Federica Mogherini

Federica Maria Mogherini (Italian: [fedeˈriːka moɡeˈriːni]; born 16 June 1973) is an Italian politician who has served as High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy since November 2014. She previously served as Italy's Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation from February 2014 to October 2014, in the centre-left Renzi Cabinet. She was a Member of the Chamber of Deputies (MP) from 2008 to 2014.[1]

She is a member of the Democratic Party, part of the Party of European Socialists.

Federica Mogherini
Federica Mogherini Official
Vice-President of the European Commission and High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
Assumed office
1 November 2014
PresidentJean-Claude Juncker
Preceded byCathy Ashton
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
22 February 2014 – 31 October 2014
Prime MinisterMatteo Renzi
Preceded byEmma Bonino
Succeeded byPaolo Gentiloni
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
13 May 2008 – 30 September 2014
ConstituencyLazio 1
Personal details
Federica Maria Mogherini

16 June 1973 (age 45)
Rome, Italy
Political partyDemocratic Party
Matteo Rebesani (m. 2007)
RelativesFlavio Mogherini (Father)
Alma materSapienza University
Federica Mogherini's signature
WebsiteOfficial website

Early life and education

Federica Mogherini was born on 16 June 1973 in Rome, Italy, to the family of the film director and set designer Flavio Mogherini (1922–1994).

Mogherini attended the Sapienza University of Rome where she studied Political Science graduating with a specialization in Political Philosophy with a final dissertation on Islam and politics,[2][3] which she wrote while she was on the Erasmus programme at Aix-en-Provence, France.[3]

Political career

Federica Mogherini, President of the Italian delegation to the NATO Parliamentary Assembly and a member of the Group of Eminent Persons (GEM) (9998846455)
Federica Mogherini representing Italy at the NATO Parliamentary Assembly in 2013.

Early beginnings

A member of the Italian Communist Youth Federation, upon joining in 1988. In 1996, Mogherini joined the Youth Left after the dissolution of the Italian Communist Party and its transformation into a Social Democratic Party. In 2001, she became a member of the National Council of the Democrats of the Left (DS), later serving on its National Executive Board and Political Committee. In 2003, she started working at the DS's Foreign Affairs Section, where she was given responsibility for relations with international movements and parties, later becoming the team's coordinator; after that she was given responsibility for Foreign Affairs and International Relations on the staff of DS Party chairman Piero Fassino. In this role, she oversaw the policies on Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as the Middle East peace process. Mogherini was in charge of maintaining relations with the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International and other left-wing parties.

After the formation of the Italian Democratic Party (PD), on 4 November 2007, Mogherini was appointed to the staff of its founding chairman Walter Veltroni.

Member of Parliament, 2008–14

In 2008, Mogherini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, representing the constituency of Veneto. Serving in the 16th legislature, she became secretary of its Defence Committee, a member of the Italian parliamentary delegation to the Council of Europe, and of Italy's parliamentary delegation to the Western European Union.

On 24 February 2009, she was appointed to the staff of the incoming chairman of the PD Dario Franceschini, with responsibility for equal opportunity. After that she was notable as a member of Franceschini's faction (Area Democratica).[4] She has also served as Vice-President of the Italy-USA Foundation.[5]

In February 2013, Mogherini was returned to parliament for the Emilia-Romagna constituency. During the 17th Italian legislature she served again on the Defence Committee (replacing Lapo Pistelli after he was appointed Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs), on the Committee on Foreign Affairs and on the Italian delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of NATO, and later its president from April 2013. On 1 August 2013, she was elected as head of the Italian delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly for NATO.[6]

Federica Mogherini 2014
Federica Mogherini in 2014.

On 9 December 2013, the new chairman of the PD Matteo Renzi appointed Mogherini to his staff, with the responsibility of European relations.

Around this time, Mogherini voiced her support for the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations, and the creation of a more accountable international political system.[7]

Mogherini was a Fellow of the German Marshall Fund of the United States.[6]

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Italy, 2014

Mogherini joined the Renzi Cabinet as Minister of Foreign Affairs, the third woman after Susanna Agnelli and Emma Bonino to hold this post. Her first public engagement following her appointment was to meet, along with Italy's Defence Minister, the wives of Massimiliano Latorre and Salvatore Girone, the two Italian marines detained in India after the Enrica Lexie incident.

Under her direction, the Foreign Ministry worked for the release of Mariam Ibrahim. Italy's good relations with Sudan helped in securing the release of this Sudanese woman who was finally permitted to fly to Italy on an Italian government plane.[8][9]

EU High Representative, 2014–present

Secretary Kerry and EU High Representative Mogherini Pose for a Photo Before Their Meeting in New York City (21825001666)
Mogherini with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 2015.
Participants of the ASEAN Regional Forum Retreat (43788736902)
Mogherini with Retno Marsudi, Kang Kyung-wha, Julie Bishop, and Chrystia Freeland at the ASEAN Regional Forum Retreat in Singapore on August 4, 2018.

In July 2014, given the large number of Italian MEPs belonging to the S&D group following the 2014 European election, the European Council considered her as a candidate for the position of High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, in Jean-Claude Juncker's new Commission. On 13 July 2014, the Financial Times among other European newspapers reported that her nomination proposal had been opposed by the Baltic states and several Central-European countries, including Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania and Poland, where her stance towards Russia concerning the Ukrainian crisis was considered to be too soft. Sweden, Ireland, Netherlands and the United Kingdom raised concerns also, claiming the position should be filled by someone from the center-right and by a candidate from outside Germany, France and Italy.

Nonetheless, on 2 August 2014, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi formally nominated her by letter to EC President-elect Jean-Claude Juncker, as Italy's official candidate for EU Commissioner.

On 30 August, Europe's socialist Prime Ministers met prior to the convening of the European Council, at which she received the approval of the Party of European Socialists. On the same day the President Herman Van Rompuy announced that the European Council had decided to appoint the Italian Minister as its new High Representative, effective from 1 November 2014. The group of commissioners involved in external relations — neighborhood and EU enlargement, trade, development, emergency and humanitarian aid, migration, energy and transport — meets monthly, with Mogherini in the chair.[10]

At her first press conference she declared her efforts will be devoted to establishing discussions between Russia and Ukraine to solve the crisis between the two countries.

In 2015, Mogherini won praise for her role in negotiating the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an international agreement on the nuclear program of Iran, and along with Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif was the one to announce the accord to the world.[11] In 2016, she appointed chief negotiator Helga Schmid as Secretary General of the European External Action Service (EEAS), following the resignation of Alain Le Roy.[12][13]

Since 2015, Mogherini has been serving as a member of the European Commission’s High-level Group of Personalities on Defence Research chaired by Elżbieta Bieńkowska.[14]

2016 Global Strategy

In 2016 the EU adopted the European Union Global Strategy, drawn up by Mogherini, thereby replacing the 2003 European Security Strategy.[15]

2017 visit to India

In April of 2017, Mogherini paid her first visit to India in an official capacity as EU representative, discussing issues including climate change and anti-terrorism.[16][17]

2017 JCPOA talks

In October 2017, Mogherini announced plans to argue the EU case for America to remain supportive of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the "Iran nuclear deal", by holding talks with the Trump administration in Washington DC following Trump's Denial of Recertification.[18]

Political positions

Negotiations about Iranian Nuclear Program - Foreign Ministers and other Officials of P5+1 Iran and EU in Lausanne
Federica Mogherini with the ministers of foreign affairs of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, France, China and Iran negotiating in Lausanne for a Comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme.

Relations with Africa

In 2017, Mogherini stirred controversy and diplomatic confusion over her statement that the trade agreements between Morocco and the EU would not be affected by the 2016 ruling by the European Court of Justice on the scope of trade with Morocco. This ruling confirmed that bilateral trade deals, such as the EU–Morocco Fisheries Partnership Agreement, cover only agricultural produce and fishing products originating within the internationally recognized borders of Morocco, thus explicitly excluding any product sourced from Western Sahara or its territorial waters. The international community, including the EU, unanimously rejects Morocco's territorial claim to Western Sahara.[19][20][21][22]

Relations with Iran, 2018

Speaking at a briefing with New Zealand's Foreign Minister Winston Peters, on the first ever EU high-representative official visit, Mogherini challenged U.S. sanctions on Iran, stating that the EU are encouraging small and medium size enterprises in particular to increase business with and in Iran as part of something that is for the EU a "Security Priority".[23]

Relations with the Middle East

Mogherini has expressed that she wants the EU to play a leading role in trying to restart Israeli-Palestinian peace talks after a U.S.-brokered process foundered in April 2014. She visited the region within days of starting her new job. She pushed to revitalise the Middle East Quartet – together with the United Nations, the United States, and Russia – and to involve key Arab countries in relaunching the peace process: the first "Quartet plus" meeting, with Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the Arab League, took place on the sides of the UN General Assembly in New York, on 30 September 2014.[24]

In her capacity of EU High Representative she coordinated the last rounds of negotiations on Iran's nuclear programme, which led to an agreement on 14 July 2015. US Secretary of State John Kerry praised her for "expertly coordinating international efforts during the final stage" of the talks.[25]

Zarif Mogherini meet in Tehran 2016 (1)
Mogherini with Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, 16 April 2016

Critics of Mogherini attacked her for being a pivotal supporter of Iran in the negotiations.[26]

Ilham Aliyev met with President of European Council in Brussels 7
Mogherini and Donald Tusk with Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev in Brussels, 11 July 2018

Mogherini opposed the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, saying: "I'm convinced that military action is not a solution."[27]

On 19 March 2018, in response to the Turkish invasion of northern Syria, Mogherini criticized Turkey, saying that international efforts in Syria are supposed to be "aiming at de-escalating the military activities and not escalating them."[28]

Relations with Russia

In January 2015, Mogherini circulated a discussion paper among EU foreign ministers exploring a potential rapprochement with Russia, including a pathway to ease some economic sanctions against the country during the Ukraine crisis and opening dialogue on a range of topics such as visas and energy policy; the proposal drew a harsh response from the United Kingdom and Poland as the fighting intensified in eastern Ukraine.[29] In February 2017, Mogherini said that "as long as the Minsk agreements are not fully implemented, [anti-Russian] sanctions would remain in place".[30] In March 2017, dozens of journalists, analysts, and politicians signed an open letter, initiated by Czech non-governmental organisation European Values Think-Tank, criticising Mogherini's response to Russia, saying she was "trying to avoid naming Russia as the main creator of hostile disinformation" and "constantly [appeasing] Russian aggression."[31][32]

On 27 April 2017, on her first official visit to Russia, Mogherini met with Sergei Lavrov. Their discussion covered the implementation of the Minsk Agreement, the Annexation of Crimea, homophobic discrimination in Chechnya, and other topics. Mogherini said that she supported policies in the spirit of "cooperation rather than confrontation".[33]

Relations with China

On 11 September 2018, Mogherini raised the issue of Xinjiang re-education camps and human rights abuses against the Uyghur Muslim minority in European Parliament.[34]

Relations with the United States

Secretary Pompeo Chats With Secretary Perry and E.U. Representative Mogherini (28498334597)
Mogherini with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 12 July 2018

An admirer of the United States, Mogherini told Reuters in 2014 that one day she would like to work there.[35] In the negotiations on a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, she pushed for an energy chapter, arguing that it would "set a benchmark" in terms of transparent, rules-based energy markets to the rest of the world.[36]

Following the election of Donald Trump as US President and his support of Brexit, Mogherini criticized Trump for interfering in internal European matters, stating "We do not interfere in US politics … and Europeans expect that America does not interfere in European politics."[37]

In June 2018, Mogherini issued the statement that EU praised the 2018 North Korea–United States summit between US President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un. It is "crucial and necessary step" for denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. EU will be ready to "facilitate and support the follow-on negotiations and other steps" for a peace settlement.[38]

Islam in Europe

Mogherini has also caused controversy[26] since her appointment to the European Commission by stating publicly that Islam is part of Europe's history and future. In a speech[39] in Brussels on 24 June 2015, she said:

Islam holds a place in our Western societies. Islam belongs in Europe. It holds a place in Europe's history, in our culture, in our food and—what matters most—in Europe's present and future. Like it or not, this is the reality.

And continuing from the same speech:[39]

I am not afraid to say that political Islam should be part of the picture. Religion plays a role in politics – not always for good, not always for bad. Religion can be part of the process. What makes the difference is whether the process is democratic or not.

Some analysts claim that Mogherini's speech has been misquoted. For example, according to columnist Klaus Jurgens, Mogherini believes that "political Islam should be part of the equation in fighting terror and in particular the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant" and "she did not say that political Islam should become Europe's new masterplan".[40]

Other activities


See also


  1. ^ "Italy's Mogherini and Poland's Tusk get top EU jobs". BBC News. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  2. ^ "Mogherini: Italy's young rising star". AFP. 30 August 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  3. ^ a b Vincenti, Daniela (2014-08-30). "Profile: Federica Mogherini, the next EU foreign affairs chief". EurActiv. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
  4. ^ "A Matteo manca solo la fiducia". L'Unità (in Italian). Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  5. ^ "Uragano Sandy, Mogherini: "Solidarietà e amicizia al popolo americano, gli USA sapranno reagire"=". 30 October 2012. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Chi Sono". Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  7. ^ "Supporters". Campaign for a UN Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved 2017-09-21.
  8. ^ "Sudan: amb. in Italia, Meriam a Roma grazie a amicizia tra nostri paesi". Adnkronos (in Italian). Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  9. ^ "Woman who faced death for faith is free". CNN website.
  10. ^ Tim King (30 October 2015), The EU grows up (on foreign policy) Politico Europe.
  11. ^ Maïa de La Baume (17 July 2015), The women behind the Iran nuclear deal Politico Europe.
  12. ^ Federica Mogherini appoints Helga Schmid as Secretary General of the European External Action Service European External Action Service (EEAS), press release of 15 June 2016.
  13. ^ Maïa de La Baume and Jacopo Barigazzi (24 June 2016), Mogherini shakes up staff, mission Politico Europe.
  14. ^ Simon Taylor (30 March 2015), High-level group of personalities on defence research European Voice.
  15. ^ "Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe. A Global Strategy for the European Union's Foreign And Security Policy" (PDF). europa.eu. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  16. ^ http://www.ptinews.com/news/8602927_EU--s-Mogherini-to-visit-India-for-talks-with-Swaraj--Doval
  17. ^ "EU foreign policy chief coming to India this week". The Hindu Business Line. 2017-04-16.
  18. ^ "EU ministers close ranks to support Iran deal".
  19. ^ "EU to uphold Morocco farm accord despite Western Sahara ruling". 7 February 2017 – via Reuters.
  20. ^ "Morocco deals don't cover Western Sahara, EU lawyer says".
  21. ^ "The EU's Morocco problem". 23 December 2016.
  22. ^ Dudley, Dominic. "European Court Dismisses Morocco's Claim To Western Sahara, Throwing EU Trade Deal Into Doubt".
  23. ^ https://tvnewsroom.consilium.europa.eu/event/eu-new-zealand-14f60/eu-hr-mogherini-meets-mfa-of-new-zealand-press-point-part-2--1bb7e
  24. ^ Andrew RETTMAN (14 September 2015), Migration and Middle East top EU agenda at UN EUobserver.
  25. ^ John Kerry (16 January 2016), Remarks on Implementation Day United States Department of State.
  26. ^ a b George Igler, Iran Deal: Europe's Chief Negotiator Sympathized with Iran dated 21 July 2015, at gatestoneinstitute.org, accessed 15 February 2016
  27. ^ "Saudi Arabia Gets Bipartisan Backing for Yemen Airstrikes". U.S. News. 27 March 2015. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015.
  28. ^ "EU criticizes Turkey's offensive in Syrian town of Afrin". Chicago Tribune. 19 March 2018.
  29. ^ Christian Oliver, Roman Olearchyk and Henry Foy (19 January 2015), EU foreign ministers attack call to soften Russia stance Financial Times.
  30. ^ "EU's Mogherini: U.S. says will fully implement Iran nuclear deal". Reuters. 10 February 2017.
  31. ^ Heath, Ryan (22 March 2017). "Federica Mogherini 'soft' on disinformation, critics say". Politico.
  32. ^ "Open Letter of European security experts to Federica Mogherini". European Values. March 2017.
  33. ^ ""В условиях взаимных санкций абсурдно считать друг друга партнерами"". 24 April 2017 – via Kommersant.
  34. ^ "Speech by HR/VP Mogherini at the plenary session of the European Parliament on the state of the EU-China relations". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  35. ^ Gavin Jones (31 August 2014), Mogherini must win over doubters as EU foreign policy chief Reuters.
  36. ^ James Crisp (4 December 2014), Mogherini pushes Kerry for energy chapter in TTIP EurActiv.
  37. ^ "EU's Mogherini warns US not to 'interfere' in European politics". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  38. ^ "EU hails 'crucial and necessary' Trump-Kim talks". The Straits Times. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  39. ^ a b Federica Mogherini (24 Juni 2015), Federica Mogherini’s remarks at "Call to Europe V: Islam in Europe" conference European External Action Service.
  40. ^ Klaus Jurgens (11 July 2015), Federica Mogherini on political Islam Archived 24 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine Today's Zaman.
  41. ^ a b c d Federica Mogherini: Declaration of interests Archived 18 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine European Commission.
  42. ^ World leaders unite under new initiative to provide quality education and training for young people Generation Unlimited, press release of 21 September 2018.
  43. ^ Advisory Council Munich Security Conference.
  44. ^ [1] Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (HSFK), press release of 6 June 2017.
  45. ^ EU-Außenbeauftragte: Kaiser-Otto-Preis für Mogherini Volksstimme, 17 October 2017.
  46. ^ [EU Commissioner receives the doctor’s hat] University of Tampere, 11 October 2011.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Emma Bonino
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Paolo Gentiloni
Preceded by
Fernando Nelli Feroci
Italian European Commissioner
Preceded by
Cathy Ashton
High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
2014 in the European Union

Events in the year 2014 in the European Union.

2016 in the European Union

Events in the year 2016 in the European Union.

2018 in the European Union

Events in the year 2018 in the European Union.

Bekim Çollaku

Bekim Çollaku is the Minister of European Integration of Kosovo. He previously served as the Chief of Staff of the Prime Minister of Kosovo Hashim Thaçi between 2007 and 2014. Prior to joining the Cabinet of Prime Minister Thaçi, he worked as Assistant Lecturer at Prishtina University, Department of Political Sciences and as a researcher in the Kosovar Institute for Policy Research and Development.Çollaku was a member of the Kosovo negotiating team in the EU facilitated Political Dialogue for Normalization of Relations between Kosovo and Serbia between 2011 and 2014.

He served as Political Advisor to the first elected Kosovo Prime Minister Bajram Rexhepi between 2003 and 2004.

Bekim Çollaku is a member of the Democratic Party of Kosovo (Albanian: Partia Demokratike e Kosovës – PDK).

In his position as the Minister of European Integration Çollaku played the role of Kosovo's chief negotiator in the negotiations between the European Commission and Kosovo for a Stabilisation and Association Agreement. After the approval of the SAA by the Council of the European Union on 22 October 2015 in Luxembourg, Çollaku co-signed the SAA on behalf of Kosovo at the Office of the High Representative Federica Mogherini at the European Parliament in Strasbourg, France on 27 October 2015.

Common Foreign and Security Policy

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions. CFSP deals only with a specific part of the EU's external relations, which domains include mainly Trade and Commercial Policy and other areas such as funding to third countries, etc. Decisions require unanimity among member states in the Council of the European Union, but once agreed, certain aspects can be further decided by qualified majority voting. Foreign policy is chaired and represented by the EU's High Representative, currently Federica Mogherini.

The CFSP sees the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) as responsible for the territorial defence of Europe and reconciliation. However, since 1999, the European Union is responsible for implementing missions such as peacekeeping and policing of treaties. A phrase often used to describe the relationship between the EU forces and NATO is "separable, but not separate". The same forces and capabilities form the basis of both EU and NATO efforts, but portions can be allocated to the European Union if necessary.

European Defence Agency

The European Defence Agency (EDA) is an agency of the European Union (EU) that promotes and facilitates integration between member states within the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The EDA is headed by the High Representative (HR/VP), and reports to the Council. The EDA was established on 12 July 2004 and is based in Brussels, Belgium.

All EU member states take part in the agency, except Denmark, which has opted out of the CFSP.The EDA and the European External Action Service (EEAS) together form the Secretariat of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), the structural integration pursued by 25 of the 28 national armed forces of the EU since 2017.

European Union Institute for Security Studies

The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) is a Paris-based agency of the European Union. The EUISS evolved from Western European Union Institute for Security Studies following a gradual transfer of powers from the Western European Union (WEU) to the EU. It now operates under the Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

The EUISS is an autonomous agency with full intellectual freedom. It researches security issues of relevance for the EU and provides a forum for debate. In its capacity as an EU agency, it also offers analyses and forecasting to the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini.

European Union Special Representative

The European Union Special Representatives (EUSR) are emissaries of the European Union with specific tasks abroad. While the EU's ambassadors are responsible for affairs with a single country, Special Representatives tackle specific issues, conflict areas or regions of countries. They answer directly to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, currently Federica Mogherini.

European student think tank

The European Student Think Tank (abbreviated EST) is an International NGO dedicated to involving young Europeans in the European policy-making process. It functions as an online journal of international affairs and annually publishes an academic journal, "The European Policy Review". The European Student Think Tank won the 2011 European Charlemagne Youth Prize, awarded by the European Parliament, and has since then expanded to host a network of ambassadors in Council of Europe member states.

The European Student Think Tank currently hosts debates across EU institutions in which young people engage with policy-makers, having hosted in 2016 debates in the European Parliament on Gender equality and youth participation in European Politics. Members of the European Parliament and representatives of the European Commission participated in these debates, as well as academics. European Student Think Tank President Carlota Nunez Strutt was a panelist in the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats Europe Together conference, in which other speakers included European Parliament President Martin Schulz and Vice-President of the European Commission Federica Mogherini.

Flavio Mogherini

Flavio Mogherini (25 March 1922 – 23 April 1994) was an Italian production designer, art director and film director. His career spanned from 1947 to 1994. His daughter is Federica Mogherini, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of the European Union.

Gebran Bassil

Gebran Gerge Bassil (Arabic: جبران جرجي باسيل‎; born 21 June 1970) is a Lebanese politician, and as of 20 September 2015, the leader of the Free Patriotic Movement.

Bassil was an activist for the Free Patriotic Movement from 1998 to 2005. In 2009, he served as the Minister of Telecommunications then as the Minister of Water and Energy in 2011 and is currently the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants.

In September 2015, he became the leader of the Free Patriotic Movement taking over the position that was occupied by his father-in-law,

founder of the FPM and Lebanese President, Michel Aoun.

High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (abbreviated HR or HR/VP, the latter reflecting the vice presidency of the Commission) is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) within the European Union (EU). The position is currently held by Federica Mogherini.

The post was created under the Treaty of Amsterdam as the High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy; it then was occupied by Javier Solana for ten years until it was aggrandised following the Lisbon Treaty providing a seat on the European Commission and chair of the council of EU foreign ministers. Following the Lisbon Treaty the post is assisted by the European External Action Service (EEAS) that was set up in December 2010.

Iran nuclear deal framework

The Iran nuclear deal framework was a preliminary framework agreement reached in 2015 between the Islamic Republic of Iran and a group of world powers: the P5+1 (the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, France, and China—plus Germany) and the European Union.

Negotiations for a framework deal over the nuclear program of Iran took place between the foreign ministers of the countries at a series of meetings held from March 26 to April 2, 2015 in Lausanne, Switzerland. On April 2 the talks came to a conclusion and a press conference was held by Federica Mogherini (High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy) and Mohammad Javad Zarif (Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran) to announce that the eight parties had reached an agreement on a framework deal. The parties announced, "Today, we have taken a decisive step: we have reached solutions on key parameters of a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action," which they intended to complete by June 30. Announcing the framework, Foreign Minister Zarif stated: "No agreement has been reached so we do not have any obligation yet. Nobody has obligations now other than obligations that we already undertook under the Joint Plan of Action that we adopted in Geneva in November 2013."The framework deal was embodied in a document published by the EU's European External Action Service titled Joint Statement by EU High Representative Federica Mogherini and Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif Switzerland, and in a document published by the U.S. Department of State titled Parameters for a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action Regarding the Islamic Republic of Iran's Nuclear Program.On July 14, 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action between Iran and the P5+1 and EU, a comprehensive agreement based on the April 2015 framework, was announced.On May 8, 2018, United States President Donald Trump announced the United States was withdrawing from the deal.

Iran–Italy relations

Iranian–Italian relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Italian Republic.

Italy–Kurdistan Region relations

Italy–Kurdistan Region relations are bilateral relations between Italy and the Kurdistan Region. Italy has a consulate general in Erbil, while Kurdistan Region has a representation in Rome. Relations are described as "strong" and Italy has a military presence in Kurdistan Region.Many high-level meeting have been held between Italy and Kurdistan Region. In November 2005, Kurdish President Massoud Barzani visited Italian Prime Minister Berlusconi in Rome, and again in 2009. In September 2012, President Barzani met with the Italian Foreign Minister Giulio Terzi in Rome to discuss economic and cultural ties. Barzani visited Italy again in May 2014, meeting Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini. Three months later, Prime Minister Matteo Renzi visited Erbil to strengthen political and military ties.The two parties signed an environmental agreement in July 2017, aimed at assisting the Kurdish government with technology concerning climate change.

Jorge Domecq

Jorge Domecq (born 28 November 1960) is a Spanish diplomat who is the former ambassador of Spain to the Philippines. Since February 2015, he is the new European Defence Agency Chief Executive, appointed by Federica Mogherini.

Bachelor of Law, entered 1985 in the Diplomatic Corps. He has served in the Spanish Embassy in the NATO Council and Brazil. He was adviser Executive Cabinet Minister of Defence, Chief of Cabinet of the Secretary General of NATO and second in command at the Embassy of Spain in Italy. In 2004 he was appointed second in command at the Embassy of Spain in Morocco and in 2005 he held the post of deputy director general of the Bureau of Gibraltar. Later, he was director general of the UN, Global Affairs and Human Rights at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and from July 2010 to January 2011 he was director general of Multilateral Affairs.

Juncker Commission

The Juncker Commission is the European Commission in office since 1 November 2014 and is due to serve until 2019. Its president is Jean-Claude Juncker, who presides over 27 other commissioners (one from each of the states composing the European Union, except Luxembourg, which is Juncker's state). In July 2014, Juncker was officially elected to succeed José Manuel Barroso, who completed his second five-year term in that year.

Operation Sophia

Operation Sophia, formally European Union Naval Force Mediterranean (EU NAVFOR Med), is a military operation of the European Union that was established as a consequence of the April 2015 Libya migrant shipwrecks with the aim of neutralising established refugee smuggling routes in the Mediterranean. The operational headquarters is located in Rome.

The World Is Bardo

The World Is Bardo (Le Monde est Bardo) was the slogan and theme of a peaceful, anti-terrorist rally and march that took place on 29 March 2015 in Tunis, Tunisia. Thousands of Tunisians came out to protest the 18 March Bardo National Museum terrorist attacks by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and to express support for the victims. Many world leaders participated to the event including François Hollande, Matteo Renzi, Bronislaw Komorowski, Mahmoud Abbas, Ali Bongo Ondimba, Abdelmalek Sellal, Charles Michel, Abdullah al-Thani, Federica Mogherini and Beji Caid Essebsi.

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