whitaker, and Andy Serkis. In Black Panther, T'Challa is crowned king of Wakanda following his father's death, but his sovereignty is challenged by an adversary who plans to abandon the country's isolationist policies and begin a global revolution.

Wesley Snipes expressed interest in working on a Black Panther film in 1992, but the project did not come to fruition. In September 2005, Marvel Studios announced a Black Panther film as one of ten based on Marvel characters and distributed by Paramount Pictures. Mark Bailey was hired to write a script in January 2011. Black Panther was announced in October 2014, and Boseman made his first appearance as the character in Captain America: Civil War (2016). By 2016, Cole and Coogler had joined; additional cast joined in May, making Black Panther the first Marvel film with a predominantly black cast. Principal photography took place from January to April 2017, at EUE/Screen Gems Studios in the Atlanta metropolitan area, and Busan, South Korea.

Black Panther premiered in Los Angeles on January 29, 2018, and was released theatrically in the United States on February 16, in 2D, 3D, IMAX and other premium large formats. The film became one of the year's best-reviewed, receiving praise from critics for its direction, screenplay, acting (particularly the performances of Boseman, Jordan, and Wright), costume design, production values, and soundtrack, though the computer-generated effects received some criticism. Many critics considered it to be one of the best films set in the MCU and noted its cultural significance, with organizations including the National Board of Review and American Film Institute naming it one of the Top 10 Films of 2018. It became the 9th-highest-grossing film of all time with over $1.35 billion worldwide, breaking numerous box office records including the highest-grossing film by a black director, and becoming the highest-grossing 2018 film in the U.S. and Canada and second-highest-grossing film of 2018 worldwide. It also received numerous awards and nominations, including three nominations at the 76th Golden Globe Awards, two nominations at the 25th Screen Actors Guild Awards, and twelve nominations at the 24th Critics' Choice Awards (winning three). A sequel is in development with Coogler returning to write and direct.

Deep Throat (Watergate)

Deep Throat is the pseudonym given to the secret informant who provided information in 1972 to Bob Woodward, who shared it with Carl Bernstein. Woodward and Bernstein were reporters for The Washington Post, and Deep Throat provided key details about the involvement of U.S. President Richard Nixon's administration in what came to be known as the Watergate scandal. In 2005, 31 years after Nixon's resignation and 11 years after Nixon's death, a family attorney stated that former Federal Bureau of Investigation Associate Director Mark Felt was Deep Throat. Felt was suffering from dementia at the time and had previously denied being Deep Throat, but Woodward and Bernstein confirmed the attorney's claim.

Goldfrapp

Goldfrapp are an English electronic music duo from London, formed in 1999. The duo consists of Alison Goldfrapp (vocals, synthesizer) and Will Gregory (synthesizer).

Despite favourable reviews and a short-listing for the Mercury Prize, their 2000 début studio album Felt Mountain did not chart highly. Goldfrapp's second album Black Cherry, which incorporated glam rock and synthpop sounds into their music, was released in 2003. The album influenced the same dance-oriented sound of their third album Supernature. Supernature took Goldfrapp's work further into dance music, and enjoyed international chart success. The album produced three number-one US dance singles, and was nominated for Best Electronic/Dance Album at the 49th Grammy Awards.Their fourth album Seventh Tree placed a greater emphasis on ambient and downtempo music, drawing inspiration from nature and paganism, while their fifth album, Head First, found the group exploring 1980s-influenced synthpop. Head First also earned the duo their second Grammy Award nomination for Best Electronic/Dance Album in 2010. Goldfrapp released their critically acclaimed sixth studio album, the folktronica-influenced Tales of Us, in September 2013. Goldfrapp released their seventh studio album, Silver Eye, in March 2017, which debuted at number six on the UK Albums Chart.

Hulu Theater

The Hulu Theater is a theater located in New York City's Madison Square Garden. It seats between 2,000 and 5,600 for concerts and can also be used for meetings, stage shows and graduation ceremonies. No seat is more than 177 feet (54 m) from the 30' × 64' stage. Since it is located beneath the main Madison Square Garden arena, the theatre has a relatively low 20-foot (6.1 m) ceiling at stage level and all of its seating except for boxes on the two side walls is on one level slanted back from the stage. There is an 8,000-square-foot (740 m2) lobby at the theater.

Kate Beckinsale

Kathrin Romary Beckinsale (born 26 July 1973) is a British actress. After some minor television roles, she made her film debut in Much Ado About Nothing (1993) while still a student at the University of Oxford. She appeared in British costume dramas such as Prince of Jutland (1994), Cold Comfort Farm (1995), Emma (1996), and The Golden Bowl (2000), in addition to various stage and radio productions. She began to seek film work in the United States in the late 1990s and, after appearing in small-scale dramas The Last Days of Disco (1998) and Brokedown Palace (1999), she had starring roles in the war drama Pearl Harbor (2001) and the romantic comedy Serendipity. She had a command performance in Tiptoes

(2003). She followed those with appearances in The Aviator (2004) and Click (2006).

Since being cast as Selene in the Underworld film series (2003–2016), Beckinsale has become known primarily for her work in action films, including Van Helsing (2004), Whiteout (2009), Contraband (2012), and Total Recall (2012). She also continues to make appearances in smaller dramatic projects such as Snow Angels (2007), Nothing but the Truth (2008), and Everybody's Fine (2009). In 2016, she received critical acclaim for her performance in the film Love & Friendship.

Lil Wayne

Dwayne Michael Carter Jr. (born September 27, 1982), known professionally as Lil Wayne, is an American rapper. In 1993, at the age of 11, he was discovered by Bryan "Birdman" Williams and joined Cash Money Records as the youngest member of the label, and half of the duo The B.G.'z, alongside fellow New Orleans-based rapper B.G.. In 1996, Lil Wayne and B.G. joined the southern hip hop group Hot Boys, with Cash Money label-mates Juvenile and Turk. Hot Boys debuted with Get It How U Live!, that same year. Most of the group's success came with their platinum-selling album Guerrilla Warfare (1999) and the 1999 single "Bling Bling". For many years, he was the flagship artist of Cash Money Records, before ending his long-tenured deal with the company in June 2018.Lil Wayne's solo debut album Tha Block Is Hot (1999) was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). His subsequent albums, Lights Out (2000) and 500 Degreez (2002), went on to be certified gold. Wayne reached higher popularity with his fourth album Tha Carter (2004), which was led by the single "Go D.J." and his appearance on Destiny's Child's Top 10 single "Soldier", that same year. The album was followed by Tha Carter II (2005), as well as several mixtapes and collaborations throughout 2006 and 2007. Wayne gained more prominence with his sixth album Tha Carter III (2008), which became his most successful album to date, with first-week sales of over one million copies in the United States. The album won the Grammy Award for Best Rap Album and includes the singles "Lollipop", "A Milli" and "Got Money".

Following the success of Tha Carter III, Wayne decided to record a rock-esque album titled Rebirth. The album, released in 2010, was certified gold by the RIAA, despite a generally negative critical response. In March 2010, Lil Wayne began serving an 8-month jail sentence in New York after being convicted of criminal possession of a weapon stemming from an incident in July 2007. Wayne's eighth album I Am Not a Human Being (2010), was released during his incarceration. His 2011 album and first following his release, Tha Carter IV, sold 964,000 copies in its first week of availability in the United States. It includes the singles "6 Foot 7 Foot", "How to Love" and "She Will". On September 27, 2012, Lil Wayne passed Elvis Presley as the male with the most entries on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, with 109 songs. The record has since been passed by other artists. His twelfth studio album, Tha Carter V, was released in 2018 after multiple delays. Lil Wayne has sold over 100 million records worldwide, including more than 15 million albums and 37 million digital tracks in the United States, making him one of the best-selling artists of all time. Lil Wayne also currently serves as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of his own label imprint, Young Money Entertainment.

Mark Felt

William Mark Felt Sr. (August 17, 1913 – December 18, 2008) was a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) special agent and Associate Director, the Bureau's second-highest-ranking post, from May 1972 until his retirement from the FBI in June 1973. During his time as Associate Director, Felt served as an anonymous informant, nicknamed "Deep Throat", to reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of The Washington Post. He provided them with critical information about the Watergate scandal, which ultimately led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974.

Though Felt's identity as Deep Throat was strongly suspected by some in Washington, D.C., including Nixon himself, it generally remained a secret for 30 years. In 2005, Felt finally acknowledged that he was Deep Throat, after being persuaded by his daughter to reveal his identity.Felt worked in several FBI field offices prior to his promotion to the Bureau's headquarters. In 1980, he was convicted of having violated the civil rights of people thought to be associated with members of the Weather Underground, by ordering FBI agents to break into their homes and search the premises as part of an attempt to prevent bombings. He was ordered to pay a fine, but was pardoned by President Ronald Reagan during his appeal.

Felt published two memoirs: The FBI Pyramid in 1979 (updated in 2006), and A G-Man's Life, written with John O'Connor, in 2006. In 2012, the FBI released Felt's personnel file, covering the period from 1941 to 1978. It also released files pertaining to an extortion threat made against Felt in 1956.

Marker pen

A marker pen, fineliner, marking pen, felt-tip marker, felt-tip pen, flow marker, texta (in Australia), sketch pen (in India) or koki (in South Africa), is a pen which has its own ink-source and a tip made of porous, pressed fibers such as felt. A permanent marker consists of a container (glass, aluminum or plastic) and a core of an absorbent material. This filling serves as a carrier for the ink. The upper part of the marker contains the nib that was made in earlier time of a hard felt material, and a cap to prevent the marker from drying out. Until the early 1990s the most common solvents that were used for the ink were toluene and xylene. These two substances are both harmful and characterized by a very strong smell. Today, the ink is usually made on the basis of alcohols (e.g. 1-propanol, 1-butanol, diacetone alcohol and cresols). Markers may be waterproof, dry-erase, wet-erase (e.g. transparency markers), or permanent.

Modified Mercalli intensity scale

The Modified Mercalli intensity scale (MM or MMI), descended from Giuseppe Mercalli's Mercalli intensity scale of 1902, is a seismic intensity scale used for measuring the intensity of shaking produced by an earthquake. It measures the effects of an earthquake at a given location, distinguished from the earthquake's inherent force or strength as measured by seismic magnitude scales (such as the "Mw" magnitude usually reported for an earthquake). While shaking is driven by the seismic energy released by an earthquake, earthquakes differ in how much of their energy is radiated as seismic waves. Deeper earthquakes also have less interaction with the surface, and their energy is spread out across a larger area. Shaking intensity is localized, generally diminishing with distance from the earthquake's epicenter, but can be amplified in sedimentary basins and certain kinds of unconsolidated soils.

Intensity scales empirically categorize the intensity of shaking based on the effects reported by untrained observers, and are adapted for the effects that might be observed in a particular region. In not requiring instrumental measurements, they are useful for estimating the magnitude and location of historical (pre-instrumental) earthquakes: the greatest intensities generally correspond to the epicentral area, and their degree and extent (possibly augmented with knowledge of local geological conditions) can be compared with other local earthquakes to estimate the magnitude.

Motion sickness

Motion sickness occurs in connection with travel or movement when an incongruity comes about between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of bodily movement. Most kinds are considered terrestrial motion sickness, such as being carsick, airsick, seasick, or sick from reality simulation. Symptoms include dizziness, fatigue, vertigo, depressed appetite, nonspecific malaise, gastrointestinal discomfort, (most commonly) nausea, and nausea-caused vomiting (see Sopite syndrome). If the cause of the nausea is not resolved, the sufferer will usually vomit, but vomiting may not relieve the feeling of weakness and nausea, which means the person might continue to vomit until the underlying cause of the nausea is resolved.

A kind of motion sickness with similar symptoms but a possibly different etiology is known as space adaptation syndrome or space motion sickness.

"Nausea" in Greek means seasickness (naus means ship).

Pen

A pen is a writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper, for writing or drawing. Historically, reed pens, quill pens, and dip pens were used, with a nib dipped in ink. Ruling pens allow precise adjustment of line width, and still find a few specialized uses, but technical pens such as the Rapidograph are more commonly used. Modern types include ballpoint, rollerball, fountain and felt or ceramic tip pens.

Rachel McAdams

Rachel Anne McAdams (born November 17, 1978) is a Canadian actress and activist. After graduating from a four-year theatre degree program at York University in 2001, she worked in Canadian television and film productions, such as the drama film Perfect Pie (2002), for which she received a Genie Award nomination, the comedy film My Name Is Tanino (2002), and the comedy series Slings and Arrows, for which she won a Gemini Award.

In 2002, she made her Hollywood film debut in the comedy The Hot Chick. McAdams rose to fame in 2004 with the comedy Mean Girls and the romantic drama The Notebook. In 2005, she starred in the romantic comedy Wedding Crashers, the psychological thriller Red Eye, and the comedy-drama The Family Stone. She was hailed by the media as Hollywood's new "it girl", and received a BAFTA Award nomination for Best Rising Star.

After a two-year break, McAdams starred in two limited-release films in 2008, the film noir Married Life and the road trip drama The Lucky Ones. She returned to prominence in 2009, by appearing in the political thriller State of Play, the science-fiction romantic drama The Time Traveler's Wife, and the mystery action-adventure film Sherlock Holmes. In 2010, McAdams appeared in her first star vehicle, the comedy Morning Glory. She then had starring roles in the films Midnight in Paris (2011), The Vow (2012), and About Time (2013). In 2015, her highest profile roles were in the second season of the HBO crime drama True Detective, and as journalist Sacha Pfeiffer in the drama Spotlight. For the latter, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. In 2016, she played Christine Palmer in the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero film Doctor Strange. In 2018, she starred in the comedy Game Night and the romantic drama Disobedience.

Richter magnitude scale

The so-called Richter magnitude scale – more accurately, Richter's magnitude scale, or just Richter magnitude – for measuring the strength ("size") of earthquakes refers to the original "magnitude scale" developed by Charles F. Richter and presented in his landmark 1935 paper, and later revised and renamed the Local magnitude scale, denoted as "ML" or "ML". Because of various shortcomings of the ML scale most seismological authorities now use other scales, such as the moment magnitude scale (Mw ), to report earthquake magnitudes, but much of the news media still refers to these as "Richter" magnitudes. All magnitude scales retain the logarithmic character of the original, and are scaled to have roughly comparable numeric values.

Ryan Gosling

Ryan Thomas Gosling (born November 12, 1980) is a Canadian actor and musician. He began his career as a child star on the Disney Channel's The Mickey Mouse Club (1993–1995), and went on to appear in other family entertainment programs, including Are You Afraid of the Dark? (1995) and Goosebumps (1996). His first starring film role was as a Jewish neo-Nazi in The Believer (2001), and he went on to star in several independent films, including Murder by Numbers (2002), The Slaughter Rule (2002), and The United States of Leland (2003).

Gosling gained wider recognition in 2004 with a leading role in the commercially successful romance The Notebook. For playing a drug-addicted teacher in Half Nelson (2006), he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor, and for playing a socially inept loner in Lars and the Real Girl (2007), he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award. After a three-year acting hiatus, Gosling starred in the marital drama Blue Valentine (2010), earning him a second Golden Globe nomination. Gosling co-starred in three mainstream films in 2011, the romantic comedy-drama Crazy, Stupid, Love, the political drama The Ides of March, and the neo-noir crime thriller Drive, and received two more Golden Globe nominations. His directorial debut, Lost River, was released to poor reviews in 2014. Greater success came to Gosling when he starred in five critically acclaimed films: the financial comedy-drama The Big Short (2015), the neo-noir black comedy The Nice Guys (2016), the musical romantic comedy-drama La La Land (2016), the neo-noir science fiction Blade Runner 2049 (2017), and the biopic First Man (2018). For La La Land, he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, and received a second Oscar nomination.

Gosling's band, Dead Man's Bones, released their self-titled debut album and toured North America in 2009. He is a co-owner of Tagine, a Moroccan restaurant in Beverly Hills, California. Gosling is a supporter of PETA, Invisible Children, and the Enough Project and has traveled to Chad, Uganda and eastern Congo to raise awareness about conflicts in the regions. Gosling has been involved in peace promotion efforts in Africa for over a decade. He has been in a relationship with actress Eva Mendes since 2011, and they have two daughters together.

Tar paper

Tar paper is a heavy-duty paper used in construction. Tar paper is made by impregnating paper or fiberglass mat with tar, producing a waterproof material useful for roof construction. Tar paper is distinguished from roofing felt which is impregnated with asphalt instead of tar; but these two products are used the same way, and their names sometimes are used informally as synonyms.

Tar paper has been in use for centuries. Originally felt was made from recycled rags but today felts are made of recycled paper products (typically cardboard) and sawdust. The most common product is #15 felt. Before the oil crisis, felt weighed about 15 pounds per square (one square = 100 square feet) and hence the asphalt-impregnated felt was called "15#" and "15-pound felt". Modern, inorganic mats no longer weigh 0.73 kg/m2, and to reflect this fact the new felts are called "#15". In fact, #15 mats can weigh from 7.5 to 12.5 pounds/sq depending on the manufacturer and the standard to which felt is made (i.e., CGSB, ASTM D227 Standard Specification for Coal-tar saturated Organic Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing, ASTM D4990, Standard Specification for Coal Tar Glass Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing, or none). Thirty-pound (30#) felt is now #30 felt, and usually weighs 16 to 27 pounds per square.

Tar paper is more accurately a Grade D building paper (the Grade D designation derives from a federal specification in the United States), which is widely used in the West. Building paper is manufactured from virgin kraft paper, unlike felts, and then impregnated with asphalt. The longer fibres in the kraft paper allow for a lighter weight product with similar and often better mechanical properties than felt. Grade papers are rated in minutes—the amount of time it takes for a moisture sensitive chemical indicator to change colour when a small boat-like sample is floated on water. Common grades include 10, 20, 30, and 60 minute. The higher the rating the more moisture resistant and the heavier. A typical 20 minute paper will weigh about 3.3 lbs per square, a 30-minute paper 3.75, and a 60-minute paper about six. The smaller volume of material however does tend to make these papers less resistant to moisture than heavier felts.

The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)

The Amazing Spider-Man is a 2012 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Spider-Man, and sharing the title of the character's longest-running comic book. It is the fourth theatrical Spider-Man film produced by Columbia Pictures and Marvel Entertainment, and a reboot of Sam Raimi's Spider-Man 2002–2007 trilogy preceding it.

The film was directed by Marc Webb. It was written by James Vanderbilt, Alvin Sargent and Steve Kloves, and it stars Andrew Garfield as Peter Parker / Spider-Man, alongside Emma Stone, Rhys Ifans, Denis Leary, Campbell Scott, Irrfan Khan, Martin Sheen and Sally Field. The film tells the story of Peter Parker, an introverted teenager from New York City, who takes up the alias of a masked vigilante: Spider-Man, after being bitten by a genetically engineered spider, and gaining spider-like superhuman abilities as a result, in order to hunt down his adoptive father/uncle's murderer. Eventually, Parker is compelled to stop his father's former scientific partner: Dr. Curt Connors, one of OsCorp's top biological researchers, who has accidentally exposed himself to an experimental mutagen, which has hampered his sanity and imbued him with a monstrous reptilian alter-ego, from spreading a mutation serum to the city's human population.

Development of the film began with the cancellation of Spider-Man 4 in 2010, ending director Sam Raimi's Spider-Man film series that originally featured Tobey Maguire as the titular superhero. Columbia Pictures opted to reboot the franchise with the same production team along with Vanderbilt to stay on with writing the next Spider-Man film, while Sargent and Kloves helped with the script as well. During pre-production, the main characters were cast in 2010. New designs were introduced from the comics, such as artificial web-shooters. Using Red Digital Cinema Camera Company's RED Epic camera, principal photography started in December 2010 in Los Angeles before moving to New York City. The film entered post-production in April 2011. 3ality Technica provided 3D image processing, and Sony Pictures Imageworks handled CGI. This was also the final American film to be scored by James Horner and released during his lifetime, before his death in 2015 from an aircraft accident.

Sony Pictures Entertainment built a promotional website, releasing many previews and launched a viral marketing campaign, among other moves. Tie-ins included a video game by Beenox. The film premiered on June 30 in Tokyo, and was released in the United States on July 3, ten years after release of Spider-Man (2002), in 2D, 3D and IMAX 3D and released in home media in November 2012. The reboot received generally favorable reviews, with critics praising mostly Andrew Garfield's performance, the visual style, James Horner's musical score, and the realistic portrayal of the title character, but criticized some underdeveloped story-lines, noting the film's deleted scenes, and the introduction of the Lizard as the villain for being too surreal for the film. The film was a box office success, grossing over $757 million worldwide, becoming the seventh highest-grossing film of 2012. The film's sequel, The Amazing Spider-Man 2, was released on May 2, 2014.

Yurt

A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages) or ger (Mongolian) is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. The structure comprises an angled assembly or latticework of pieces of wood or bamboo for walls, a door frame, ribs (poles, rafters), and a wheel (crown, compression ring) possibly steam-bent. The roof structure is often self-supporting, but large yurts may have interior posts supporting the crown. The top of the wall of self-supporting yurts is prevented from spreading by means of a tension band which opposes the force of the roof ribs. Modern yurts may be permanently built on a wooden platform; they may use modern materials such as steam-bent wooden framing or metal framing, canvas or tarpaulin, Plexiglas dome, wire rope, or radiant insulation.

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