Fedora

A fedora /fɪˈdɔːrə/[1] is a hat with a soft brim and indented crown.[2][1] It is typically creased lengthwise down the crown and "pinched" near the front on both sides.[3] Fedoras can also be creased with teardrop crowns, diamond crowns, center dents, and others, and the positioning of pinches can vary. The typical crown height is 4.5 inches (11 cm).

The fedora hat's brim is usually wide, approximately 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) wide, but may be wider,[2] can be left "raw edged" (left as cut), finished with a sewn overwelt or underwelt, or bound with a trim-ribbon. "Stitched edge" means that there is one, two or more rows of stitching radiating inward toward the crown. The "Cavanagh Edge" is a welted edge with invisible stitching to hold it in place and is a very expensive treatment that can no longer be performed by modern hat factories.[4] Fedora hats are not to be confused with small brimmed hats called trilbies.[2][5]

The term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, and eventually it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg.[2]

Fedoras can be made of wool, cashmere, rabbit or beaver felt. These felts can also be blended to each other with mink or chinchilla[4][6] and rarely with vicuña, guanaco, cervelt,[7] or mohair. They can also be made of straw, cotton, waxed or oiled cotton, hemp, linen or leather.

A special variation is the rollable, foldaway or crushable fedora (rollable and crushable are not the same) with a certain or open crown (open-crown fedoras can be bashed and shaped in many variations). Special fedoras have a ventilated crown with grommets, mesh inlets or penetrations for a better air circulation.

Fedoras can be lined or unlined and have a leather[8] or cloth[9] or ribbon sweatband. Small feathers are sometimes added as decoration. Fedoras can be equipped with a chinstrap, but this is rare.

A fedora hat, made by Borsalino
A fedora made by Borsalino, with a pinch-front teardrop-shaped crown
Borsalino fedora
A fedora made by Borsalino with a gutter-dent, side-dented crown, the front of the brim "snapped down" and the back "snapped up"

History

African-American man wearing fedora
Man wearing fedora c. 2017

The term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, and eventually it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg.[2] The word fedora comes from the title of an 1882 play by dramatist Victorien Sardou, Fédora, which was written for Sarah Bernhardt.[10] The play was first performed in the United States in 1889. Bernhardt played Princess Fédora Romazov, the heroine of the play. During the play, Bernhardt – a noted cross-dresser – wore a center-creased, soft brimmed hat. The hat was fashionable for women, and the women's rights movement adopted it as a symbol.[11][12] After Edward, Prince of Wales started wearing them in 1924, it became popular among men for its stylishness and its ability to protect the wearer's head from the wind and weather.[11][12] Since the early part of the 20th century, many Haredi and other Orthodox Jews have made black fedoras normal to their daily wear.[13]

In popular culture

Fedoras became widely associated with gangsters and Prohibition, a connection coinciding with the height of the hat's popularity between the 1920s and the early 1950s.[11][12] In the second half of the 1950s, the fedora fell out of favor in a shift towards more informal clothing styles.[11][12]

Coach Tom Landry also wore the hat while he was the head coach of the Dallas Cowboys. It would later become his trademark image. A cenotaph dedicated to Landry with a depiction of his fedora was placed in the official Texas State Cemetery in Austin at the family's request.[14] In addition the Cowboys wore a patch on their uniforms during the 2000 season depicting Landry's fedora.[15]

Indiana Jones re-popularized the fedora in the Indiana Jones franchise.[16] The backstory of how he obtains the hat is told in the prologue of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, the third film of the series. The character who gives him the hat is given as "Fedora" in the film's credits.

The fedora hat of the ninth president of Turkey, Süleyman Demirel, was a famous part of the president's image.[17][18]

By the early 21st century, the fedora had become a symbol of hipsters.[19] Vice has referred to the early 2000s, as a "fedora renaissance", with celebrities like Johnny Depp and Pete Doherty wearing the hat, but claimed that by 2016, the fedora may be "the single most-hated fashion accessory money can buy".[20] This is caused by the association of the fedora (or the trilby, which is often confused with it) with the "neckbeard" stereotype.[20] During this latter period, James Toback was noted for his love of fedoras.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "fedora". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
  2. ^ a b c d e Kilgour, Ruth Edwards (1958). A Pageant of Hats Ancient and Modern. R. M. McBride Company.
  3. ^ Cotton, Elizabeth (1999). Hats. Stewart, Tabori & Chang.
  4. ^ a b Hat Glossary Retrieved 03.14.2016.
  5. ^ When a Fedora That Isn't a Fedora Is a Fedora Retrieved 03-09-2017.
  6. ^ Super felt Retrieved 2016-03-16.
  7. ^ Cervelt Retrieved 2016-03-14.
  8. ^ "Observations on Fedora Sweatbands, Size Tags, and Fedora Dating Tips". Publius Forum.
  9. ^ Sweatbands Retrieved 2016-03-15.
  10. ^ Encarta Dictionary, Microsoft Encarta Premium Suite 2004.
  11. ^ a b c d "History of Fedora Hats". History of Hats. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  12. ^ a b c d Rath, Robert (2014-03-06). "The History And Abuse of The Fedora". The Escapist. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  13. ^ Shields, Jody; Dugdale, John (1991). Hats: A Stylish History and Collector's Guide. Clarkson Potter.
  14. ^ "Thomas Wade Landry". Texas State Cemetery. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
  15. ^ "ESPN DALLAS Hall of Fame - Tom Landry no longer top of mind". ESPN. 2010-01-02. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
  16. ^ Hellqvist, David (2013-09-04). "The Hats: Heads Up". Port Magazine. Retrieved 2013-10-10. Harrison Ford sported a Herbert Johnson felt fedora as Indiana Jones in Raiders of the Lost Ark.
  17. ^ Anadolu Agency. "Turkey's 9th President Suleyman Demirel dies at 91". Getty Images.
  18. ^ "HATS: A POLITICAL SYMBOL OF TURKISH HISTORY". Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  19. ^ Rutenberg, Jim (2012-08-05). "Montauk's Hipster Fatigue". The New York Times. pp. ST1. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  20. ^ a b "I Wore a Fedora for a Week to See if It Would Ruin My Life". 22 November 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  21. ^ "38 Women Accuse Director James Toback Of Sexual Harassment: 'I Felt Like A Prostitute'". 23 October 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2018.

External links

  • Media related to Fedoras at Wikimedia Commons
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Discordian calendar

The Discordian or Erisian calendar is an alternative calendar used by some adherents of Discordianism. It is specified on page 00034 of the Principia Discordia.The Discordian year 1 YOLD is 1166 BC. (Elsewhere in the Principia Discordia, it is mentioned that the Curse of Greyface occurred in 1166 BC, so this is presumably related to the start-date of the calendar.) As a reference, AD 2019 is 3185 YOLD (Year of Our Lady of Discord). The abbreviation "YOLD" is not used in the Principia, though the phrase "Year of Our Lady of Discord" is mentioned once.

Fedora (film)

Fedora is a 1978 West German-French drama film directed by Billy Wilder. The screenplay by Wilder and I. A. L. Diamond is based on a novella by Tom Tryon included in his collection Crowned Heads, published in 1976. The film stars William Holden and Marthe Keller.

Fedora (opera)

Fedora is an opera in three acts by Umberto Giordano to an Italian libretto by Arturo Colautti, based on the play Fédora by Victorien Sardou. Along with Andrea Chénier and Siberia, it is one of the most notable works of Giordano.

It was first performed at the Teatro Lirico in Milan on 17 November 1898 conducted by the composer with Gemma Bellincioni creating the role of Fedora, and Enrico Caruso as her lover, Loris Ipanov.

Fedora (operating system)

Fedora is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat. Fedora contains software distributed under various free and open-source licenses and aims to be on the leading edge of such technologies. Fedora is the upstream source of the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution.Since the release of Fedora 21, three different editions are currently available: Workstation, focused on the personal computer, Server for servers, and Atomic focused on cloud computing.As of February 2016, Fedora has an estimated 1.2 million users, including Linus Torvalds, creator of the Linux kernel.

Fedora Commons

Fedora (or Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture) is a digital asset management (DAM) architecture upon which institutional repositories, digital archives, and digital library systems might be built. Fedora is the underlying architecture for a digital repository, and is not a complete management, indexing, discovery, and delivery application. It is a modular architecture built on the principle that interoperability and extensibility are best achieved by the integration of data, interfaces, and mechanisms (i.e., executable programs) as clearly defined modules.

Fedora Project

The Fedora Project is a project sponsored by Red Hat primarily to co-ordinate the development of the Linux-based Fedora operating system, operating with the vision that the project "creates a world where free culture is welcoming and widespread, collaboration is commonplace, and people control their content and devices." The project also oversees Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux, a special interest group which maintains the eponymous packages. The project was founded in 2003 as a result of a merger between the Red Hat Linux (RHL) and Fedora Linux projects. Red Hat employees make up only 35% of project contributors, and most of the over 2,000 contributors are unaffiliated members of the community.

HighNote Records

HighNote Records is a jazz record company and label founded by Joe Fields with his son, Barney Fields, in 1997.

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Larry Fedora

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Make Mine Music

Make Mine Music is a 1946 American animated anthology film produced by Walt Disney and released to theatres on April 20, 1946. It is the 8th Disney animated feature film.

During the Second World War, much of Walt Disney's staff was drafted into the army, and those that remained were called upon by the U.S. government to make training and propaganda films. As a result, the studio was littered with unfinished story ideas. In order to keep the feature film division alive during this difficult time, the studio released six package films including this one, made up of various unrelated segments set to music. This is the third package film, following Saludos Amigos and The Three Caballeros. The film was entered into the 1946 Cannes Film Festival.

My Green Fedora

My Green Fedora is a 1935 Merrie Melodies animated short film short directed by Friz Freleng, produced by Leon Schlesinger and animated by Chuck Jones and Robert Clampett. The film was released in the United States on May 4, 1935. It features a song, "I'm Wearin' My Green Fedora," written by songwriters, Al Sherman, Al Lewis, and Joseph Meyer special for this short.

Namesake

A namesake is a person named after another, or more broadly, a thing (such as a company, place, ship, building, or concept) named after a person. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a namesake is also defined as "a person or thing having the same name as another".

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Even though it was created for use in Red Hat Linux, RPM is now used in many Linux distributions. It has also been ported to some other operating systems, such as Novell NetWare (as of version 6.5 SP3), IBM's AIX (as of version 4), CentOS, Fedora (operating system) created jointly between Red Hat and the Fedora community, and Oracle Linux. All versions or variants of the these Linux operating systems use the RPM Package Manager.

An RPM package can contain arbitrary set of files. Most RPM files are “binary RPMs” (or BRPMs) containing the compiled version of some software. There are also “source RPMs” (or SRPMs) containing the source code used to build a binary package. These have an appropriate tag in the file header that distinguishes them from normal (B)RPMs, causing them to be extracted to /usr/src on installation. SRPMs customarily carry the file extension “.src.rpm” (.spm on file systems limited to 3 extension characters, e.g. old DOS FAT).

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Red Hat Enterprise Linux is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for x86-64, Power Architecture, ARM64, and IBM Z, and a desktop version for x86-64. All of Red Hat's official support and training, together with the Red Hat Certification Program, focuses on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux platform. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is often abbreviated to RHEL.

The first version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to bear the name originally came onto the market as "Red Hat Linux Advanced Server". In 2003 Red Hat rebranded Red Hat Linux Advanced Server to "Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS", and added two more variants, Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS.

Red Hat uses strict trademark rules to restrict free re-distribution of their officially supported versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but still freely provides its source code. Third-party derivatives can be built and redistributed by stripping away non-free components like Red Hat's trademarks. Examples include community-supported distributions like CentOS and Scientific Linux, and commercial forks like Oracle Linux.

In October 2018, Red Hat declared that KDE Plasma was no longer supported in future updates of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The announcement came shortly after the announcement of the business acquisition of Red Hat by IBM for close to $34 billion USD.

Red Hat Linux

Red Hat Linux, created by the company Red Hat, was a widely used Linux distribution until its discontinuation in 2004.Early releases of Red Hat Linux were called Red Hat Commercial Linux. Red Hat published the first non-beta release in May 1995. It was the first Linux distribution to use the RPM Package Manager as its packaging format, and over time has served as the starting point for several other distributions, such as Mandriva Linux and Yellow Dog Linux.

In 2003, Red Hat discontinued the Red Hat Linux line in favor of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) for enterprise environments. Fedora, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat, is a free-of-cost alternative intended for home use. Red Hat Linux 9, the final release, hit its official end-of-life on April 30, 2004, although updates were published for it through 2006 by the Fedora Legacy project until that shut down in early 2007.

Trilby

A trilby is a narrow-brimmed type of hat. The trilby was once viewed as the rich man's favored hat; it is sometimes called the "brown trilby" in Britain and was frequently seen at the horse races.

The traditional London hat company Lock and Co. describes the trilby as having a "shorter brim which is angled down at the front and slightly turned up at the back" versus the fedora's "wider brim which is more level". The trilby also has a slightly shorter crown than a typical fedora design.

Victorien Sardou

Victorien Sardou (5 September 1831 – 8 November 1908) was a French dramatist. He is best remembered today for his development, along with Eugène Scribe, of the well-made play. He also wrote several plays that were made into popular 19th-century operas such as La Tosca (1887) on which Giacomo Puccini's opera Tosca (1900) is based, and Fédora (1882) and Madame Sans-Gêne (1893) that provided the subjects for the lyrical dramas Fedora (1898) and Madame Sans-Gêne (1915) by Umberto Giordano.

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