Other authors proposed an alternative definition for this subfamily: as comprising only the living conical-toothed cat genera with two tribes, the Felini and Pantherini; thus excluding all fossil cat species.
|Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi)|
Fischer von Waldheim, 1817
|Native ranges of Felinae|
The term Felini was first used in 1817 by Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim, at the time for all the cat species that had been proposed as belonging to the genus Felis. In 1917, Reginald Innes Pocock defined this subfamily as "having an ossified hyoid and retracted claws protected by at least one cutaneous lobe". He also subordinated the following genera to the Felinae that had been proposed in the course of the 19th century: Lynx, Puma, Leptailurus, Prionailurus, Pardofelis, Leopardus, Herpailurus, Neofelis and four more.
Today, the following living genera and species are recognised as belonging to the Felinae:
|Felis Linnaeus, 1758||Domestic cat F. catus Linnaeus, 1758
European wildcat F. silvestris Schreber, 1775
|Lynx Kerr, 1792
||Eurasian lynx L. lynx (Linnaeus, 1758)
|Acinonyx Brookes, 1828||Cheetah A. jubatus (Schreber, 1775)|
|Puma Jardine, 1834||Cougar P. concolor (Linnaeus, 1771)|
|Otocolobus Brandt, 1841||Pallas's cat O. manul (Pallas, 1776)|
|Leopardus Gray, 1842||Ocelot L. pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Oncilla L. tigrinus (Schreber, 1775)
|Caracal Gray, 1843||Caracal C. caracal (Schreber, 1776)
|Catopuma Severtzov, 1858||Asian golden cat C. temminckii (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)
Bay cat C. badia (Gray, 1874)
|Pardofelis Severtzov, 1858||Marbled cat P. marmorata (Martin, 1837)|
|Prionailurus Severtzov, 1858||Leopard cat P. bengalensis (Kerr, 1792)
Sunda leopard cat P. javanensis (Desmarest, 1816)
|Leptailurus Severtzov, 1858||Serval L. serval (Schreber, 1776)|
|Herpailurus Severtzov, 1858||Jaguarundi H. yagouaroundi (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803)|
Acinonyx is a genus within the cat family. The only living species of this genus, the cheetah A. jubatus lives in open grasslands of Africa and Asia.Several fossil remains of cheetah-like cats were excavated that date to the late Pliocene and Middle Pleistocene. These cats occurred in Africa, parts of Europe and Asia about 10,000 years ago. Several similar species, classified in the genus Miracinonyx, lived in North America at the same time; these may have been more closely related to the genus puma.American cheetah
The American cheetah is either of two feline species of the extinct genus Miracinonyx, endemic to North America during the Pleistocene epoch (2.6 million to 12,000 years ago) and morphologically similar to the modern cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). These cats were originally known from fragments of skeletons, but nearly complete skeletons have been recovered from Natural Trap Cave in northern Wyoming.The two species commonly identified are M. inexpectatus and M. trumani. Sometimes, a third species, M. studeri, is included, but it is more often listed as a junior synonym of M. trumani. Both species are similar to the modern cheetah, with faces shortened and nasal cavities expanded for increased oxygen capacity, and legs proportioned for swift running. However, these similarities may not be inherited from a common ancestor, but may instead result from either parallel or convergent evolution. These were larger than a modern cheetah and similar in size to a modern northern cougar. Body mass was typically around 70 kg (150 lb), with a head-and-body length of 170 cm (67 in), tail length around 92 cm (36 in), and shoulder height of 85 cm (33 in). Large specimens could have weighed more than 95 kg (209 lb).Caracal (genus)
Caracal is a genus of the subfamily Felinae in the family Felidae. Previously, it was considered to be a monotypic genus, consisting of only the type species: Caracal caracal, commonly called caracal.
Genetic analysis has shown that caracal, African golden cat and serval are genetically closely related and diverged from a common ancestor about 5.4 million years ago. Therefore, it has been suggested to subordinate all of them to the genus Caracal. This taxonomic classification is used in the IUCN Red List for the African golden cat. It is used as a synonym for the serval.Caraval
The caraval (also called a cara-serval) is the cross between a male caracal and a female serval. They have a spotted pattern similar to the Serval, but on a darker background. These are bred for the pet market.
A servical is the cross between a male serval and a female caracal. A litter of servicals occurred by accident when the two animals were kept in the same enclosure at a Los Angeles zoo. The hybrids were given to an animal shelter. The only photos show them as tawny kittens.
These hybrids can theoretically be backcrossed to their parent species in various ways:
Ser-caraval (¾ serval, ¼ caracal) - a cross between a male serval and a female caraval.
Car-servical (¾ caracal, ¼ serval) - a cross between a male caracal and a servical.
Ser-servicals (¾ serval, ¼ caracal) - a male serval and a female servical.
Car-caravals (¾ caracal, ¼ serval) - a male caracal and female caraval.Currently, only ser-caravals have been documented. All of these hybrids will more closely resemble the species that contributed the greater fraction of their genes.Catopuma
Catopuma is a genus containing two Asian small wild cat species, the bay cat (C. badia) and the Asian golden cat (C. temminckii).
Both are typically reddish brown in colour, with darker markings on the head. They inhabit forested environments in Southeast Asia. The bay cat is restricted to the island of Borneo. Originally thought to be two subspecies of the same animal, recent genetic analysis has confirmed they are, indeed, separate species.The two species diverged from one another 4.9-5.3 million years ago, long before Borneo separated from the neighboring islands. Their closest living relative is the marbled cat, from which the common ancestor of the genus Catopuma diverged around 9.4 million years ago.Cougar
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known by other names including catamount, mountain lion, panther, and puma, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
Its range, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America, is the widest of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere. An adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in most American habitat types. It is the biggest cat in North America, and the second-heaviest cat in the New World after the jaguar. Secretive and largely solitary by nature, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular, although daytime sightings do occur. The cougar is more closely related to smaller felines, including the domestic cat (subfamily Felinae), than to any species of subfamily Pantherinae, of which only the jaguar is native to the Americas.
The cougar is an ambush predator that pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources are ungulates, particularly deer. It also hunts species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, but can also live in open areas. The cougar is territorial and survives at low population densities. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding to the jaguar, gray wolf, American black bear, and grizzly bear. It is reclusive and mostly avoids people. Fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have recently been increasing in North America as more people enter cougar territories.Intensive hunting following European colonization of the Americas and the ongoing human development of cougar habitat has caused populations to drop in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the North American cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century, except for the isolated Florida panther subpopulation. Transient males have been verified in Minnesota, Missouri, Iowa, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois (where a cougar was shot in the city limits of Chicago), and in at least one instance, observed as far east as coastal Connecticut. Reports of eastern cougars (P. c. cougar) still surface, although it was declared extirpated in 2011.Felid hybrid
A felid hybrid is any of a number of hybrid between various species of the cat family, Felidae. This article deals with hybrids between the species of the subfamily Felinae (feline hybrids). For hybrids between two species of the genus Panthera (lions, tigers, jaguars, and leopards), see Panthera hybrid. There are no known hybrids between Neofelis (the clouded leopard) and other genera. By contrast, many genera of Felinae are interfertile with each other, though few hybridize under natural conditions, and not all combinations are likely to be viable (e.g. between the tiny rusty-spotted cat and the leopard-sized cougar).Felidae
Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats. A member of this family is also called a felid. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to the domestic cat (Felis catus).Reginald Innes Pocock divided the extant Felidae into three subfamilies: the Pantherinae, the Felinae and the Acinonychinae, differing from each other by the ossification of the hyoid apparatus and by the cutaneous sheaths which protect their claws.
This concept has been revised following developments in molecular biology and techniques for analysis of morphological data. Today, the living Felidae are divided in two subfamilies, with the Pantherinae including seven Panthera and two Neofelis species. The Felinae include all the non-pantherine cats with 10 genera and 34 species.The first cats emerged during the Oligocene, about 25 million years ago, with the appearance of Proailurus and Pseudaelurus. The latter species complex was ancestral to two main lines of felids: the cats in the extant subfamilies and a third major group of extinct cats of the subfamily Machairodontinae. The machairodonts included the saber-toothed cats such as the Smilodon. The "false sabre toothed cats", the Barbourofelidae and Nimravidae, are not true cats, but are closely related and together with Felidae and other cat-like carnivores (hyaenas, viverrids and mongooses) make up the feliform carnivores.The characteristic features of cats have evolved to support a carnivorous lifestyle, with adaptations for ambush or stalking and short pursuit hunting. They have slender muscular bodies, strong flexible forelimbs and retractable claws for holding prey, dental and cranial adaptations for a strong bite, and often have characteristic striped or spotted coat patterns for camouflage.Felini (tribe)
Felini is a tribe in the Felidae family.
There are two major groups of felids, the sabre-toothed cats of subfamily Machairodontinae and the conical-toothed cats. The conical toothed cats are divided into the pantherine cats, which include the big cats of genus Panthera and the clouded leopards of genus Neofelis, and the feline cats, which include all the rest of the cats, from the smaller Felis and Prionailurus cats to the larger puma and cheetah.
Some authorities use the subfamily Felinae sensu lato for all conical-toothed cats, in which case the tribe Felini is used for the feline cats, while the pantherine cats are assigned the tribe Pantherini. Other authorities use Felinae only for the feline cats (excluding the pantherine cats), in which case Felini is a synonym for Felinae sensu stricto.Felis lunensis
Felis lunensis (Martelli's cat) is an extinct felid of the subfamily Felinae. Around 12 million years ago, the genus Felis appeared and eventually gave rise to many of the modern small cats. Felis lunensis was one of the first modern Felis species, appearing around 2.5 million years ago in the Pliocene. Fossil specimens of F. lunensis have been recovered in Italy and Hungary. Fossil evidence suggests the modern European wildcat Felis silvestris may have evolved from F. lunensis during the Middle Pleistocene. This has resulted in F. lunensis occasionally being considered a subspecies of Felis silvestris.
Felis lunensis first described by Ugolino Martelli in 1906 was a mandible excavated in Pliocene deposits near Olivola in Tuscany. The holotype specimen is now preserved in the collection of the University of Florence in Italy.List of felids
Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats. A member of this family is also called a felid or feline. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to domestic cats. The characteristic features of cats have evolved to support a carnivorous lifestyle, with adaptations for ambush or stalking and short pursuit hunting. They have slender muscular bodies, strong flexible forelimbs and retractable claws for holding prey, dental and cranial adaptations for a strong bite, and often have characteristic striped or spotted coat patterns for camouflage.Felidae comprises two subfamilies, the Pantherinae and the Felinae. The former includes the five Panthera species tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the two Neofelis species clouded leopard and Sunda clouded leopard. The Felinae subfamily includes 12 genera and 34 species, such as the bobcat, caracal, cheetah, cougar, ocelot, and common domestic cat.Traditionally, five subfamilies have been distinguished within the Felidae based on phenotypical features: the Felinae, the Pantherinae, the Acinonychinae (cheetahs), the extinct Machairodontinae, and the extinct Proailurinae. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that living (extant) felids fall into eight lineages (clades). The placement of the cheetah within the Puma lineage invalidates the traditional subfamily Acinonychinae, and recent sources use only two subfamilies for extant genera. The number of accepted species in Felidae has been around 40 since the 18th century, though research, especially modern molecular phylogenetic analysis, has over time adjusted the generally accepted genera as well as the divisions between recognized subspecies, species, and population groups. In addition to the extant species listed here, over 30 fossil genera have been described; these are divided into the Felinae, Pantherinae, Proailurinae, and Machairodontinae subfamilies. This final subfamily includes the Smilodon genus, known as the "saber-toothed tiger", which went extinct around 10,000 years ago. The earliest known felid genus is the Proailurus, part of Proailurinae, which lived approximately 25 million years ago.List of species in order Carnivora
This list contains the species in order Carnivora.Pantherinae
Pantherinae is a subfamily within the family Felidae, which was named and first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1917.Pardofelis
Pardofelis is a genus of the cat family Felidae. This genus is defined as including one species native to Southeast Asia: the marbled cat. Two other species, formerly classified to this genus, now belong to the genus Catopuma.
The word pardofelis is composed of the Latin words pardus pard, and felis cat in allusion to the spots of the type species, the marbled cat.Puma pardoides
Puma pardoides, sometimes called the Eurasian puma or Owen's panther, is an extinct prehistoric cat. It was long regarded as a primitive species of leopard (genus Panthera). Recent work however has shown that Panthera pardoides and Panthera schaubi are actually the same species, and are probably not pantherine at all, but a member of Felinae related to the cougar, making them more properly classified as Puma pardoides.Saber-toothed cat
A saber-toothed cat (alternatively spelled sabre-toothed cat) is any member of various extinct groups of predatory mammals that were characterized by long, curved saber-shaped canine teeth. The large maxillary canine teeth extended from the mouth even when it was closed. The saber-toothed cats were found worldwide from the Eocene epoch to the end of the Pleistocene epoch (42 million years ago (mya) – 11,000 years ago), existing for about 42 million years.One of the best-known genera is Smilodon, species of which, especially S. fatalis, are popularly, but incorrectly referred as a "saber-toothed tiger," a genus within the subfamily Machairodontinae of the carnivoran family Felidae. Extant members of Felidae include cats of the subfamilies Felinae and Pantherinae.
However, usage of the word cat is in some cases a misnomer, as many species referred to as saber-toothed "cats" are not closely related to modern cats of Felidae: instead, many are members of other feliform carnivoran families, such as Barbourofelidae and Nimravidae; the oxyaenid "creodont" genera Machaeroides and Apataelurus; and two lineages of metatherian mammals, the thylacosmilids of Sparassodonta, and deltatheroideans, which are more closely related to marsupials than to the placental mammals of the other orders mentioned. In this regard, saber-toothed cats can be viewed as examples of convergent evolution. This convergence is remarkable due not only to the development of elongated canines, but also a suite of other characteristics, such as a wide gape and bulky forelimbs, that is so consistent that it has been termed the "saber-tooth suite."Of the feliform lineages, the family Nimravidae is the oldest, entering the landscape around 42 mya and becoming extinct by 7.2 mya. Barbourofelidae entered around 16.9 mya and were extinct by 9 mya. These two would have shared some habitats.Ugolino Martelli
Ugolino Martelli (1860–1934) was an Italian botanist, biologist, and mycologist. Martelli is known for his studies of and contributions to the systematics of the tropical genus Pandanus and his taxonomic definition of the flora of Sardinia. He also specialized in studies of the flora of Tuscany and Malaysia.
Martelli's biological research led to the discovery of Felis lunensis (Martelli's Cat), an extinct felid of the subfamily Felinae. The holotype specimen was first described by Martelli in 1906 and is now preserved in the collections of the University of Florence in Italy.His student Odoardo Beccari, used Martelli's herbarium for his own research on the definition of the monocot genus Pandanus.
Martelli was the director of the Botanical Garden of Pisa from 1929 to 1930.
In 1905 in Florence, Martelli founded the Webbia Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography. Martelli named the journal in honor of Philip Barker Webb (1793–1854), a friend of Filippo Parlatore.
Extant Carnivora species